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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

LIBKARY 

3 N PATENT OFFICE 




THE 



AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



EDITED BY 

JOHN M. MAISCH. 

PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOB 1879 : 

CHARLES BULLOCK. HENRY RITTENHOUSE, 

JAMES T. SHINN, THOMAS S. WIEGAND, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME LI 



FOURTH SERIES, VOLUME IX 



PHILADELPHIA: 

MERRIHEW & SON, PRINTERS, 135 N. Third Street. 
1879. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



J AN VARY, 1879. 



DIALYZED IRON. 

By G. H. Charles Klie. 
Read at the Meeting of the Alumni Association St. Louis College of Pharmacy, Nov. 19. 

Having prepared dialyzed iron several times with but indifferent suc- 
cess when it first came into use in this locality, I was induced to experi- 
ment in order to overcome the defects, not so much of the iron solu- 
tions employed, but principally those of the apparatus. 

The dialisator in these first trials had been constructed by tying thick, 
well-soaked parchment paper securely over the wider part of a conical 
glass vessel. The lower intact portion of a broken one- half gallon perco- 
lator was used. (To prepare such an one for use, if it is not done 
by the regular method, a very convenient and expeditious substitute is 
to tie a string, soaked in spirit of turpentine, in *n even line, a little 
beyond the damaged portion, around the percolator ; light the string, and, 
while burning, turn the percolator diligently that all parts of the circle 
may be evenly heated, and finally plunge it into cold water ; according 
to the dexterity exhibited in manipulating, the resulting edge will be 
more or less even.) The dimensions were: Narrow part, 3 inches, 
and wide part 4J diameter ; total height, including funnel-shaped pro- 
jection, 8 inches ; capacitv, about 1 pint. 

The solution of chloride of iron used in all of the following processes 
was of the strength as our Pharmacopoeia directs, viz.: 2 fluidrachms 
of the solution, diluted with water, and treated with ammonia in excess, 
yield a precipitate which, if washed, dried and ignited, will weigh 
28*25 grains ; the water of ammonia used had the spec. grav. -960. 

To 4 fluidounces of solution of chloride of iron, 4 fluidounces of 
water of ammonia were added. After the liquid turned clear, it was 
put in the dialisator, as above described, and this was placed on two 
glass rods in an evaporating dish in such a manner that about an inch 
of space was left between the septum and the bottom of the dish. 

Distilled water was then poured in until it reached within I J inch of 



2 



Bialyzed Iron. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1879. 



the top of the dish ; the orifice of the percolator was closed with a 
cork ; the distilled water was frequently replenished (at first every two, 
and afterwards every three or four days). In forty days dialysis was 
completed, the resulting solution of iron showing no acid reaction, and 
having a bland taste. It measured 13 fluidounces, and contained 3*25 
per cent, of solid matter. When, by spontaneous evaporation, the 
solution had been concentrated to 9I fluidounces, it was found to con- 
tain 5 per cent, of solid matter. 

When it is taken into consideration that, with the above-described 
apparatus, two months were necessary to prepare o,f fluidounces. of 
solution of dialyzed iron, it will not at all be surprising if it was con- 
cluded that in the first place the process was exceedingly tedious ; and 
secondly, it would be more profitable to purchase the preparation if no 
better apparatus could be constructed. The construction of a some- 
what improved dialisator occupied my attention for some time, and 
fully understanding the defects of the old one, after some few trials, 
an improved one suggested itself. But, at the same time, other matters 
relating to dialysis, which were not well understood and needed some 
investigation, suggested themselves. All, put in the form of questions, 
are as follows : 

1. Which is the.most suitable apparatus for preparing the solution 
of dialyzed iron on the small scale ? 

2. What solution of iron is preferable for dialysis ? 

3. What kind of parchment paper ought to be used for a good 

dialisator ? 

4. Does the use of distilled or rain water assure a better and medi- 
cinally purer preparation than that of common well or hard water in 

dialysis ? 

In answering the first question, it will not be maintained by the 
writer that the apparatus described further on is the possibly best that 
could be devised, but that up to the present writing it has proved to be 
very satisfactory in his hands. It is maintained by some that to succeed 
with dialvsis the liquid in the dialisator ought not to reach beyond about 
a half inch in depth. This assumption is refuted by the working of 
this apparatus, since in it the liquid may have a depth of from four to 
six inches, and probably more, without perceptibly retarding the process. 

The apparatus is as follows : A half-gallon glass percolator, 3J inches 
base and 5J inches inside diameter at the top, with a 3-inch funnel- 
shaped projection and a quarter inch orifice, was taken. In this was 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

Jan., 1879. / 



Dialyzed Iron. 



3 



adjusted a porcelain filtering basket, 6J inches high and 5J inches 
exterior diameter at the top. It will be noticed that this exactly fits 
the percolator, the top edges of both vessels standing on a level. The 
parchment paper, previously well soaked in water, is folded at an angle 
of 6o°, and is then placed in the basket, to which it will fit pretty 
well and without forming large creases. A filtering basket of smaller 
dimensions may be used, with the slight disadvantage that it is more 
difficult to remove from the percolator j and to replenish the water a 
funnel with an extra long neck must be used. A wire filtering basket 

of proper dimensions also can be 
used ; but a serious defect is, that 
it is in a comparatively short 
time corroded by the acid solution 
dialyzed from the iron solution. 
To more easily understand the 
construction of the dialisator un- 
der consideration, the accompany- 
ing diagram is given. 

As is seen in the illustration, 
the apparatus proper is adjusted on 
a common filtering stand, but it 
may be adjusted by any other con- 
venient method. When it is neces- 
sary to replenish the water the cork 
is withdrawn, and the liquid al- 
lowed to flow into a vessel placed 
underneath. When dropping from 
the septum has ceased, which gen- 
erally takes several minutes, be- 
cause the water penetrates the folds, 
the cork is replaced and fresh 
water is poured in from the top. 
This is easily done by pushing the 
septum aside sufficiently to put the 
neck of a funnel through one of the 
large openings of thefiltering basket. 




Apparatus for Dialysis. 
One-sixth natural size. 



A, percolator. B, porcelain filtering basket. C, portion of septum projecting from 
basket. D, glass lid to prevent evaporation. E, water line. F, orifice of perco- 
lator closed by a cork, 



4 



Dialyzed Iron. 



( Am. Jour. PhanoEi, 
"I Jan., 187^. 



The capacity of this apparatus is one pint and a quarter. One princi- 
pal point in its favor is, there being quite a column of water below the 
dialisator, ample room is afforded to the saturated saline solution, which 
is dialyzed from the iron solution, to settle to the bottom, and thereby 
allow fresh portions of water to continually come in contact with the 
septum, consequently facilitating dialysis considerably. 

Having sufficiently described the apparatus, the second question can 
now be considered, viz., What iron solution is preferable for dialysis P 
Two solutions only were experimented with. The first was made by 
dissolving freshly precipitated oxide of iron in solution of chloride of 
iron to saturation ; the second bv adding water of ammonia to solu- 
tion of chloride of iron so long as the precipitate is re-dissolved. The 
first solution was prepared in the following manner : 4 fluidounces of 
solution of tersuiphate of iron were added to sufficient water or 
ammonia to precipitate all the oxide of iron. The magma was washed 
and subjected to powerful pressure until nearlv all the water had been 
expelled, and a hard cake was left, which weighed 2 troyounces and 
54 grains. This was crushed in a porcelain mortar, and sufficient solu- 
tion of chloride of iron was added (3 fluidounces) to effect solution. 
It was accomplished in about three hours, the product having the con- 
sistence of a thick transparent jelly. After standing over night a 
change had taken place ; the transparency of the jelly had given place 
to a dull liver color. The appearance was as if a portion of oxide 
had separated and was held in suspension. In reality this was not the 
case, as no precipitation occurred upon dilution, neither could any pre- 
cipitate be separated by filtration. In thin layers, by transmitted light,, 
the jelly was transparent, but by reflected light opaque or dull liver 
colored. Diluted with distilled water to 8 fluidounces, the resulting 
solution had the consistence of thick syrup ; 4 fluidounces of this 
solution was placed in the dialisator. In eleven days the process was 
completed, and the resulting solution of dialyzed iron measured 15. 
fluidounces. It still retained the dull liver color, and 100 grains, 
evaporated to dryness, left 5 grains of solid matter. It had no per- 
ceptible odor, exhibited no astringency to the taste, and gave no acid 
reaction, but after one month's keeping it had gelatinized, and because 
thorough resolution, by the addition of distilled water and diligent 
stirring, could not be effected ; it had to be thrown away. The remain- 
ing 4 fluidounces of syrupy iron solution, after standing a short time, 



Am, Jour. Pharm 

Jan., 1879. 



Dialyzed Iron. 



S 



separated into two portions, an upper transparent solution and a lower 
one of precipitated oxide or oxychloride of iron, which latter had a 
very light-brown color. 

Again, the precipitate from 3 fluidounces of solution of tersulphate 
of iron was slightly washed and dissolved in if fluidounce solution of 
chloride of iron. In about six hours the solution was clear, and of a 
rich dark brownish-red color. It measured 8 fluidounces. This was 
immediately placed in the apparatus, and dialysis was completed in 1 1 
days. The solution of dialyzed iron measured 19 J fluidounces, was 
of a clear dark brownish-red color, without odor, and contained 5 per 
cent, of solid matter. This did not spoil with keeping. 

A solution of moist magma of oxide of iron in solution of chloride 
of iron, which is not of a syrupy consistence, if kept for any length of 
time, undergoes the same change as the jelly described above. In the 
first place, the dull, by reflected light opaque color is noticed in the 
solution, and finally precipitation takes place, leaving it utterly useless 
for dialysis. 

As an experiment a solution, similar to the one used in the defective 
apparatus, which did not contain the maximum quantity of water of 
ammonia, was subjected to dialysis. 4 fluidounces of water of ammo- 
nia were added to 4 fluidounces of solution of chloride of iron. When 
the liquid had become clear, it was put in the dialisator. In 1 1 days 
dialysis was completed. The solution measured 18 fluidounces, was 
of a reddish-brown color and contained 5 per cent, of solid matter. 
During the evaporation of small quantities of this solution^ transparent 
longitudinal scales formed on the margin of the liquid, and if the 
evaporating dish was left undisturbed, they gradually grew in length 
towards the centre of the dish, the ends at the same time curling 
towards the centre. This phenomenon was not noticed in solutions of 
dialyzed iron prepared from solutions of iron in which either a magma 
of oxide of iron or water of ammonia in sufficient quantitv had been 
added. These when evaporated apparently coagulated, and when not 
disturbed the solid matter was found in small brittle heaps, with smaller 
or larger free spaces intervening, but without the least sign of any scaly 
formation. This peculiarity might be used as a test to ascertain 
whether iron solutions emploved in dialysis had been sufficiently satu- 
rated. 

A solution was next subjected to the process to which water of 



6 



Dialyzed Iron. 



Am Jour. Pharira. 

Jan., 1879 



ammonia had been added to a point that further addition would have 
left an undissolved precipitate. To 3 fluidounces of solution of chlo- 
ride of iron 6 fluidounces of water of ammonia was added at once. 
The mixture at first formed a thick magma, but with diligent stirrings 
the temperature at the same time rising to 11 6° Fahr., turned clear in 
about twenty minutes. It was dialyzed in 11 days. The product 
measured 16J fluidounces; it was of a deeper red color than the 
former, formed no scales upon evaporation, and contained 5 per cent, 
of solid matter. A solution of iron from solution of chloride of iron 
and water of ammonia, prepared in the same manner as the last, was 
placed aside for several days. It remained clear, and not a trace of 
precipitate could be discerned. 

After using the iron solution prepared as above stated a great manv 
times, and always with the same satisfactory result, it was concluded 
that for this reason, and because it is made in a shorter time, and keeps 
better than the second, it is preferable for dialysis. 

As already stated, the different solutions of dialyzed iron made by 
the improved apparatus contained 5 per cent, of solid matter. Solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver produced no precipitate with the diluted solu- 
tions. But when they were first precipitated with ammonia, and the 
filtrate acidulated with nitric acid, and nitrate of silver was now added, 
turbidity resulted, showing the presence of hydrochloric acid. 

What kind of parchment paper ought to be used in the process of 
dialysis ? Other things being equal, certainly the kind with which the 
process is finished in the shortest time. In the foregoing processes a 
paper measuring 248 square inches to 1 ounce avoirdupois was used. 
With it, as will be remembered, dialysis was always finished in 11 
days. Latterly, a thinner paper, measuring 560 square inches to 1 
ounce avoirdupois, has been used, with the result of shortening the 
process considerably. With it dialysis was completed in 5 days. « It 
may here be stated that the thick parchment paper was used when 
the temperature of the atmosphere ranged between 70 and 95 Fahr. 
and the thin paper at between 40 and 70 . 

One phenomenon connected with dialysis by the apparatus deserves 
some attention. It is, the vessel holding the water being transparent the 
process can be conveniently observed, and when the charged apparatus 
is placed against the light, if the heavy parchment paper is used a small 
band of saline solution (the crystalloid of the iron solution) will be seen 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 

Jan., z2 79 . J 



Dialyzed Iron. 



1 



descending from the point of the septum to the bottom of the perco- 
lator. This lasts several days. If thin paper is used, this band will 
assume a considerably larger diameter and descend faster, showing that 
the crystalloid is separated more copiously than before. Another point 
which deserves some attention is that from the outset the iron solution 
in the dialisator increases in bulk to an almost definite quantity. If 
evaporation has been prohibited by placing a lid on the apparatus, the 
resulting product will have increased from 9 fluidounces to between 16 
and: 17 fluidounces, and always contain 5 per cent, of solid matter. 
This is certainly very convenient, because it does away with the extra 
work of diluting a too concentrated, or concentrating a too dilute 
product, especially the latter, if conducted by spontaneous evaporation, 
being a most tedious process. 

Does the use of distilled or rain water, in dialysis, assure a better 
and medicinally purer preparation than that of common well or hard 
water? No. Well water has been used, except in the first, in most 
all the processes described. As is well known, if common hard water 
is mixed with dialyzed iron, precipitation ensues ; consequently, if the 
iron solution were contaminated by hard water during dialysis, precipi- 
tation ought to take place. 

This it does not. The water used was taken from a well blown 
into the rock, principally composed of carbonate of calcium. When 
oxalate of ammonium is added to the water a copious precipitate results. 
When the dialyzed iron is first precipitated by ammonia, and oxalic 
acid is added to the filtrate, no precipitate occurs. From this it is 
apparent that although common well water cannot be used for the 
purpose of diluting solution of dialyzed iron, it can be used in dialysis. 

To recapitulate : if an apparatus is employed, arranged in such a 
manner that fresh portions of water continually come in contact with 
the septum ; if the iron solution can be made in a short time ; if parch- 
ment paper of the proper thickness is used ; if evaporation is dispensed, 
with, and if proper care is taken that the product does not become 
too dilute, a 5 per cent, solution of dialyzed iron measuring 1 pint may 
be prepared in 5 days. 

Lowell, N. St. Louis, Mo, Nov., 1878 



8 Oleic Acid and the Oleates. [{^ffiSj?" 

OLEIC ACID AND THE OLEATES. 

By L. Wolff. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, December 17. 

Since the reading and publication of my article on the use of benzin 
in pharmacy (" Amer. Journ. Pharm.," Jan., 1877), in which I 
pointed out the important utility of the latter substance for the manu- 
facture of oleic acid, I have still further continued my experiments in 
that direction, and submit some of the results below. 

The fact that the purified oleic acid now offered in the market by 
some of even the most reliable manufacturers is merely the crude acid 
as derived in the manufacture of candles, deprived of its coloring mat- 
ter by means of charcoal, and consists to a large extent of stearic acid, 
has led to much disappointment in the preparation of the so-called 
oleates. If the crude acid were saponified with lead oxide, and the 
lead stearate separated therefrom by benzin or ether, as I had origi- 
nally suggested, many disadvantages might be obviated, and an acid 
obtained that would answer sufficiently for all pharmaceutical purposes; 
but that stearic or palmitic acid must prove objectionable for preparing 
oleates is quite evident. 

The separation of the lead oleate from the lead stearate is so difficult 
when stearic or palmitic acid is present to any extent, that I was soon 
led to abandon the crude oleic acid and the cheaper oils, such as lard 
oil or even olive oil, as a source for the acid, and have as yet found 
none better, more economical or practicable in this process than the 
- oil of sweet almonds. I have also abandoned the primary saponifica- 
tion with a caustic alkali, and have at once saponified the oil of sweet 
almonds with the lead oxide in the manner as directed by the Pharma- 
copoeia process for lead plaster, employing one-half the quantity more 
of litharge to ensure the complete saponification of the oil. The 
plaster — or better the oleo-palmitate of lead — so obtained is readily 
soluble in benzin, and deposits from this solution the lead palmitate, 
leaving the lead oleate tc be decanted. This benzin solution of lead 
oleate, shaken repeatedlv with diluted hydrochloric acid (1 to 7), sepa- 
rates the lead chloride and leaves a benzin solution of oleic acid, which, 
after expulsion of -the benzin, yields an acid that gives oleates, remain- 
ing liquid and clear, and showing a marked distinction from the prepa- 
rations with the commercial acids, which, even when containing only 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1879. 



Oleic Acid and the Oleates. 



9 



ten per cent, of mercuric oxide, renders the preparation a semi-solid, 
turbid mass, separating finally into two distinct layers of mercuric 
stearate and oleate. 

I have found the following requirements necessary for oleic acid 
intended for therapeutical application. It should be of a light yellow 
color, readily miscible with alcohol of 92 per cent., in all proportions, 
without causing turbidity ; should, when treated with a solution of 
ammonium hydrosulphate, give no dark precipitate, and should not, on 
exposure to the freezing temperature of water, congeal or grow turbid. 

When oleic acid and the oleates were first introduced, many were 
the expectations, on theoretical grounds, of their efficiency in the treat- 
ment of disease, but few as yet have been realized, no doubt owing to 
the inferior articles employed. That oleic acid and the oleates are 
destined to take a most important part in pharmacy, though not yet 
fulfilled, is rapidly coming true. 

The oleates of mercury are already in daily use, and will make con- 
stant progress when once their efficacy is well known to the medical 
profession ; that, however, to this end we must furnish true oleates, 
and not oleo-stearates, is at once obvious. 

At my suggestion, some ophthalmic physicians of this city have 
experimented with the mercuric oleate as a substitute for the unguen- 
tum hydrargyri oxidi flavi in diseases of the eye, and the result has so 
far surpassed their expectations that many of them, both in their 
private practice as well as hospital clinics, have adopted it entirely, 
instead of the old ointment of yellow mercuric oxide, as it furnishes at 
once an article that will not decompose, and is more effective and less 
irritant. As the oleate is more active than the ointment holding the 
mercuric preparation in suspension, but small quantities of it need be 
used, and the following formulae are employed with success : 

R Hydrargyri oleatis, 10 per cent., . . one part. 

Unguenti petrolei, . . . two parts. 

M. It corresponds to an ointment containing two grains of the oxide 
to each drachm. 

R Hydrargyri oleatis, 10 per cent., . . one part 

Unguenti petrolei, . . . five parts. 

Containing one grain to each drachm. 

I would add that when in the above preparations the commercial acid 



io Oleic Acid and the Oleates. {^ m ^Zl^ 

was used, the efficiency was impaired, and the preparation increased 
proportionately in irritant properties. 

The oleates of zinc, bismuth and iron were also prepared, of which, 
however, only the former has of late come into extensive use and 
demand, and I subjoin my method of preparing an ointment which has 
been largely employed and met with decided success in the treatment 
of eczema and lupus, at the hands of dermatologists. 

R Oxide of zinc, . . . . 3 l 

Oleic acid, . . . . 51 

Liquid cosmolin, . . . . 

Dissolve the zinc oxide at a moderate heat in the oleic acid, and. 
then add the cosmolin. 

It will be seen that the zinc oxide is contained therein in but small 
quantities, in comparison to the officinal zinc ointment, but as the 
action of the oleates — being solutions which are readily absorbed by the 
skin — is so much more potent, the effect is even more decided and 
satisfactory. 

The oleate of bismuth is similarly prepared, and the oleate of iron is 
readily obtained by dissolving the ferric oxide in oleic acid, or, where a 
ferrous oleate is desired, by treating iron by hydrogen with oleic acid in 
presence of water, yielding in this way preparations which are doubt- 
less destined to prove of value in therapeutics, but of which I cannot 
as yet report any application. 

The oleates of the alkaloids are certainly intended to crowd many of 
our unsightly and often worthless ointments out of existence, by giving 
definite means for dermic medication, and already is the oleate of atro- 
pia used conjointly with the above-mentioned eye-salve of mercuric 
oleate. 

The property of oleic acid to dissolve the oxides and alkaloids, whereas 
it has no irritant or corrosive action on organic tissue, has suggested to 
me the practicability of the use of the oleates for hypodermic injec- 
tions, forming thereby a medicine which the physician has been much 
in quest of; and recent experiments in that direction seem to establish 
their absorption in this way, although this subject needs still further 
experimentation and observation. 

In conclusion, I would speak of one very important application 
of oleic acid, which will certainly give it the eminent position in phar- 
macy pointed out above. It is its utility for the separation of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

Jan., 1879. J 



Salts of Berberina. 



alkaloids from their crude vehicles. By its affinity for the alkaloids and 
its inability to take up extractive matter, I have found it most useful to 
recover such, which are obtained in but an imperfect manner by chlo- 
roform or ether, and in recent experiments with pilocarpia have achieved 
most excellent results. My method of procedure was as follows : The 
acid percolate from the leaves, deprived of its resin, is treated with a 
solution of caustic potassa or soda to saturation, causing a precipitate 
of the impure alkaloid, while the potassium or sodium chloride remains 
in solution. The precipitate is filtered off, washed and dried, and then 
treated with oleic acid, which readily takes up the pure alkaloid, reject- 
ing the extractive matter. The oleic acid solution is then diluted with 
benzin, in which the alkaloid oleate is soluble ; the filtered mixture, 
shaken with water slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, decomposes 
the soap so formed, and takes uo the alkaloid, which is again precipitated 
from it by ammonia, and can then be neutralized with the acid desir- 
able for its salt, and crystallized. 

As yet these experiments are but in their infancy ; but, theoretically. 
I see no reason why this process should not be applicable to other 
alkaloids which are obtained by expensive processes, whereas the 
cost in my process just mentioned would be a merely nominal one, as 
the same oleic acid could be again utilized in subsequent operations 
without impairing its efficiency. 

Philadelphia, December, 1878. 



ON THE PREPARATION OF SALTS OF BERBERINA, 

By J. U. Lloyd, Cincinnati, O. 

Read at the twenty -sixth annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association., 
at Atlanta, Ga., and communicated by the Author. 

How can the salts of Berberina be most easily prepared from the root of 
Hydrastis canadensis? What will be the practical yield and what are the solubili- 
ties of the different salts ? 

Of the many processes investigated, I suggest the following as 
applicable to small amounts. Owing to the slight yield of this vellow 
alkaloid, it is hardly advisable for experimenters to work lots of less 
than ten pounds of hydrastis. 

Moisten sixteen troyounces of Hydrastis canadensis in fine powder 
with eight fluidounces of alcohol, press firmly into a cylindrical perco- 



12 Salts of Berberina. {^jSHt^T* 

tator not exceeding three inches in diameter, previously prepared for 
percolation. Cover the surface of the powder with a piece of blotting 
paper held in position with a few fragments of glass, add alcohol until 
the percolate appears at the exit, then close the orifice, cover the top 
of the percolator tightly by tying over it a sheet of soft rubber, and 
place the percolator in a warm situation ; macerate twenty-four hours. 
Remove the rubber and replace with a cover of glass or tin. 
Cautiously open the exit and graduate the dropping so that the passage 
of each fiuidounce will occupv about thirtv minutes. Suspend the 
operation when five fluidounces have been obtained. Macerate until 
the next day under the former conditions, and again procure five fluid- 
ounces of percolate, observing the preceding directions. A continuous 
supply of alcohol must be provided, the surface of the powder must 
not become exposed during the operation. iVIix the percolates, sur- 
round the vessel with ice and reduce the temperature, then add sul- 
phuric acid in excess and stir well, keep the mixture cold for twelve 
or more hours, then pour it upon a muslin strainer or a filtering paper, 
h.nd when the liquid ceases to pass, return the precipitate to a vessel 
containing eight fluidounces of cold alcohol. Mix well together and 
again separate the crystalline precipitate of impure sulphate of berberina. 
Dry bv exposure to the atmosphere. 

Sulphate of Berberina. — Add one part of impure sulphate of berbe- 
rina, obtained as above, to sixteen parts of cold distilled water, and 
cautiously drop in, with constant stirring, ammonia water until in slight 
excess. Allow the mixture to stand in a cool place from twelve to 
iwentv-four hours, then filter and surround the vessel containing the 
filtrate with ice, and stir sulphuric acid into the solution until the 
ammonia and alkaloid are saturated. In a few hours the magma of 
minute crystals of sulphate of berberina can be separated with a muslin 
strainer or filtering paper. Care must be taken to avoid an excess of 
sulphuric acid. If this occur, the moist magma should be removed to 
a vessel containing cold alcohol, washed by decantation and drained on 
a muslin strainer. Lastly, dry the salt by exposure to the atmosphere. 

Sulphate of berberina is of an orange color, soluble in about IOO 
parts of water, tern. 6o° to 8o°F. It is readily decomposed by alka- 
lies when in solution, yielding free berberina. 

I obtain from eighteen to twentv-one ounces from a hundred pounds 
<of Hydrastis. The specimens of salts exhibited represent the sulphate 



Salts of Berberina. i j 

of berberina from a fifteen hundred pound batch of root. This batch- 
yielded very nearly three hundred ounces. • Although the exhaustion 
was incomplete, with economy I could not carry the percolation 
farther. 

Sulphate of berberina is permanent, exposure to the atmosphere does 
not affect it. If moisture be absorbed, either the salt is impure from 
hygroscopic extractive matter or free sulphuric acid. 

Berberina. — Rub eight parts sulphate of berberina in a wedgwood 
mortar, cautiously adding ammonia water until in slight excess. Pour 
the dark liquid into thirty two parts of boiling alcohol and allow the 
mixture to stand thirty minutes, then filter. Stir into the filtrate thirty - 
two parts cold sulphuric ether and cover tightlv. Surround the vessel 
with ice and allow it to stand from twelve to twenty- four hours, then 
separate the magma of minute crystals of berberina with a muslin 
strainer or filtering paper, and dry by exposure to the atmosphere. 

Berberina is lemon-yellow when pure. It should not be dark oi 
orange, which shades denote impurity. It unites directly with acids 
and is a beautiful organic base. It forms salts, some of which are 
very soluble, as for example the pyro-phosphate, others almost insoluble 
I find it impossible to make one part of carbazotate of berberina dis- 
solve in forty-five thousand parts of cold distilled water. Berberina 
and all its soluble salts are bitter. The carbazotate will not impart a 
trace of bitterness to distilled water, notwithstanding its constituents are- 
both intensely bitter, therefore I believe it to be almost if not abso- 
lutely insoluble. 

Berberina is soluble in about four and a half parts of water, tem- 
perature 6o p to 8o°F. It dissolves moderately in officinal alcohol, is 
insoluble in ether and chloroform. It changes to orange color when 
heated to I50°F., and slowly resumes its original shade when cooled. 

Phosphate of Berberina. — Dissolve berberina in its weight of boiling 
water and add two parts of dilute phosphoric acid, drain and dry the 
precipitate by exposure to the atmosphere. Care must be taken that 
the acid be made from phosphorus and perfectly free from nitric acid. 

The ortho-phosphate is, according to Mr. Lord, soluble in two 
hundred and eighty parts of water. 

Hypophosphite of Berberina. — This salt may be prepared by substitu- 
ting in the above formula hypophosphorous acid for phosphorie a 



Am. Jour. Fharrr. \ 

Jan., 1879. j 



i 4 Salts of Berberina. 

Hypophosphite of berberina is soluble to the extent of from five to ten 
grains in the ounce of water. 

Muriate of Berberina. — Dissolve berberina in sixteen times its 
weight of distilled water, and cautiously stir in hydrochloric acid until 
m slight excess ; drain the precipitate, and dry by exposure to the 
atmosphere. 

Muriate of berberina was the first preparation of this alkaloid intro- 
duced to the medical profession from hydrastis. It was discovered 
accidentally. It is soluble in about five hundred parts of water, 6o° to 
8o°F., scarcely soluble at all in cold alcohol, ether and chloroform. It 
is the most difficult of the berberina salts to decompose, holding its 
acid in presence of alkalies, and even long digestion with litharge fails 
to thoroughly remove it. Oxide of silver at once frees the berberina 
from a heated solution. When dry it is changed from the natural 
light lemon color to orange by a heat from 130 to I50°F. Upon 
cooling, the lemon color is resumed. It is rapidly falling into disuse, 
giving place to the more soluble salts. 

Nitrate of Berberina. — This salt can be obtained by substituting 
nitric acid for the muriatic acid of the preceding formula. It is of a 
greenish-yellow color, soluble in about five hundred parts of water, 
temperature 6o° to 8o°F.; more soluble in hot water, scarcely soluble 
in alcohol, ether or chloroform. Its use is limited. 

Remarks. — Alcohol extracts from hydrastis canadensis, in addition to 
berberina, a greenish fixed oil, an acrid resin, a white alkaloid, a vege- 
table acid, yellow coloring matter, and small amounts of other sub- 
stances of little interest here. The materials named are intimately 
associated or combined while in the root ; such combinations being 
broken up by the addition of the acid, resulting, simply perhaps, in the 
formation of sulphate of the white alkaloid hydrastia, sulphate of the yel- 
low alkaloid berberina, and the liberation of the resinous substances, color- 
ing matter and acid. 

The yellow sulphate of berberina quickly crystallizes, carrying down 
some of the other materials ; the larger amount of the latter, however, 
remain in solution. This impure sulphate of berberina is difficult 
to dry, even if well washed ; the reason being the mechanical admix- 
ture of the oil alluded to ; consequently at this stage it has a greenish 
cast and imparts an unctuous feeling when rubbed between the fingers. 

Sulphate of berberina is decomposed by alkalies, with the liberation 



f Am Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1879 



Am. Jour Pharm ) 
Jan., 1879. J 



Salts of Berberina. 



15 



of the alkaloid berberina. When we add ammonia water in slight 
excess to a mixture of the impure sulphate of berberina and water, 
sulphate of ammonia is formed, which dissolves, together with the 
liberated berberina, an alkaloid very soluble in water and alkaline solu- 
tions. The slight excess of ammonia precipitates the hydrastia in an 
amorphous state, which, with the adhering resin and oil, are separated 
by filtration ; afterward, sulphuric acid added to the filtrate again forms 
sulphate of berberina, which crystallizes. This is pure enough for all 
practical purposes. It contains a small amount of sulphate of ammo- 
nia and a little foreign matter. It can be purified farther, if desirable, 
by repeating the last operation, dissolving in hot alcohol and crystal- 
lizing. For practical purposes this is unnecessary. 

When ammonia water is added to sulphate of berberina, the salt is 
decomposed, with formation of sulphate of ammonium and the libera- 
tion of berberina. Both substances remain in solution, the berberina 
imparting a dark red color. The addition of the hot alcohol precipi- 
tates the larger portion of the sulphate of ammonium, and when the 
filtrate containing the berberina is poured into sulphuric ether, that 
alkaloid crystallizes in consequence of its slight solubility in ether and 
a mixture of alcohol and ether. The impurities may be traces of 
sulphate of ammonium. 

The other salts, simply combinations of berberina and the acids, do 
not require mention. Almost any salt may be produced in like man- 
ner by the substitution of various acids. 

I have met with little success in endeavoring to obtain berberina by 
evaporation of a solution of the alkaloid, unless by spontaneous evap- 
oration, the heat of expanded steam, 150 to 180 Fahr., seeming 
to decompose it. 

Fixed Oil of Hydrastis. — After separating the sulphate of berberina 
from the tincture, add to the liquid its bulk of water and evaporate the 
alcohol. Allow the, residuum to remain in a cool place some days, and 
carefully skim off" the green oil which collects on the surface of the 
water associated with a little resin. It can be purified by dissolving in 
sulphuric ether. 

This oil has a disagreeable odor and taste, but is not bitter. It turns 
reddish-brown by age. 

Volatile Oil of Hydrastis. — In addition hydrastis contains a very small 
amount of volatile oil, which imparts the peculiar odor of the root. It 



Salts of Berberina. 



Am. Jour. PhartiD 
Jan., 187^. 



may be procured in minute quantities by distilling water in contact with 
the root. 

Resinous Substances. — Decant the aqueous solution from which the 
oil was separated, and at the bottom of the vessel will be found a black: 
tarry substance, thickly interspersed with yellow pai tides. Usually a 
yellow shining layer covers the top. This consists of resin, a little oil, 
and mixtures of both the white and yellow alkaloids with the resin and 
yellow coloring matter. Perhaps a combination exists between this 
substance and the alkaloids which settle with it. It is difficult 
to separate them by simply washing in hot water, which should 
scarcely be the case if they are dissociated, inasmuch as the sul- 
phates of both alkaloids are quite soluble in this menstruum. Wash 
the precipitate well, and dry. This black resinous substance is acrid 
to the taste, slightly soluble in hot water and dilute acids, soluble in 
concentrated sulphuric acid, to which it imparts a deep red color, and 
from which it is separated by the addition of water. It may be a mix- 
ture of several proximate principles. 

In some respects this substance reminds us of the amorphous mate- 
rial obtained from cinchona known as chinoidin, and it may, perhaps, 
be largely composed of a principle from hydrastis, bearing a somewhat 
similar relation to hvdrastia that chinoidin bears to the crystallizable 
alkaloids of the cinchonas. 

Hydrastia. — This white or vellowish-white alkaloid exists as sulphate 
in the liquid decanted from the last-named preparation. It is associ- 
ated with small amounts of all the preceding substances and a soluble 
vegetable acid. To obtain it add an alkali, preferably ammonia water,, 
in excess to the cold liquid, and allow the brown or brownish-yellow 
precipitate to settle ; then decant the supernatant liquid and wash 
the precipitate with cold water. Add cold water enough to the 
drained precipitate to bring to the original volume, and then slight 
excess of sulphuric acid. Allow it to stand in a cold place twenty- 
four hours and filter. To the filtrate add an alkali in excess,, 
and wash the precipitate as before. Dry the precipitate, dissolve 
in boiling alcohol, filter and crystallize. These crystals are of a 
deep dark yellow color. They are not bitter, but impart a disagree- 
able acrid sensation to the throat and fauces. The yellow color 
results from the intimate admixture of a vellow substance, very soluble 



Am 'j J a°n U ) r 'i8 > 79" m '} Su fyhur Mining on the Pacific Coast. . 17 

in acid solutions and imperfectly in neutral and alkaline. It is not ber- 
berina. 

Purify hydrastia by dissolving in a dilute acid, digesting with animal 
charcoal and filtering, repeating the operation several times. Or dis- 
solve the crystals of impure hydrastia in boiling alcohol and crystallize, 
repeating the operation several times. Specimens of small hydrastia 
crystals, apparently white, are found to be yellow when crystallized in 
large masses. It is very difficult to obtain an article free from yellow- 
ness if the crystals be large. I have none. 

Hydrastia is insoluble or nearly insoluble in water, freely soluble in 
cold chloroform, and to an extent in cold alcohol, very soluble in boil- 
ing alcohol, from which it separates in beautiful crystals. It forms 
salts with acids, mostly very soluble in water, uncrystallizable or crys- 
tallizing with difficulty. 

These incidental products are of little general interest to manufac- 
turers, as only berberina salts are in demand. 

I have already digressed from the direct line of my query. I will 
close by saying that there is a doubt in my mind as to the relations of 
these several principles while associated in the plant. I cannot believe 
they are as simple as we might expect and is generally believed. I 
doubt even if berberina and hydrastia are not mutually combined with 
other bodies. The splitting up of these organic compounds under the 
influence of chemical agents, drying the plants, and the action of solv- 
ents, is with me very obscure. 



SULPHUR MINING ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

By Rich. V. Mattison, Ph. G. 

Read at the Alumni Meeting, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, December 4. 

Among the variety of mineral productions of the Pacific Coast, the 
mining, the various processes for the reduction of ores, the curious 
formations of the metalliferous lodes, etc., there are few subjects of more 
interest to the Eastern pharmacist or chemist than the production of 
sulphur. Through Nevada and Montana Territories, sulphur deposits 
are found in numerous places, and the element quarried out in masses 
of considerable size and of remarkable purity, as the sample exhibited, 
marked No. 1, will show, this particular sample being from the mines 
near Humboldt, Nevada, where the sulphur exists in veins among the 



1 8 . Sulphur Mining on the Pacific Coast. { Am j J a ° n u "- I 8 7 h 9 arm ' 

quartz. The greater part, however, of the sulphur produced on the 
coast requires to be purified before it can be utilized for either phar- 
macy, agriculture or the arts. For illustration I shall select two impure 
forms in which it occurs, as the typical crude material from which the 
sulphur is extracted. A sample of the first is upon the table, labeled 
No. 2, and is from the Pluton Mines, in Pluton Canon, Cal. 

This mine is situated near the foot of the mountain, which rises 
rather precipitously from the bottom of the canon, and is evidently the 
remains of an extinct " geyser." The ground in the immediate vici- 
nity is cinnabar bearing, and the breasts of the mine are worked directly 
into the reddish gray, semi fused, ashy mass, consisting largely of 
minute sulphur crystals, interspersed with magnesium and calcium 
oxides and hydrates, the whole deriving its color from the ferric oxide 
and mercuric sulphide. In many places are fragmentary masses, several 
pounds in weight, of nearlv pure fused sulphur, but the largest part is 
a gray ashy mass of easily pulverulent sulphur crystals. This yields 
readily to the pick, and is transferred by cars to the reduction works, 
there dumped into the "purifier," which — the invention of the efficient 
superintendent, Mr. Eames — may be described as follows : 

The " purifier " is composed of wrought iron, about the thickness 
of boiler iron, riveted together, and shaped not unlike a percolator. It 
has a diameter of about four feet and a height of probably eight, and 
has a capacity of about a ton of charge. The bottom is perforated and 
funnel-shaped, while the top is covered by a wrought-iron lid with bolt 
attachments. The charge of crude sulphur having been properly dried, 
is dumped into the purifier, a double thickness of heavy gunny cloth 
having first been carefully spread over the perforated bottom of the 
cylinder. The lid being securely attached, superheated steam is turned 
into the purifier through a tube in the side of the cylinder, and the 
sulphur, gradually melting, settles to the bottom, where it is drawn ofF 
by means of a stop-cock, either into moulds or boxes. The greater 
part is run into wooden moulds, a specimen of which is shown. The 
specimen, unique in its way, accompanying the moulded portion, has 
been run into water, this accounting for its peculiar shape. As the 
whole apparatus swings upon a pivot, the work of withdrawing the 
charge can be effected in a few moments. It may be readily seen that 
sulphur is here extracted at the lowest cost of working, while the cost 
of erecting the entire plant is a merely nominal sum. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1879. 



Fruit Syrups. 



*9 



At Sulphur Banks Mine, near Lakeport, the sulphur occurs with the 
cinnabar, the whole in the form of a dark-gray ash, entirely free from 
rock or sulphur crystals. The sulphur is procured by following the 
process above given as at Pluton, or by the dry process, which is as 
follows : 

The mixture containing both sulphur and cinnabar in paying quan- 
tities, and being worked for both, is placed in the usual cinnabar 
reduction furnace, and the mercurial vapor, in common with the sul- 
phur, passed into the first receiver, where, under the influence of 
superheated steam, the sulphur is liquefied, the mercury passing to the 
second receiver and there condensed. 

Formerly some sulphur was prepared by sublimation, the product 
being collected in powder, and then cast into rolls or placed on the 
market as collected, but we believe none at present is so prepared by 
any of the manufacturers on the coast. 

Philadelphia, Twelfth month 4th, 1878. 



FRUIT SYRUPS. 

By Hermann Tiarks. 

In comparing the Pharmacopoeia of the United States with the 
4t Pharmacopoeia Germanica," it strikes me that our Pharmacopoeia is 
remarkably void of formulas for fruit syrups. The only fruit syrups, 
properly so called, in our Pharmacopoeia are those of almond and 
of lemon. The syrup of almond, being demulcent and somewhat 
sedative, is an excellent addition to cough mixtures, or may be used 
for flavoring, while as an agreeable and refrigerant addition to drinks, 
etc., we have a choice only between the syrup of citric acid and the 
syrup of lemon, which latter is very unstable, as every pharmacist 
knows. 

I would respectfully call the attention of the members of the med- 
ical and pharmaceutical profession to two excellent fruit syrups : the 
Syrupus Cerasi and Syrupus Rubi Idsei of the German Pharmacopoeia. 
The process for making these syrups is not difficult for one who is at 
all familiar with pharmaceutical manipulations, and the fruits — cherries 
and raspberries — are abundant in most every State of the Union. For 
cherry syrups only the dark red sour cherries should be used, and for 
raspberry syrups the red berries, as these contain the most juice and 
have the richest flavor. 



20 



Fruit Syrups. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 

Jan., 1879. 



The following is the outline of the process of the German Pharma- 
copoeia, with some explanations and suggestions taken from Hager'3 
Commentary : 

All fleshy and juicy fruits contain pectin, which substance causes the 
fresh fruit juices to be slimy and to gelatinize if boiled with sugar and 
afterwards cooled. When a syrup made of fruit juice contains some 
of this pectin, it is certain soon to mould and to spoil. Therefore the 
fruit juices have to be freed first from the pectin before they are made 
into syrups. The pectin has to be decomposed and this is done by 
fermentation. 

The fruits are first crushed and set aside for three or four days in 
an earthen jar, the mass being stirred once a day with a wooden 
spatula. The juice is now pressed out and set aside again for a few 
days until fermentation is completed and the juice appears clear. In 
order to detect any undecomposed pectin a little of the juice is mixed: 
with a concentrated solution of magnesium sulphate, when, if any 
pectin is present, it will congeal or gelatinize, or a flocculent precipitate 
will separate. The juice, mixed with twice its volume of 90 per cent, 
alcohol, should form a clear solution. 

The juice is then filtered through paper. If to the crushed fruit 
2 per cent, of sugar is added fermentation will go on more promptly 
and the fermented juice will filter more rapidly. In five parts of 
this filtered juice nine parts of the best white sugar are dissolved by 
the aid of heat, the temperature is raised to the boiling point, and the 
solution strained while hot. No iron vessels should be used. The 
vessel containing the syrups is covered with a large sheet of paper 
and set aside in a cool place for a day. The syrup is now filtered in 
perfectly dry bottles of convenient size ; the bottles are tightly corked 
and laid on a shelf in the cellar. The syrups thus prepared will keep 
well for one or two years. These syrups, and more especially the 
raspberry syrup, is of a dark ruby-red color ; it has a rich flavor and is 
a most cooling and grateful addition to drinks, beverages in febrile 
complaints ; also to solutions, saturations, etc. 

I would respectfully suggest to the Committee on Revision that one 
or both of these syrups be introduced in our Pharmacopoeia at the 
coming revision. 

.Monticelto, Io<wa t Dec. 2, 1878. 



Am ja°" 1 8^ rm ' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 2 1 

GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
Chrysophanic Acid from Senna. — After reviewing the different 
investigations on chrysophanic acid, E. T. Leussler states that the 
chrysophanic acid obtained from senna leaves together with emodin, is 
identical with that found in rhubarb, and that frangulic acid is neither 
identical with emodin nor with the chrysophanic acid of senna and 
rhubarb. — Pharm. Ztschr.f. RussL, 1878, p. 257, 289,321 and 353. 

New Process for Removing all Albumen from Animal 
Liquids. — Hofmeister removes first the greater bulk of albumen in 
the ordinary manner, precipitating it by cautiously adding acid to the 
boiling liquid. He then adds hydrate of lead to the filtrate, continues 
to boil for several minutes, refilters, removes the disssolved lead from 
the filtrate by sulphuretted hydrogen and the excess of the latter again 
by boiling, when no trace of albumen can be found in the liquid by 
the most delicate reagents. If the original solution contains sulphates 
or phosphates in large quantities, it is advisable to add a few drops of a 
solution of acetate of lead before boiling with lead hydrate to prevent 
the retention of a small quantity of albumen in the shape of albumi- 
nates. — Chem. Centralbl.) Oct. 2, 1878, p. 635. 

Volatile Acids of Croton Oil.— After referring to the researches 
made by Th. Schlippe and Geuther and Froehlich, E. Schmidt and 
Dr. Berendes confirm the analysis of the latter, who claims that the 
liquid volatile acids are formic, acetic, butyric, valerianic acid and the 
higher members of the oleic series, while the solid acid is tiglinic acid, 
H 2 C 5 H 7 2 , isomeric, but not identical with angelicic acid. The 
average total yield from one pound of croton oil is about 1 1 grams of 
-crude acids. Comparative experiments made with tiglinic acid and the 
methyl-crotonic acid of Frankland and Duppa, prove that they possess 
the same properties and are probably identical. — Archiv d. Pharm., Sept., 
1878, p. 213. 

Mineral Constituents of Horseradish. — A. Hilger reports that 
100 parts of the ashes of the root of Cochlearia armoracia consist of 

10- 57 ^ me > 3'9 r magnesia, o*2i soda, 41*47 potassa, 0*95 oxide of 
iron, 1 -58 hydrochloric acid, 16*49 sulphuric acid, 11*62 carbonic acid, 

11- 52 phosphoric acid and 1*48 silicic acid. — Cbsm. Centralbl., Sept. 18, 
2878, p. 597, from Landw. Vers. St. 



22 



Gleanings from the German Journals. {^ji™'^™* 



Determination of the Alkaloids of Bolivia Cinchona Barks. 
Exhibited at the "International Horticultural Exposition" 
at Amsterdam, in 1877. — The following table shows the results of 
comparative analyses of the different barks made by W. Stoeder : 



Flat Calisaya bark. Monopoly 
cinchona of commerce of 1 845 
— 1855. 


Quinia. 


Quinidia. 


PERCEN' 

.2 ' 

*£ 

43 

u 
a 

U 


rAGE OF 

.2 
'§ 

Tj 

.5 
U 


Amorphous 
alkaloid. 


Total 
1 alkaloids. 


31 10 






C490 


0-195 


3*795 


a id l \-*<x 11 baV <X LIU 111 L11C Ui U VIJR c 

of Yungas. 


4-268 






0-496 


0*164 


4*928 


Flat Calisaya, covered with peri- 
derm, from Y^ingas. 


1-724 






u 400 


0*172 


2*364 


Flat Calisaya from Inquisive and 
Cochabamba. 


3 92 







0-772 


0-272 


4-336 


Flat Calisaya from Espiritu 
Santo in Yurucares. 








1-288 


0*236 


1-524 


Flat cinchona from Larecuja, 
Songo and Challaux (known 
as C a s c a r i 1 1 a Naranjada 

' [orange-colored cinchona]). 






1-516 


2*096 


1-088 


4-700 


Quilled cinchona from naran- 
jada-trees, used to adulterate 
quilled Calisaya 








2*044 


0*632 


2-676 


Quilled Calisaya from good trees, 
young stems, branches and 
shoots. 


3-892 




0*564 


Q'i44 


4 600 


Quilled cinchona from young 
stems and shoots of Caupoli- 
can, Pelechuco and Apolo- 
bamba. 






234 


0*036 


0-2701 


Quill'd cinchona f 'm the branch's 
of treesgro'n at Inquisivi, used 
for adulterating better kinds. 


0-292 




0-005 


o'i'.84 


g 


Quilled cinchona from Yungas 
and Chorobamba. 






1-184 


0652 
0-408 


1-836 


Flat and rolled cinchona grown 
in Vallegrande. 






2-128 


2-536 


False cinchona bark (faux bois), 
called by the Aymara Indians 
Car-hua, Car-hua (very bitter). 


0*308 




0-512 


0*760 


0-088 


1-668 



— Archiv d. Fharm., Sept., 1878, p. 243, from Haarmann's Nieuw 
Tydschr. v. d. Pharm. in Nederl. 



Am jln" r i?79? rm '} Gleanings from the German Journals. 23 

Solubility of Sulphur and Phosphorus. — After Liebermann had 
found sulphur soluble in concentrated acetic acid, Dr. G. Vulpius made 
a series of experiments, which resulted in establishing the solubility of 
phosphorus in concentrated acetic acid, and also that of minute quan- 
tities of sulphur and phosphorus in formic acid (spec. grav. 1*220). 
At ioo°C, 2,800 parts of the latter dissolved 1 part of sulphur, which 
partly separates again on cooling \ phosphorus is still less soluble, the 
acid scarcely dissolving o*o 1 per cent. The author also calls attention 
to the solubility of sulphur and phosphorus in stearic acid at a high 
temperature, and considers it probable that both will also be found solu- 
ble in propionic, butyric and the other fatty acids. — Ibid., p. 229. 

Collodium iodoformiatum is made by dissolving 1 part of iodo- 
form in 15 parts of flexible collodion. It was successfully used by 
Moleschott for alleviating intense pain caused by gouty swellings, in 
orchitis, glandular swellings, etc. — Pharm. Centralh., Oct. 3, p. 373. 

Copaivic Acid and Copaivate of Soda. — Roquette considers the 
etheiial oil and the balsamic constituents of copaiba inert, and regards 
its efficacy solely due to the copaivic acid, which forms salts with the 
alkalies existing in the human body, and is thus excreted through the 
urine. Dr. Zlamal agrees with him in this opinion after having suc- 
cessfully treated various important cases with copaivate of sodium, pre- 
pared at his suggestion by Geza Lucich. For obtaining the copaivic 
acid, copaiba is distilled with water to separate volatile oil, and the 
residuary resins are repeatedly treated with purified petroleum and 
strong alcohol. Copaivic acid forms white prismatic crystals, which, 
on exposure to the air, become opaque. Its sodium salt, NaC 20 H 29 O 2 , 
is made by combining equivalent quantities of the acid and soda, and is 
likewise white and crystalline. Lucich recommends sugar-coated pills 
of copaivate of soda, containing each 2 grains of the latter, corres- 
ponding to 6 grains of balsam copaiva ; analyses made by him of 
Brazil- and Para-balsam proved it to consist of etherial oil 38*00 per 
cent., yellow crystallizable resin, copaivic acid, 52*75 per cent., brown 
soft resin 1*66 per cent, and water 7*59 per cent. — Ibid., p. 374. 

New Method of Milk Analysis. By A. Adam. — 10 cc. of 75 
per cent, alcohol, containing 1-206 of its volume of caustic soda ; 10 
cc. of neutralized milk, and 12 cc. of pure ether are placed into a 
glass tube of 40 cc. capacity, closed at the top with a cork, widening 



24 Gleanings from the German Journals. { " m jiZ^ rm ' 

towards the centre into a bulb, and tapering towards the lower end, 
and there supplied with a stop-cock. They are shaken together and 
allowed to stand for five minutes, when two distinct layers form, the 
upper one containing all the butter and the lower one all the lactose 
and casein. After carefully separating them by means of the stop- 
cock, the butter is obtained by concentration and purified by dissolving 
in ether and evaporating the latter. After adding sufficient distilled 
water to make 100 cc. and 10 drops of acetic acid to the lower layer 
the casein separates, is removed by filtration and the lactose determined 
in the filtrate by Fehling's solution. — Chem. Centralbl., Oct. 16, 1878, 
p. 663, from Compt. Rend., vol. 87. 

Test for Resin as an Adulteration of Beeswax.— E. Schmidt 
recommends the following modification of Donath's method, by which 
1 per cent, of resin can be easily detected : To 5 grams of the wax, 
heated with 20 or 25 grams of crude nitric acid, sp. gr, 1*32 to 1*33, 
to the boiling point, add an equal quantity of cold water and sufficient 
ammonia, shaking constantly to impart to the mixture an ammoniacal 
odor, and pour off" the alkaline liquid from the separated wax into a 
cylindrical vessel. If the wax is pure this liquid will have a yellow, if 
adulterated with resin a decided reddish -brown color, caused by the 
nitro-proaucts formed. — Archiv d. Pbarm., Sept., 1878, p. 212. 

Detection of Ergot in Flour by a Simple, Short and Exact 
Method. — Dr. E. Hoffmann recommends C. H. Wolff's process, 
with slight alterations, as follows : 10 grams of the suspected rye flour, 
15 grams of ether and 10 drops dilute sulphuric acid (1 : 5) are fre- 
quently shaken together and allowed to stand for half an hour, when 
they are placed on a filter and washed with ether until the straw-colored 
filtrate amounts to 10 grams. If this is shaken with 5 drops of a sat- 
urated aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate the latter will immedi- 
ately separate again and will settle, possessing scarcely any color in 
case the rye-flour is strictly pure and contains no ergot, while all 
chlorophyll will remain in the etherial solution. The presence of 1 -10 
per cent, of ergot in the flour will cause a handsome violet coloration 
of the sodium-bicarbonate solution, which then holds all the color of 
the ergot. By this method the author claims to be able to detect the 
presence of 1-50 per cent. ; he also succeeded in determining by 
this method the presence of ergot in a mixture of cinnamon, orange- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Jan., 1879. J 



Contributions from Tokio. 



2 S 



leaves and ergot, and in a mixture of sausage, bread-crusts, vegetables, 
brown sauce and ergot. — Pharm. Ztg., 1878, No. 84. 

Effect of Ergot on Musk. — E. Biltz states that the odor of musk 
can be entirely removed from the hands by rubbing with powdered 
ergot mixed with warm water. — Pharm. Centralh., Oct. 10, p. 389. 

Laforest's Lotion Cosmetique. — This nostrum is recommended 
for dyeing the hair black, and consists of 360 grams of red wine, 4 
grams chloride of sodium, 7 grams sulphate of iron and 4 grams oxide 
of copper, which are heated together for a short time, when 7 grams 
of powdered nutgalls are added. This mixture is rubbed on the hair, 
then rubbed off with a warm cloth, and the hair washed with water. 
— Ztschr. d. Oest. Ap. Ver., Sept. 1, 1878, p. 408. 



CONTRIBUTIONS from the PHARMACEUTICAL LABOR- 
ATORY at TOKIO, JAPAN. 

By Dr. G. Martin. 

The Seeds of Camellia japonica, which are considered poisonous 
by the Japanese, were analyzed by Katzujama and found to contain a 
blueish- white, bitter, slightly crystalline principle, called Camellin by the 
author, which is scarcely soluble in cold water and ether, more so in 
hot water, very soluble in alcohol, and which, after boiling with dilute 
sulphuric acid, reduces alkaline copper solutions. It turns yellow on 
the addition of alkalies, red with a mixture of much H 2 S0 4 with a 
little HNO3, and greatly resembles digitalin in its behavior towards 
phosphoric acid ; its constitution isC 53 H 84 19 . The seeds also contain 
tannic acid and a thick semi-solid fixed oil, possessing an acrid 
unpleasant taste. It was formerly used for oiling the swords of 
Japanese soldiers. 

Pseonia Moutan. — The root, which is often prescribed by Japanese 
physicians, was analyzed by Iagi, who obtained by extraction with 
ether and spontaneous evaporation a crop of shining white aromatic 
needles, melting at 45°C, sublimable at a higher temperature, insol- 
uble in cold water, very soluble in alcohol and ether, and precipitated 
from an alcoholic solution in crystals by a large quantity of water. 
From alcohol it crystallizes on spontaneous evaporation in prisms 5 to 15 
mm. in length. An analysis seems to prove this crystalline substance a 
fatty acid, allied to caprinic acid, but having a higher melting point. 



26 



Contributions from Tokio. 



Am. Jour. yPharm. 
Jan., 1879. 



Scopolia japonica, also called Japanese belladonna, belongs to 
the nat. ord. of Solanaceae. The root is used by Japanese physicians 
like belladonna, is, however, inferior in its narcotic action. It contains 
no atropia but solania, which G. Martin obtained in crystals. A 
peculiar characteristic of the plant is its extraordinarily great fluor- 
escence. 

Evodia glauca, N. O. Rutaceae.— -The bark is light yellow, slightly 
greenish, covered with a corky layer, very fragile and soft and is readily 1 
divided into thin lamellae. It possesses " a strongly bitter taste, and 
becomes very mucilaginous when chewed. G. Martin obtained from 
it a considerable quantity of berberina. The bark is used by the 
natives for medical purposes and for dyeing. 

Japanese cinnamon. — The cinnamon examined by G. Martin 
came from the island of Sikok, and was probably obtained from Cin- 
namomum Loureiri. The volatile oil obtained from it has a wine- 
yellow color, is lighter than water and has a very agreeable odor, some- 
what recalling that of camphor and cinnamon. Concentrated sulphuric 
acid imparts to the oil a violet-red color, which changes to indigo-blue,, 
afterwards to beautiful green and finally to brown. With concentrated 
nitric acid the oil forms a waxy mass, which readily melts to an oily 
liquid on being warmed. The oil rotates polarized light somewhat to 
the right ; treated with caustic soda it loses its cinnamon odor and the 
odor of camphor becomes more apparent. A distinct odor of bitter 
almond is observed on acting upon the oil with an aqueous solution of 
potassium permanganate. 

Ligustrum Ibotu. — The seeds are about 2 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, 
convex on the back, irregularly grooved, pointed at both ends, and the 
points united on the inner side by a furrow. G. Martin isolated from, 
the seeds a resinous white glucoside, which is colored red by concen- 
trated H 2 S0 4 , and for which the author proposes the name lbotin. The 
seeds also contain sugar and about 20 per cent, of fatty oil, resembling 
olive-oil and solidifying when cold — cafFeina, the presence of which 
was repotted by some investigators, could not be obtained. The ash 
amounts to 3.422 per cent. — Archiv d. Pharm., Oct. 1878, p. 334-339- 



Am 7a n U "' I 8 7 h 9 a . rm '} Tannin and Bitter Principle of Hops. 2 



TANNIN AND BITTER PRINCIPLE OF HOPS. 

By C. Etti. 

The substance named "lupulo-tannic acid" by the author does not 
precipitate gelatin ; if, however, it is dried at 120° to I30°C, it changes 
from yellowish-white to red, loses water, and when dissolved in very 
dilute alcohol precipitates gelatin completely, just like ordinary tannin. 

On heating the yellowish alcoholic solution of the original tannin on 
the water-bath it becomes red, and on evaporation a dark-red residue 
remains which also precipitates gelatin when again dissolved in dilute 
alcohol. The author calls this " phlobaphen." 

Analysis gives the same composition for this as for the red com- 
pound obtained by heating the lupulo-tannic acid at 120° to 130 , each 
having the formula C 50 H 46 O 25 , and they may be supposed to result from 
the expulsion of a molecule of water from two molecules of tannic 
acid of the formula C 25 H 24 13 . 

The coarsely powdered hop flowers are placed in an extraction 
apparatus, and after being freed fiom resin and bitter principle as much 
as possible, the mass is extracted with 20 per cent, alcohol. On 
evaporating to a small bulk and cooling a red precipitate of phlobaphen 
is formed ; this is dissolved in 90 per cent, alcohol, evaporated ta 
dryness and heated to 120 or 130 . If it tastes bitter, the bitter 
principle may be removed by ether. Phlobaphen is easily soluble in 
alkalies, and is precipitated unchanged by dilute mineral acids. On 
boiling the freshly precipitated and not previously heated phlobaphen 
with dilute mineral acids it is decomposed, glucose and one molecule of 
water being split off. 

As the phlobaphen is easily prepared, is constant in composition and 
precipitates gelatin solution completely, it may be estimated quantita- 
tively like tannin and may be used in standardizing the solution 
employed. 

An etherial extract of hop flowers contains, besides an essential oil, 
chlorophyll, a crystallized white and an amorphous brown resin, to which 
the bitter principle adheres. After driving off the ether 90 per cent, 
alcohol dissolves brown resin and the bitter principle, which may be 
separated from each other by adding water as long as* the resin con- 
tinues to be precipitated. Repeated solution in alcohol and dilution 
with water frees the resin from the bitter principle. The aqueous 
solution is evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid, tile amorphous 



28 



Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
I Jan., 1879. 



residue dissolved in 90 per cent, alcohol, again evaporated, and so on 
repeatedly until well-formed, extremely bitter, colorless crystals are 
obtained. The crystals are completely soluble in water. These 
expriments oppose the idea that the " bitter resin " of hops can be 
-dissolved in water only with the aid of sugar, tannic acid, gum, etherial 
oil, etc. The brown amorphous resin and the bitter principle of hops 
are two fundamentally different substances. — J. T. four. Chem. Soc, 
October, 1878, from Dingl. pofyt, j£, ccxxvii, 354 — 357. 



THE DISTINCTIVE TESTS FOR CARBOLIC ACID, 
CRESYLIC ACID AND CREASOTE. 

By Alfred H. Allen. 

Several previous observers have devised methods of distinguishing 
carbolic acid from wood-tar creasote, and have described tests which 
when applied to the pure substances leave little to be desired. 

It appears, however, not to have been observed that cresylic acid, 
so largely present in the commoner kinds of carbolic acid, resembles 
creasote more closely than pure carbolic acid does, and fails altogether 
to respond to some of the tests which have been proposed to distinguish 
carbolic acid from creasote. As the substitution of coal-tar acids for 
wood-tar creasote is pretty certain to be made by the employment of a 
crude variety of carbolic acid, the presence in it of cresylic acid can- 
not rightly be ignored. 

With a view to clearing up the discrepancies between the results 
recorded by other observers, and of ascertaining the most reliable tests 
for distinguishing carbolic and cresylic acids from wood-tar creasote, I 
have instituted a series of special experiments. 

As the origin of some of the statements made by other observers 
cannot be traced, owing to imperfect descriptions of the substances on 
which they worked, I think it well to define carefully the exact sub- 
stances on which my own experiments were made. 

The Carbolic Acid was a sample of Calvert's No. 1, for internal use ; 
boiling point i82°C. 

The Cresylic Acid I prepared by fractional distillation of Calvert's 
No. 5 carbolic acid. The portion coming over between 125 and 
205°C. was collected separately and again distilled, the first and last 



Am j{^ r ; 8 p 7 ^ rnu } Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. 29 

portions being rejected. The cresylic acid thus obtained boiled chiefly 
at about I97°C, but another smaller fraction boiled at 203°C. 

I believe this diffeKence is due to the presence of two isomeric cres- 
ols in coal-tar, having slightly different boiling points. Many of the 
experiments were made separately on both fractions, but without the 
least further difference in their properties becoming apparent. The 
distillations were conducted in an atmosphere of coal gas. 

The Creasote was a sample of Morson's wood-tar creasote. It 
boiled at 2I7°C, and so probably consisted chiefly of creasol, as 
guaiacol boils at 200°C. 1 

It was pointed out by Calvert many years ago that carbolic acici 
formed a crystalline hydrate, of the composition C 6 H e O, H 2 0, which 
fused at I7°C. This fact is usually ignored by the bookmakers 
though well known to carbolic acid manufacturers. This hydrate 
would contain 16*07 P er cent - °f water. When water is gradu- 
ally added to carbolic acid with repeated shaking the crystals become 
liquefied, and at length a portion remains at the surface. 

In order to ascertain how much water carbolic would take up, about 
13 grams of the crystallized acid were melted and boiled for a minute 
or two in a small weighed test-tube to drive off" traces of water. After 
cooling the whole was weighed. Cold water was then added gradually 
with repeated shaking until about *2 cc. remained as a layer on th e 
surface of the liquefied acid. This was then removed by cautious use 
of wet blotting paper, and the residual carbolic acid weighed. 9*190 
grams were found to have increased to 12*527, which gives 26*6 per 
cent, as the proportion of water in the liquid acid. On repeating the 
experiment a liquid acid containing 27*0 per cent, of water was 
obtained. This fact is of importance as showing that carbolic acid 
will take up far more water than is commonly supposed. The pro- 
portion is also of interest, as it corresponds pretty closely to the 
formula C 6 H e O, 2H 2 0. 2 

Hence the liquid acid may be regarded as a definite hydrate of 
phenol, but the fact that warm carbolic acid will take up a larger pro- 
portion of water than the above, and that the water is entirely sepa- 
rated by agitation with benzol is against this supposition. 

On trying a similar experiment with cresylic acid I found that the 

According to some observers, at 2io°C. 

'■'The theoretical proportion of water in this compound would be 27*69 per cent. 



Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1879. 



water absorbed amounted to 13 per cent, of the hydrated acid. On 
repetition the product contained 14 per cent. 
C 7 H g O, H 2 requires 12*7 per cent, of water. 

In the subsequent experiments, when mention is made of hydrous 
carbolic or cresylic acid, the products obtained as above are to be 
understood. 

1. Action of Cold. — Absolute carbolic acid is solid at ordinary tem- 
peratures, and the hydrous substance solidifies in a freezing mixture of 
hydrochloric acid and crystallized sulphate of sodium. Neither abso- 
lute nor hydrous cresylic acid, nor creasote, shows any signs of freezing 
on exposure to the same degree of cold. 

2. Solubility in Water. — Twenty cc. of water at about I70°C, dis- 
solved 1 '8 cc. of hydrous carbolic acid. This corresponds to a solu- 
bility of 1 volume in ii'i of water. Hence the saturated aqueous 
solution contains 8*56 per cent, by weight of the absolute acid, corres- 
ponding to a solubility of one part by weight of absolute acid in 10*7 
parts of water. This is a far greater solubility than is generally attrib- 
uted to carbolic acid, the discrepancy being probably due to an impure 
acid being generally used. In hot water carbolic acid is still more 
soluble. 

Hydrous cresylic acid dissolves in about 29 measures of water at 
about 20°C, which represents a solubility of 1 part by weight of abso- 
lute cresylic acid in about 31 parts of water. 

3. Solubility at i5*5°(C=6o F.) in solution of Caustic Soda containing 6 1 
per cent, of NaHO. — Absolute carbolic acid is completely soluble in an 
equal volume of soda solution containing 6 per cent, of pure NaHO 
(free from alumina). Addition of more of the alkaline solution up to 
6 volumes causes no change, the liquid remaining clear. Absolute 
cresylic acid is insoluble in small proportions of 6 per cent, soda solu- 
tion. When a large excess (9 volumes) is added, it disappears and 
forms distinct crystals. 

Creasote is practically insoluble in 6 per cent, solution of soda. 

4. Solubility at I5'5°C. in solution of Caustic Soda containing 9 1 per 
cent. a/* NaHO. — Absolute carbolic acid is soluble in an equal measure 
of 9 per cent. soda. On addition of any proportion of water up to 7 

1 These solutions contained respectively 94 and 91 grams of water to each 6 and 
9 grams of pure caustic soda. 



Am ja^ r i8^9 - arir ' } Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. 31 

volumes the liquid remains clear, but is precipitated by 8 volumes of 
water. Carbolic acid is also soluble in 2 measures of 9 per cent, soda, 
and is not precipitated by less excess of the reagent than 5 or 6 
measures. Absolute cresylic acid is soluble in an equal measure of 9 
per cent, soda, but is precipitated when the proportion of the reagent 
is increased to 3J volumes. If to a clear mixture of equal volumes of 
cresylic acid and 9 per cent, soda, a few drops of water be added, pre- 
cipitation occurs, and when the proportion of water is increased to one 
volume, the orginal bulk of cresylic acid separates out. Hence, 
cresylic acid is insoluble in two measures of 4J per cent, soda solution. 

Creasote is insoluble in any smaller quantity than two volumes of 9 
per cent. soda. It is partially reprecipitated when the proportion of 
the solvent is increased to more than three and half measures. 

5. Solubility at I5'5°C. in solution of Ammonia (sp. gr. '88o) —Car- 
bolic acid is completely and readily soluble in an equal volume of 
strong ammonia. The solution is not precipitated by addition of less 
than one and half volume of water. A mixture pf one part of car- 
bolic acid and three of cresylic acid is soluble in an equal measure of 
ammonia, but the solution is precipitated on adding even a few drops 
of water. 

6. Behavior with Benzol. — Absolute carbolic and cresylic acid and 
creasote are miscible with benzol in all proportions. 

The hydrous substances dissolve in five volumes of benzol with 
complete separation of the water. Hence benzol may be used for the 
determination of the proportion of water present in samples of carbolic 
and cresylic acid. 

7. With Chloroform, Carbon Disulphide, or Ether. — Carbolic acid, 
cresylic acid, and creasote react in much the same manner as with 
benzol. Agitation with 9 per cent, soda removes them from their 
solutions in the above solvents. 

8. Behavior with Petroleum Spirit of sp. gr. '66g [Commercial " Benzo- 
I'me "). — Absolute carbolic acid dissolves half its volume of petroleum 
spirit, forming a clear liquid. On addition of a larger proportion of 
petroleum spirit precipitation occurs. 

With one volume of carbolic acid and three of petroleum spirit the 
layers have about the same measures as the original liquid. Each 
layer, however, contains both liquids, as may be proved by cooling the 



3 2 



Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1879. 



tube with a freezing mixture (or by wrapping filter paper round it and 
dropping ether on the outside), when carbolic acid crystallizes out. 

Absolute carbolic acid is permanently soluble in about ten measures 
of petroleum spirit at I5'5C. (=6o°F.). The solubility is enormously 
increased by rise of temperature. Hence carbolic acid and hot petro- 
leum spirit are miscible in all proportions. On the other hand, by 
cooling with a freezing mixture the carbolic acid is almost wholly 
deposited. 

If the cooling occurs slowly it forms a heavy liquid layer with a 
portion of the petroleum spirit, but by rapid cooling the carbolic acid 
is deposited in long crystalline needles which render the liquids semi- 
solid. 1 

Hydrous carbolic acid is almost insoluble in moderate quantities of 
cold petroleum spirit, which liquid does not separate the contained 
water from it. (Another difference between benzol and petroleum 
spirit.) Absolute cresylic acid appears to be miscible with petroleum, 
spirit in all proportions. 

No separation, either of crystals or liquid, occurs by exposing a 
solution of one measure of the acid in three of petroleum spirit to a 
freezing mixture. 

When hydrous cresylic acid is treated with cold petroleum spirit the 
volume of the former increases somewhat by dissolving a little of the 
spirit, but on addition of a greater volume of petroleum spirit it under- 
goes slight solution. It is only very sparingly soluble in petroleum 
spirit, requiring upwards of twenty volumes for complete solution, 
when the water separates. Creasote is miscible with petroleum spirit 
in all proportions. 

9. Behavior with Glycerin of 1*258 sp.gr. — Absolute carbolic acid 
is miscible with Price's glycerin in all proportions. A mixture of one 
volume of carbolic acid with one of glycerin is not precipitated on 
addition of three volumes of water. In presence of 25 per cent, of 
cresylic acid precipitation occurs on adding more than two volumes of 
water. 

1 Crystallized carbolic acid may be used for distinguishing between coal-tar 
benzol and petroleum spirit. In the latter it is sparingly soluble, and is re-depos- 
ited in a crystalline state by rapid cooling. With benzol it is miscible in 
all proportions, the crystals of carbolic acid rapidly melting. A solution of one in 
three deposits no crystals by rapid cooling. 



Am. Jour. Phaim. 

Jan., 1879 



Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. 



33 



Absolute cresylic acid is miscible with Price's glycerin in all propor- 
tions. A mixture of one volume of glycerin and one of cresylic acid 
is completely precipitated by one volume of water. 

Creasote is insoluble in Price's glycerin, whether it be added in the 
proportion of one, two or three volumes for one of creasote. The 
sample of Price's glycerin used for the above experiments was found 
to have a density of 1*258. 

10. Behavior with Collodion. — Absolute carbolic or cresylic acid, when 
shaken with half its measure of Collodium, B. P., precipitates the nitro- 
cellulose in a transparent gelatinous form, very difficult to see. It is 
best observed by inclining the tube and causing the liquid to flow gently 
from one end to the other. Creasote does not precipitate the nitro- 
cellulose from collodion, but mixes perfectlv with its etherial solution. 
Addition of much creasote to a mixture of collodion and carbolic or 
cresylic acid causes the re-solution of the precipitated nitro-cellulose. 

11. Reaction with Ferric Chloride. — The addition of one drop of a 10 
percent, aqueous solution of ferric chloride to 15 cc. of an aqueous solu- 
tion of cresylic or carbolic acid causes a permanent violet-blue colora- 
tion. When creasote is similarly tested a blue color results, which 
almost instantly changes to green and brownish-yellow. 

Other distinctive tests for creasote and carbolic acid are to be found 
in the books, but are almost worthless in practice. Thus the reactions 
with bromine, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are far too much alike to 
be of service for distinguishing- between these bodies. It has been 
stated that creasote differed from carbolic acid in its power of rotating 
a ray of polarized light. I redistilled a sample of Morson's creasote 
to obtain it colorless, and carefully tried this test, expecting to find in 
it a possible means of determining the creasote in a mixture, but the 
rotating powers of creasote proved so exceedingly weak as to be quite 
worthless for the intended purpose, or even as a qualitative test. It is, 
however, quite possible that different samples of creasote may exhibit 
considerable differences in this respect, but if so the test is valueless for 
qualitative purposes, and the problem is not so much to detect wood- 
creasote as to recognize an admixture of the coal-tar acids. I am also 
unable to confirm the statement that creasote gives a solid deposit when 
kept for some hours at the temperature of boiling water. 

I have not obtained satisfactory results by the reaction of an alkaline 
solution of the substances with hydrochloric acid and pine-wood, or 



* 



34 Tests for Carbolic Acid, etc. {^ m ']lT^™' 

with a solution of iodine in iodide of potassium. Sulphomolybdic acid, 
also, gives a blue color alike with creasote and carbolic acid, even when 
the test is applied to an aqueous solution of the sample. 

From the foregoing details it will be seen that in various manners 
carbolic acid, cresylic acid and wood-tar creasote can be readily distin- 
guished from each other. The case, however, is very different when 
we have to deal with a mixture of the three substances, such as occurs 
in the case of a sample of creasote adulterated with crude carbolic acid. 
In such a case many of the tests are greatly reduced in value or ren- 
dered absolutely worthless. As the problem is to detect the coal-tar 
acids in presence of wood-creasote, rather than the reverse, only affir- 
mative tests for the former bodies are of service, and in many cases 
these are seriously modified by the simultaneous presence of creasote. 
Thus, as has been pointed out bv Mr. J. Williams, the ferric chloride 
test entirelv fails to detect the presence of carbolic acid in a mixture of 
equal parts of that substance and creasote. 

The only marked differences I have been able to observe between 
Morson's creasote and a mixture of equal measures of that liquid and 
Calvert's No. 5 carbolic acid are the following : 

When shaken with twice its bulk of 9 per cent, soda solution, pure 
creasote is dissolved, and remains in solution when the solvent is 
increased to three volumes. The mixture was insoluble either in two, 
three or four times its volume of 9 per cent. soda. This anomalous 
result proved to be due to the presence of water, which reduced the 
strength of the soda solution. When the water was previously 
expelled by boiling from the mixture of crude carbolic acid and crea- 
sote, solution took place with three volumes of soda. 

When shaken with ^Price's glycerin (sp. gr. 1*258) pure creasote 
remained undissolved, though the proportion of glycerin was varied from 
one to three volumes. The mixed creasote dissolved completely and 
readily in an equal measure of glycerin. The liquid was not affected 
by a drop or two of water, but a further addition caused precipitation. 
A mixture containing 25 per cent, of creasote, when shaken with an 
equal measure of glycerin, was not precipitated by less than i\ vol- 
ume of water. 

Shaken with half its volume of collodium (B. P.), pure creasote dis- 
solved to a clear liquid. The mixed creasote showed decided signs of 
precipitation when the liquid was allowed to run gently from one end 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1879. f 



Tests for Carbolic Acid 3 etc. 



35 



of the tube to the other. With a mixture of two volumes of Cal- 
vert's No. 5 acid to one of creasote, the precipitation of the nitrocel- 
lulose was very marked. 

As carbolic acid, cresylic acid and creasote boil at temperatures toler- 
ably widely apart, I thought it might be possible to effect a sufficient 
separation by fractional distillation to enable the tests for the coal tar 
acids to be more readily applied. For this purpose I introduced a mix- 
ture of No. 5 carbolic acid and Morson's creasote into a small retort 
and distilled the liquid. The water which first came over was col- 
lected separately. The next portion of the distillate (amounting to 
about one-fifth of the whole bulk of the liquid) was boiled to free it 
from a little water, and was then tested with glycerin and with collo- 
dion. It dissolved readily in the glycerin, and precipitated half its vol- 
ume of the collodion. Hence the carbolic acid of the mixed creasote 
was fairly detected, and there seems no reason why fractional distilla- 
tion should not serve for the detection of smaller proportions of car- 
bolic acid, as it will certainly be most abundant in the first portions of 
the distillate. The ferric chloride test was not found of service for test- 
ing the distillate, sufficient creasote being present to produce a decided 
brown coloration. 

As the tests with glycerin and collodion are the only reactions of 
service with mixtures of carbolic acid and creasote, 1 did not think it 
necessary to apply the other tests to the distillate. 

It will be seen from my experiments that the high value usually 
attached to the glycerin test is amply justified. It has been stated 
that pure creasote was soluble in anhydrous glycerin. This is certainly 
not my experience, but if it be true that some varieties of creasote 
dissolve in absolute glycerin they will doubtless be precipitated by the 
least dilution, and can thus be distinguished from mixtures containing 
considerable proportions of the coal-tar acids. 

Mr. J. Williams examined a sample of German creasote which was 
supposed to be pure, and which dissolved in glycerin j but the fact 
that 40 per cent, of the sample distilled at 200 to 203, together with 
other characters, renders it very probable that it contained an unac- 
knowledged mixture of the coar-tar acids. It must not be forgotten 
that cresylic acid is much cheaper than carbolic, and is far more 
difficult to distinguish from creasote, even when unmixed with it. 

I have thought it best to place my results on record in the fullest 



36 Nitrate of Silver containing Gold: { Km -J™^ vm ~ 

possible detail, as it is just the omission to do this that has caused so 
many confusing and incorrect statements to appear in our text-books. 
The tests described are remarkably liable to failure when the conditions 
are slightly varied. This is notably the case with the reactions with 
solutions of soda, a change of temperature or strength of the solvent 
causing extraordinary variations in the results. — Pharm. Juor. and 
Trans., Sept. 21, 1878. 



NOTE on NITRATE of SILVER CONTAINING GOLD. 

By E. B. Suttleworth. 
It does not appear that any of our chemical or pharmaceutical 
authorities give gold as one of the contaminations of nitrate of silver, 
yet such admixture is not only possible, but frequently to be met with 
in common grades of nitrate which have been prepared directly from 
solutions of the metal. All commercial refined silver contains gold, 
though perhaps in only the most minute quantity. Of nearly three 
tons which have been dissolved under the writer's supervision, none 
could be described as perfectly pure or free from the more precious, 
metal. English refined silver generally contains more than American 
stamped bars, of which a considerable quantity must be operated on 
in order to render the gold appreciable. 

If such silver be dissolved in ordinary nitric acid containing traces of 
hydrochloric acid both metals will be dissolved, and, as long as the 
solution is acid and concentrated, minute quantities of both chloride of 
silver and chloride of gold will be retained. Crystals deposited from 
the liquor will also contain traces of gold. Such crystals have a faint 
purplish tinge, as also the solution, so that in color it resembles water 
containing a very small quantity of logwood ink. 

I am not prepared to say in what particular form or combination the 
gold exists in the silver salt, nor yet to state the effect of this impurity 
on the photographic film. It is, however, possible that some of the 
troubles of photographers — as, for instance, that technically known as 
fogging — might, in some degree, be due to the presence of this con 
tamination. 

The impure salt may be readily prepared for experiment by adding 
to a concentrated hot solution of pure nitrate of silver a few drops of 
solution of chloride of gold. Flocks of chloride of silver holding 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1879. 



Permanent Rennet-Essence. 



37 



gold are precipitated, but, by the addition of a little pure nitric acid, 
are dissolved, and, if the solution be set aside, crystals similar to those 
described may be obtained. 

Nitrate of silver containing gold may be purified by fusion. On 
dissolving the cake in water the gold will be deposited, or may be 
removed by filtration through asbestos. — Can.Phar. Jour., Nov., 1878. 



PREPARATION of PERMANENT RENNET-ESSENCE. 

By H. Soxhlet. 

For the preparation of concentrated solutions only dried calves' 
stomachs are suitable, and those which have been blown out with air 
and dried as quickly as possible are best. The small stomachs of the 
youngest animals are richest in ferment. Fresh stomachs are useless 
for preparing a concentrated essence, as they yield a thick jelly, which 
by filtering gives only a small quantity of liquid. Concentrated extract 
prepared from stomachs after 14. days is light-yellow in color, whilst 
that prepared after 6 to 8 months' storage of the stomachs is dark- 
brown. This results from slight decay of the stomach, and as the 
color does not affect the usefulness of the product it is advisable to use 
stomachs which have been stored for at least three months. The 
portion of the stomach without folds, the Portio pylorica, is cut away, 
as it is poor in ferment. 

Acid liquids are usually employed for extracting, as they seem to 
produce richer solutions, but this is only because they act more quickly 
at first than water alone. Hydrochloric acid containing o*i and 0*2 
per cent, of acid in two days gave extracts twice as rich in ferment as 
an aqueous one, but after eight days all three solutions were equally 
strong. A little thymol was added to prevent decomposition during 
the experiment. When the temperature is raised to 30 to 35 water 
acts more rapidly than the acid, and the solution is richer than that 
produced by acid at the ordinary temperature. 

Attempts were made to produce concentrated solutions by means of 
dilute acids, but without success. A 0*3 per cent, solution of 
salicylic acid gave a liquid which was quite fresh after twelve months, 
but after only two months its activity had fallen off to the extent of 
one-half. 

A series of experiments made with solutions of common salt con- 



38 Permanent Rennet-Essence. {^'ji™^*™* 

taining from two to twenty-six per cent, shows that solutions contain- 
ing three to six per cent, of salt yield the liquids richest in ferment and 
capable of the highest degree ot concentration. This property of dilute 
salt solutions depends on the fact made known by Graham, that com- 
mon salt is a very easily diffusible substance. Organic acids in combi- 
nation with common salt are no better extraction agents than the salt 
alone. Five per cent, solutions of sodium or potassium sulphate are 
less efficacious than the same strength of salt solution. Potassium 
chlorate behaves in much the same manner as common salt ; an excess 
of the chlorate, however, neither acts as efficiently as a precipitating 
agent nor as a preventer of decomposition. 

Sixty to eighty grams of calf's stomach, steeped for five days in one 
liter of a five per cent, solution of common salt at ordinary tempera- 
tures, yield a solution of which one vol. will coagulate 10,000 vols, of 
new milk at a temperature of 35 in forty minutes. If the filtered 
solution is treated with sixty to ninety grams more of stomach a solu- 
tion of double strength is obtained ; another repetition gives a solution 
three times the strength of the original one. 

To prevent decomposition about 0*3 per cent, of thymol may be 
added to the concentrated rennet extract solution. Possibly a slight 
taste due to this may be detected in the finest cheese, but for the same 
reason oil of cloves is much more objectionable. Boric acid is on all 
accounts the best antiseptic to employ, and solutions to which it has 
been added may be kept in covered vessels for months. All extract 
solutions lose strength on keeping; during the first two months the 
solution may become thirty per cent, weaker, then the strength remains 
nearly constant for eight months in the case of a solution of 1 : 18,000* 
Alcohol is almost as good an antiseptic as boric acid if the solution be 
preserved in well-stoppered flasks. 

Detailed experiments are given, showing that the time required to 
coagulate milk is inversely proportional to the strength of the extract 
solution. From this the strength of a solution can be determined by 
adding- 1 cc. to 1 liter of milk at 35°C. and noting the time required to 
coagulate the milk; this time multiplied by 10 gives the time for the 
proportion 1 : 10,000. — J. T. Jour. Chem. Soc, y October, 1878, from. 
Dingl. polyt. Jour,, ccxxviii, 341 — 349. 



1 



Am, ja°n u ri8 7 n 9 arm *} Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. 39 

MEMOIR OF THOMAS H. POWERS. 

Read before the College at a Stated Meeting December 30, 1878. 

Thomas Henry Powers, son of Thomas and Susan Powers, was 
born in the city of Philadelphia, October 17, 1812. His maternal 
ancestry were descended from and connected with some of the good 
old colonial families belonging to the Society of Friends. 

There were two children, both boys. Thomas was the elder, the 
younger died in childhood. 

Mrs. Powers resided with her sisters at No. 17 North Seventh street 
(old number). She died while Thomas was quite young, and the 
charge of him in his boyhood devolved upon his aunts, Mary and 
Martha B. Pearson. The sisters were mantua makers and had a small 
dry goods store at the above mentioned locality, and were quite noted as 
dress makers, having a considerable custom outside of the city. 

In 1830 Mary and Martha B. Pearson removed to No. 16 North Sixth 
street (old number), to a house owned by John Grandom, their cousin, 
where they continued the mantua making business until about the year 
1834, when they withdrew from business, Thomas having grown up and 
attained a position which enabled him to contribute to the support of 
the family In 1839 they removed to a house on Buttonwood street, 
near Eighth street, from which in 1844 they removed to a dwelling 
purchased for them by their nephew, No. 615 Wood street, where 
Martha died in 1847 an< ^ Mary in 1869. 

The care which his aunts had exercised over him during his boy- 
hood was repaid by Thomas in his manhood with filial affection. He 
provided for the comfort of their declining years, and attended sedu- 
ously to the care of them as long as they lived. After their death he 
manifested his appreciation of the services of two faithful domestics 
who had long waited on them, by giving to one the furniture of the 
house and by selling to the other a dwelling suited to her requirements 
for a nominal consideration. 

At the age of seven years Thomas was sent to the " Ludwick 
School," on the north side of Walnut street, above Sixth street. 

The " Ludwick School" was established by "The Philadelphia 
Society for the establishment and support of Charity Schools." This 
society was incorporated in September, 1801, in conformity with the 
will of Christopher Ludwick, a wealthy and benevolent German citi- 



4 o Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. J™;™"™' 

zen, who held the position of " Baker-general to the army of the 
United States during the Revolutionary war." 

Mr. Ludwick deceased June, 1801, leaving his residuary estate, esti- 
mated then at $8,000, " to the association which should be first incor- 
porated for the purpose of teaching gratis the poor children of the city 
or liberties of Philadelphia, without any exception to the country, 
extraction or religion of their parents or friends." 

In 1804 a lot of ground was purchased on the north side of Walnut 
street, above Sixth street, and a neat two-story brick edifice was erec- 
ted and completely fitted up for the reception of scholars. On the 
decease of the widow of the testator the society became possessed of 
further property, making the Ludwick bequest about $13,000. 

In 1859 t ^ e schools were removed from Walnut street to the Beck 
school house on Catharine street, above Sixth street, where a flourish- 
ing school is still maintained by this society. 

In i860 the society report " already about 19,000 children have 
been pupils in the schools established by the society, and among the 
names are those of some of our most prominent and valuable citizens." 
u Within the walls of its school-room, and by its members, in connec- 
tion with other philanthropists, the law passed in 1818 establishing the 
common school system in Philadelphia was devised and drafted." 

From the records of this society, in 1827, we make the following 
extract : 

" The committee report that on an examination of the records they find that 
Thomas H. Powers was admitted a scholar in Fourth month, 1819, and continued 
until Third month, 1827, a period of nearly eight years, during which time from 
the report of Thomas Walter, his teacher, it appears that his deportment was unusu- 
ally exemplary, and the diligence and attention with which he pursued his studies 
altogether satisfactory. 

" At the time of his admission he was seven years of age and could spell but 
indifferently, but by close application, although the state of his health frequently 
occasioned his absence, he became a good reader, writer and arithmatician, and also 
became tolerably proficient in mathematics and book-keeping. 

" The teacher states as a remarkable circumstance, that during the whole time 
which this lad was under his care he does not recollect that he ever had occasion to 
punish him or even speak a harsh word to him. Indeed, all the information received 
by your committee, as well as their personal knowledge of him, is such as to induce 
them to believe that an expression of approbation of his conduct by the Board of 
Managers is justly due to him, and may operate as an encouragement to others to 
follow the excellent example he has set his fellow-students while in school. They 
therefore offer the following resolution : 



Am 'j°n r ;^g rm } Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. 41 

"Resolved, That the Board deem it due to Thomas H. Powers, late a pupil in 
the Walnut street school, thus to award to him the evidence of its approbation of 
his conduct, diligence and acquirements in learning during a period of nearly eight 
years in which he remained in the school ; and as a further testimony of their appro- 
bation, be it 

" Resolved, That a committee be appointed to purchase such books as they may 
think proper, to the value of five dollars, and present the same to Thomas H. 
Powers in the name and on behalf of this Board." 

[ Si S ned -] J° HN Claxton, I Committee \ 

Phillip Garrett, j 

Philadelphia, Fifth Mo. 25, 1827. 

In the year 1828 he entered the store of Daniel B. Smith, at the 
northeast corner of Arch and Sixth streets, to learn the drug business. 
A few months after his apprenticeship William Hodgson, Jr., an able 
pharmacist and chemist, brought up in the celebrated establishment of 
John Bell & Co., Oxford street, London, entered into partnership with 
D. B. Smith under the firm name of D. B. Smith & William Hodg- 
son, Jr., a partnership which continued at the same location until the 
close of the year 1848, when they were succeeded by Bullock & 
Crenshaw. 

We have been favored by a fellow-apprentice with Mr. Powers of 
his recollections of him during this period, and can not do better than 
to quote his words : 

u The means of his aunts were restricted, and his early habits were 
very economical. I think his clothing, which I remember as some- 
what peculiar, was usually made at home. In the latter part of his 
apprenticeship he had a coat made by a tailor, which he considered 
quite an event. 

u He was a faithful apprentice, laborious and indefatigable in his atten- 
tion to business, and in many respects was the main dependence of the 
establishment. He wasted no time in the pursuit of youthful recrea- 
tions, the reading selected by him was not for amusement but for infor- 
-mation and instruction, especially on subjects which were connected 
with his business (which he made his pleasure), and consisted mainly 
of chemical and pharmaceutical works and occasionally of moral and 
religious books. 

" I remember a little book then in my possession, entitled ' Char- 
acter Essential to Success in Life,' of which he formed a high opinion. 
In after years he applied to me to ascertain the exact title of the book 
with a view to having it reprinted for distribution amongst young men. 



42 Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. { Am jin.%79* rm ~ 

" He was aspiring and strove to qualify himself for whatever duties 
might devolve upon him. He had a laudable ambition to make his 
way in the world by industry, enterprise and upright conduct, and he 
seemed to have no fear of his ability to do so. 

" During his apprenticeship he studied French, taking evening, 
lessons, with a view chiefly of its enabling him to read chemical and 
pharmaceutical publications in that language. 

" The Journal of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy contains a 
translation made by him at that time of two elaborate papers by 
M. Robiquet and Boutron Charlard on bitter almonds and their essential 
oils. 1 

" In 1832 his health failed ; he became very much prostrated, and 
his friends became solicitous on his account. He was sent into the 
country to the farm of one of his relatives and was absent for some 
months. For a time his recovery seemed doubtful, accounts reaching 
us that he was sustained only by careful nursing and a generous diet. 
He returned to the store in apparently good health, and although never 
robust, enjoyed uniform good health and vigor. 

"About this time he came under strong religious impressions. I 
remember frequent conversations which he had with Samuel Hallowell, 
a fellow apprentice (afterwards a clergyman of the Episcopal church), 
on religious subjects and the views held by different denominations." 

The result of his religious exercise was his baptism in St. Andrew's 
Church — Rev. Gregory T. Bedell, Rector — November 29th, 1833, 
and his confirmation in the same church March 16th, 1834. 

When his pastor, the Rev. John A. Clark, Rector of St. Andrew's 
Church (successor of Dr. Bedell), went to Europe in 1837, on account 
of failing health, Mr. Powers took a lively interest in facilitating his 
departure. He had a tin medicine case made, and furnished it with 
medicines for his pastor's use. 

He was also at that time much interested in and occupied with the 
affairs of Emanuel Church, in Kensington. After the Rev. Mr. 
Clark left St. Andrew's Church, Mr. Powers attended St. Paul's 
Church, and had a Sunday-school class there. " I remember," says a 
fellow-apprentice, " on the Sundays when it was his turn to attend part 
of the day at the store, it was his practice, in order to be in time for 



1 Vol. iv, 1833, p. 67. 



Am j J a °nTi8 P 7 9 arm '} Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. 43 

his school, to make a cup of tea in an infusion mug, and this, with a 
few crackers, constituted his spare and hasty dinner." 

On the decease of Hart Grandom, a cousin of his mother's, Mr. 
Powers inherited a legacy of two thousand dollars, as a capital to com- 
mence business with. 1 This tended to promote his confidence in the 
future, as he felt that it would enable him at a proper time to open a 
retail store on his own account, if no better opportunity presented. 

The house in which his aunts resided, on North Sixth street, was 
owned by their cousin John Grandom, who had intended leaving it to 
them ; an unexecuted conveyance to that effect was found among his 
papers. His will made no mention of the property, and it passed, as 
a part of his residuary estate, to a charitable institution in this city. 
The sisters were generously permitted to continue their occupation of 
the premises for a nominal rent. After Mr. Powers became of age 
he invested his legacy of $2,ood, with $500 additional, in the purchase 
of this property for his aunts. 

In 1833 ne graduated at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and 
was the twenty-fifth on the list of graduates of the college. His thesis, 
" Remarks on Extemporaneous Pharmacy," was published in the 
"American Journal of Pharmacy." 

Before his graduation Mr. Powers participated in the proceedings of 
the Philadelphia Chemical Society, instituted in February, 1828, and 
continued until the close of 1830. On the records of this Society 
is found a paper read by Mr. Powers, in 1829, " On Tartar Emetic"; 
in 1830, one " On Barium and some of the Salts of Protoxide of 
Barium," and in the same year an essay u On the Preparation of Iodide 
of Mercury." 

In 1835 he was elected one of the trustees of the college, and 
served for six years. From November, 1835, to May, 1838, he filled 
the position of Secretary to the Board of Trustees. The cares 
attendant upon the rapidly increasing business of the firm with which 
he was soon afterwards connected precluded his active participation in 
the affairs of the college ; we have, however, abundant evidence that 
his interest in the work in which the college was engaged remained 
unabated during his life. The new channel into which his energies 

1<{ To Thomas H. Powers two thousand dollars. I hope Thomas will not enter 
largely into business so as to risk and lose what he has or may receive." — Will of Hart 
Grandom. July 16, 1834. 



44 Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. { Am -jZ'^ m ' 

were directed by his change in business has deprived us of any subse- 
quent contributions to those sciences, in which he took great interest 
and for which he possessed much natural adaptation. 

After he attained to his majority he remained with Smith & Hodg- 
son, as an assistant on a salary, until 1834 (or 1835), when D. B. 
Smith removed to Haverford College, as one of its faculty, when Mr. 
Powers was taken into partnership with the firm. 

After his admission into the firm, at Arch and Sixth streets, he 
applied himself assiduously to increase the business of the house. 
About this time morphia was coming into general use in place of opium 
as a narcotic ; Mr. Powers demonstrated by experimental trial that 
this alkaloid could be successfully and profitably manufactured here, 
and urged the consent of the firm to embark in the enterprise. They, 
however, did not see the way clear to do so ; in after life Mr. Powers 
has reverted to this period, and remarked that " a great opportunity 
was then lost." 

It was about the year 1836 that he formed an intimate acquaintance 
with Mr. John Farr, who previously had noticed him and formed a 
high estimate of his character and qualifications. 

In 1838 he left Smith & Hodgson, accepting an offer made to him 
bv Mr. Farr to join him in the chemical manufacturing business, on 
Coates street above Fourth street, Mr. Farr associating with him his 
nephew, Mr. William Weightman, and Mr. Thomas H. Powers, 
under the firm name of John Farr & Co. The reputation of the 
house of Farr <Sc Kunzi was already well known and stood high for 
the purity of their chemical products, but the business was then com- 
paratively small. 

After connecting himself with the house, Mr. Powers devoted all 
his energies to his new position ; his days and evenings were spent at 
the office and laboratory. He labored first to acquire a complete mas- 
tery of the business in every detail, and afterwards to extend it in every 
feasible direction, and by every honorable means. The reputation and 
trade of the house grew rapidly, until it became, as we know, the lead- 
ing establishment of this country, and probably one of the largest in 
the world, engaged in the manufacture of medicinal and other chemicals. 

The religious impressions of his early life had crystalized into a 
Christianity which was vital with him, influencing and controlling him 
in all his conduct. The care of his increasing business — of which he 



Am 'j J aS u , r, i8 7 9 arm } Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. 45- 

always continued the control — sat lightly on his shoulders, and he was 
ever ready to lay them aside for a time, when called upon for consulta- 
tion or advice by his friends, and by business acquaintances in their 
emergencies. His manner at such times will long be remembered by 
all who sought his advice ; an almost paternal interest seemed to invest 
his counsels. 

His mind had the faculty of grasping almost intuitively the important 
points of the subject presented to it — the situation seemed to be mas- 
tered at once — while he was patient and penetrating in the examination 
of details, for which he had a remarkable memory. 

His advice was given frankly, and he was always ready to do his 
part if he thought the occasion deserving and likely to result in perma- 
nent benefit. 

While inflexible and outspoken in opposition to what he thought was 
wrong in conduct or erroneous in principle, he was considerate to 
weakness and compassionate in misfortune. 

His contributions to charitable purposes increased with his means, 
and were dispensed with thoughtful kindness and conscientious care. 
How large and various these benefactions were was known to but few, 
for they were made, not with a view to public applause, from which he 
instinctively shrunk, but were prompted by the high motive of love to 
his fellow-men. 

He retained in a remarkable degree his early friendships, and how- 
ever advancing years might have left their impress on his person, his 
friends found but little change in the man himself. 

On the 16th of November, 1878, Mr. Powers left his office on 
account of indisposition, which developed into pneumonia. He died at 
his residence, No. 1618 Walnut street, on the 20th, in the 67th year 
of his age. 

Mr. Powers was married in 184.1 to Miss Anna Matilda Cash. His 
only son died in March, 1873. ^ e ^ eaves a widow and one daughter. 

The faithful, conscientious character which had been formed in early 
manhood remained unchanged. He was unspoiled by success, as he 
had been undaunted in difficulty. His whole life has been, in all its 
relations, a bright example of industry, perseverance, [Christian faith- 
fulness and good works. 



46 Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. { Am ^i? 3 5 anD " 

A short sketch of the history of the house of Powers & Weight- 
man will be of interest to the members of this college. 

The founder of the house of Powers & Weightman, Mr. John 
Farr, was brought up to the drug business in London, aud came to the 
United States at an early age, possessed of but little pecuniary means. 
The commencement of his business was in an humble way. The 
firm of Farr & Kunzi was established about the year 1818. Their 
first location was on the north side of Arch street, near Twelfth street. 
In 1820 they removed to the south side of Coates street, above Fourth 
street. In 1821 or '22 they purchased the property at Ninth and 
Brown streets, then on the outskirts of the city ; to this location they 
removed in 1839. 

Mr. Kunzi retired from business in the year 1836. In 1838 Mr. 
Farr associated Mr. Powers and Mr. Weightman with him, under the 
name of John Farr & Co. Three years afterwards the firm name 
was changed to Farr, Powers & Weightman. After the decease of 
Mr. Farr, in 1847, tne name °f tne fi rm was changed to Powers & 
Weightman. 

About this time the operations of the house were much increased 
by the establishment of the works at the Falls of Schuylkill for the 
manufacture of chemical products used largely in the arts. 

The time of the first manufacture of quinia in Philadelphia is 
alluded to in a paper read by Mr. John Farr before the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, December 27, 1825, as follows : " In the sum- 
mer and autumn of 1823, a season peculiarly memorable to Philadel- 
phia by reason of the alarming prevalence of intermittant and other 
fevers, the sulphate of quinia was first successfully manufactured 
here." 1 

In the first quarter of the present century nearly all chemical and 
a large portion of the pharmaceutical products used in the United States 
were imported from Europe. The earliest chemical manufacture in 
Philadelphia of which we have information was carried on by Gerard 
Troost, M.D. Dr. Troost delivered one course of lectures on chem- 
istry in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in the winter of 1821-22 ; 
he afterwards removed to Tennessee, and was instrumental in the 
establishment of the University of Nashville. 



1 Journal of Phil. Col. of Pharmacy, May, 1826, " On Extract of Quinia. 1 ' 



Am j J an" r i8 P 7 9 arm } Memoir of Thomas H. Powers. 47 

The house of Farr & Kunzi had established a good reputation for 
their products, and when the energy and "ability of the new partners of 
Mr. Farr were brought into active participation in the affairs of the 
house the business expanded rapidly until it developed such proportions 
as to enable the firm to supply a large part of the medicinal products 
and chemicals demanded for consumption in the United States. 

For more than thirty years (since the death of Mr. Farr) the com- 
mercial department of the business has been under the supervision of 
Mr. Powers, while upon his partner, Mr. Weightman, devolved the 
exclusive management of the manufacturing. 

Mr. Powers retained his early interest in pharmacy, and guarded 
with sedulous care the quality and appearance of the articles which 
left their establishment. The production of the cheaper alkaloids of 
cinchona barks in a condition of purity was an object in which Mr. 
Powers took great interest ; for a magnificent display of these pro- 
ducts the firm was awarded a Gold Medal in 1874, by the Franklin 
Institute. 

There has been considerable reflection made at times when a revision 
of the duties on imports was before the public, or the influence exerted 
by the manufacturers of quinia to retain the duty on that product. 
"A tax on fever-stricken patients," has been the favorite motto of the 
advocates of " free quinia." The practical working of the problem 
has repeatedly been shown by importers making a large advance on 
quinia upon the advent of malarial fevers in the South and West, 
while the manufacturers of quinia in the United States have always 
stood firm in a resistance to such speculative movements. 

Mr. Powers was personally well-known to many in the trade through- 
out the United States, and by such will be greatly missed. Upon his 
surviving partner, Mr. Weightman, will devolve the management of 
the business. Mr. Weightman's connection with the establishment 
commenced as a boy in 1829. Trained practically in the commercial 
as well as in the manufacturing department, the old friends of the house 
will find him eminently deserving of their confidence. 



48 Put tar-producing Plants. { Am jln Ur i8 P 7 8 arm " 

THE GUTTA-PRODUCING PLANTS OF THE MALAY 

PENINSULA. 

In an appendix to a report of an expedition to Perak, recently made by Mr. 
Murton, the Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens, Singapore, a good deal of 
information is given regarding the sources of the different kinds of gutta produced 
in the Malay Peninsula. Five varieties are enumerated, and their respective values 
in Perak and Salangor given as follows : 

Price per Picul. 
In Perak. In Salangor. 

1. Gutta-soosoo, 50 to 52 dols., not known. 

2. Gutta-taban, 45 to 50 " 50 dols. 

3. Gutta-rambong, 32 to 35 " not known. 

4. Gutta singgarip, 17 to 20 " 20 dols. 

5. Gutta-putih -sundek, 15 to 30 " 15 dols. 

Of the first, gutta-soosoo, Mr. Murton was unable to obtain any samples of the 
tree producing it, and the only information he could gather concerning it was, that 
the tree is entirely destroyed, except in the interior of Perak ,• that the gutta is 
firmer in texture than gutta-taban, and contains a little oil. This must not be con- 
founded with the gutta-soosoo of Borneo, which is a caoutchouc or rubber. 

The second, or gutta-taban, is the gutta-percha of commerce, and the product of 
a tree described so far back as 1837, by Sir William Hooker, under the name of 
Isonandra gutta, but now known to botanists as Dichopsis gutta, Bth. It appears 
that in Perak there are two sorts, alike in foliage and general appearance, and differ- 
ing only in the color of the flowers, one being white and the other red. They are 
known to Malays by the names of Ngiato putih and Ngiato merah, but the products 
of both trees are called gutta-taban. Dichopsis gutta is most abundant on Gunongs 
Meeru and Sayong, and Bujong, Malacca. A few large trees still exist on Gunong 
Babo and the Thaipeng range. Small plants, from one to eight feet, are abundant 
on the granite formations in Perak up to 3,500 feet elevation. 

To procure the milk, the tree is cut down at five or six feet from the ground, and 
the top cut off immediately, when it becomes too small for ringing. This, the 
natives say, causes the tree to yield a much larger quantity. The bark is then ringed 
with knives, called " golos," at intervals of from five to fifteen inches. The milk 
continues to flow for about an hour, and is collected in vessels made of palm-leaves 
or cocoanut shells, and then boiled for about an hour, otherwise it becomes brittle 
and useless. Regarding the quantity of gutta each tree is capable of producing, 
no trustworthy information seems to have been obtained. One of the principal 
merchants of Perak informed a member of the expedition that a large tree would 
yield forty catties of gutta, but Mr. Murton regards this as an exaggeration, for 
from numerous inquiries among the men in the jungles he was told that from five 
to fifteen catties is about. the average quantity obtained, and never more than twenty 
catties. No particular season seems to be recognized in Perak for collecting the 
gutta, and Mr. Murton was unable to glean any information as to whether or not the 
trees yield more in one season than in another. He considers, however, that in the 
wet seasons the gutta contains more water, and consequently would require more 



Am. Tour. Pharm 1 
Jan., 1879. J 



Gutta-producing Plants. 



49 



boiling to drive it off. It is stated that from Klang eighty-three piculs eighty-three 
catties were exported from January to November, 1877 5 so tnat lt 1S probable over 
700 trees were destroyed to furnish that quantity. The gutta is generally, if not 
always, exported in the shape of oblong balls, with a loop at the upper end, through 
which a piece of rattan is put to facilitate its being carried through the jungles. 
These balls vary considerably in weight, but from ten to twenty catties is about the 
average. They are of a greyish-white color, with a slightly reddish tint inside. 
The color, however, varies according to the quantity of bark and other impurities 
mixed with it; sometimes it is of a bright umber-brown. 

For the cultivation of Dichopsis gutta, it is recommended that plants not more 
than a foot high should be procured from the jungles ; it is necessary to lift them 
very carefully as they have long tap roots which are liable to be broken or injured, 
in which case the plants, even if they survive, take a long time to recover. 

The third kind of gutta, namely, gutta-rambong, is described as being more of 
the nature of caoutchouc or india rubber. Mr. Murton did not find the tree pro- 
ducing it, and he was informed by the Malays that it was only to be met with in 
the interior of Perak and on the Patani side of the Peninsula. These people 
describe the tree as having large roots above ground, and large, bright-green leaves, 
with red tips to the branches. The milk is obtained from these large roots, which 
are tapped ten or twelve times a year, a picul being sometimes taken from a large 
tree ; the usual yield, however, is said to be about half a picul. This rubber is said 
to require no preparation for market; it has the appearance of long strings, irregu- 
larly welded together; the best quality has a gum-like appearance, is very firm in 
texture and of a reddish-brown color; the inferior qualities have a large admixture 
of bark, etc., and are much drier without the gum like consistency of the better 
qualities. The caoutchouc from Perak has much the same appearance as Assam 
rubber, and Mr. Murton considers there is but little doubt that it is produced by 
the same tree, Ficus elastica, the description given by the Malays agreeing closely 
with that of the above-named plant, the red points to the branches being probably 
the conspicuous red stipules which envelop the young leaves. From the fact that 
young plants have been promised to the Singapore Gardens, it is to be hoped that 
ere long the origin of gutta-rambong will be definitely settled. 

Another caoutchouc, or india rubber, is gutta- singgarip. This agrees very closely 
in texture, appearance and in the mode of operation with the gutta-soosoo of Borneo, 
and Mr. Murton says that an experienced authority, who had spent some time 
among the gutta-soosoo collectors in Borneo, assured him that they are one and the 
same product. The plant producing it is a large woody climber, with stems about 
six or eight inches in diameter, but often much less. There are two varieties, one 
with very dark colored outer bark and lighter colored warts, and red inner bark j 
the other with outer baik light cork-colored, with longitudinal channels, and the 
inner bark light yellow. The foliage of both plants are described as being very- 
similar to each other, but the fruits differ in form, one being apple-shaped and the 
other pear shaped. The fruits of both forms are edible, and are readily sought 
after by the Malays. The plants seem to be species of JVilloughbeia, belonging to 
the natural order Apocynacea. The gutta from the dark-barked variety is'considered 

4 



5 o Minutes of the College. { /kBU ^\^ m ' 

the best. The long, scandent stems are often cut down to procure the milk, but it 
is not absolutely necessary to do so, except to render the operation of collecting 
the gutta easier. The stem is generally ringed at intervals of ten to twelve inches, 
and the milk allowed to run into vessels made of palm or other leaves, cocoanut 
shells or anything available for the purpose 5 it continues to flow for some time, but 
after flowing for ten minutes it gets very watery and thin. One plant will yield 
from five to ten catties of the coagulated caoutchouc. When raw, it has the 
appearance of sour milk, and to coagulate it the natives add salt or salt water. 
When freshly coagulated it is quite white, but gradually changes to a darker color. 
It retains its white color inside, and, upon cutting, it is found to be porous, the pores 
or cells containing water and salt, which have become enclosed during coagulation. 
In texture it is soft, very spongy and very wet, From January to November, 1877, 
fifty-seven picules forty-five catties of this rubber were exported from Klang alone. 
Gutta-putik, or gutta- sundek^ is the produce of a species of Dichopsis, the leaves of 
which differ from those of D. gutta in being much shorter, broader and more ovate 
in general outline. The gutta is obtained and prepared in th'e same manner as 
gutta-taban, and trees are frequently met with on the Sayong and Meeru ranges. 
Of this variety 484 piculs 56 catties were exported from Klang alone from January 
to November, 1877. It 1S much whiter and more spongy than gutta-taban, and is 
worth only 15 dols. per picul as against 50 dols. for gutta-taban. In concluding 
this interesting report, Mr. Murton says: " When crossing the Meeru range from 
Kinta to Kwalla Kangsa, I cut off some leafy branches from a tree which had been 
felled and ringed a few days before. These leaves were beautifully yellow on the 
lower surface, caused by small peltate scales, and not pilose hairs, as in the Isonan- 
dras (Dicbopjis); but, on making inquiries from men about Sayong, they pronounced 
them to be the foliage of some non-gutta yielding tree, which is certainly wrong, as 
I saw the dry gutta adhering to the bark where it had been ringed. A kind of 
gutta, called gutta-jalutong, is often used in Perak for mixing with guttas taban 
and putih, thus rendering them very brittle, but I have not seen the gutta nor the 
tree producing it. honandra Motleyana is said to yield a gum which, in Java and 
Sumatra, is known as gutt-akolian, and is used only for adulterating purposes. 
Various species of fig (Ficus) yield large quantities of milk, which in Perak is known 
as gutta-burong, as the only use to which it is put is for bird-catching." 

From the foregoing remarks, it will be seen that there is a great deal yet to be 
learnt about the sources of those valuable plants and trees yielding elastic gums, 
and it is to be hoped that, with an extended knowledge of the plants themselves, 
increased supplies may also find their way into commerce. — Jour, of Appl. Sci., Nov. 1. 



MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE. 

Philadelphia, December 30th, 1878. 
A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day at 
the hall of the College. Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair,- seventeen mem- 
bers present. 



Am. Tour. Pharm ) 
Jan., 1879. J 



Minutes of the College. 



5i 



The minutes of the last stated meeting, and also those of the special meeting of 
November 22d, were read and on motion approved. 

The Secretary of the Board of Trustees read the minutes of that body for the 
months of October, November and December, which were on motion adopted. 

On motion of Thomas S. Wiegand an amendment to the by-laws of the College 
was proposed to Article XIII, Chapter VIII, which will make it read as follows: 
u All such persons as, from their knowledge of materia medica, chemistry, phar- 
macy and their collateral branches of science, shall, in the opinion of the 
College, merit that distinction, may be elected honorary or active members of the 
College." 

The motion was accepted, and the subject laid over under the rules for action at 
the next stated meeting. 

Charles Bullock, on behalf of the Committee on Deceased Members, reported the 
death of William Hodgson, Jr., a member of the College, which occurred on the 
24th instant. He gave a short sketch of his life, and stated that the matter would 
claim the attention of the committee hereafter. 

Mr. Bullock, on behalf of the same committee, read a memorial of the late 
Thomas H. Powers, which he stated had been prepared by the committee, with the 
assistance of Ambrose Smith, who was a fellow clerk with Mr. Powers when he was 
learning the drug business. 

The memorial, which will be found on page 39, was listened to with much interest, 
covering as it does the many points of his useful and busy life from youth to age. 

On motions of James T. Shinn and Thomas S. Wiegand, the memorial was 
accepted and ordered to be printed in the "Journal of Pharmacy,"" and that five 
hundred copies of the memorial be also printed for the use of the College. 

Mr. Bakes moved that a copy be presented to each member of the class, which 
was adopted. 

On motion of Mr. Shinn the thanks of the College were presented to the com- 
mittee and Ambrose Smith for the very acceptable memorial which they had 
prepared. 

Alonzo Robbins, on behalf of the delegation elected to attend the annual 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, made the following report: 
To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

The delegates appointed to attend the meeting of the Ameriean Pharmaceutical 
Association, at Atlanta, Ga., respectfully report that they attended to the duties 
assigned them. 

Owing to the prevalence of yellow fever the meeting was postponed from the time 
originally fixed upon to the 26th of November, when, notwithstanding the lateness 
of the season, a very successful meeting was obtained. 

The sessions were held in Concordia Hall 5 an address of welcome was delivered 
by the Hon. Mr. Angier, Mayor of the city of Atlanta, and a number of invitations 
to visit places of interest were received. 

The hospitalities usually shown at the meetings of the Association were extended 
with undiminished force. 

A number of useful and interesting papers were read, and a very important report 
from the Pharmacopoeia Committee of the Association was presented. 

The exhibition was not as large as usual, but was of considerable interest, notably 
the chemicals of Messrs. Powers & Weightman and Rosengarten & Sons, and the 
California plants shown by Mr. James G. Steele of San Francisco. 



52 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am )^*£? BU 

Gustavus J. Luhn, of Charleston, S. C, was elected president for the ensuing 
year, and fifty-eight new members were elected. 

The Association adjourned on Friday morning, Nov. 29th, to meet at Indianapolis, 
Ind., on the second Tuesday of September, 1879. 

After the adjournment most of the members returned immediately home, but 
quite a number embraced the opportunity of making a brief visit to Florida, receiv- 
ing on the way the hospitality of the pharmacists of Macon, Ga. 

Two of the delegates were unable to attend the meeting, and Mr. James T. 
Shinn, who was present, was added to the delegation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alonzo Robbins, ] 
James T. Shinn, ! Delegates in= 
F. Marion Murray, J Attendance. 
J. L. Patterson, J 

December 30th, 1878. 

James T. Shinn entertained the meeting with an interesting description of a 
journey which was undertaken by a part of the delegation, under the guidance of 
Mr. Hunt, southward through Florida. Everything was done by those in charge 
to make the trip agreeable and instructive, and the delegation returned home with 
many pleasant recollections of the journey. 

Prof. Maisch made a verbal report of the transactions of the Conference of 
Schools of Pharmacy, held in Atlanta Nov. 26th. 

A letter from the Society of Pharmacy of Paris, directed to the President of the 
College, was read, conveying the thanks of the Society to the members of this 
College for the collection of American drugs sent to the Paris Exposition. The 
collection has been placed in the museum of the school in the Champ de Mars, 
where it can be advantageously consulted by the members of the Society. 

On motion of Prof. Remington the letter was directed to be entered on the 
minutes. 

There being no further business, then adjourned. 

William J. Jen ks> Secretary. 



MINUTES OF T HE PHARMACE UTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, December 7th, 1878. 

Dillwyn Parrish, President, called the meeting to order 5 the minutes of the last 
meeting were read and approved. 

Prof. Sadtler gave an account of some of the properties of the so-called Califor- 
nia oil of turpentine, which was referred to in the minutes of the meeting for last 
month ; in many particulars it coincides' with, and in others it differs from, the 
characters referred to the abietin described by Prof. Wenzel, which is obtained from 
the Pinus Sabiniana. ("Amer. Jour. Phar." 1872, p 97.) The specific gravity of 
ordinary oil of turpentine is o*86 to o*88 ; of abietin 0*6945 of oil examined 0*6974. 
The boiling point of ordinary oil is near i6o°C; of abietin, ioi°C; of oil examined 
101 to io3°C. The optical rotatory power of English oil of turpentine is (a)=-|-i8 6°j 
of French oil (a)= — 35*4° ; of Venetian oil (a)= — 5 2 ; of templin oil (a) = — 76-9 
of abietin not ascertained ; of oil of Pinus ponderosa (a)= — 1'58°. 

Mr. Gaillard called the attention of the meeting to the character of the residues- 



Am ){™%!?9™'} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 53 

obtained by filtering the Schuylkill water : the animalculae are readily discernible 
with a microscope of the power of 150 diameters; diatoms are easily recognized and 
after some weeks of observation a volvox was found yesterday. It shows the great 
necessity for filtering all water used in pharmaceutical dispensing. It was thought 
singular that the water supplied from the Schuykill now should be less fitted for 
pharmaceutic uses than that obtained twenty years ago; when it is remembered 
how many towns have grown up through that part of the State through which the 
Schuylkill and its tributaries pass, and the great manufacturing industries that have 
been developed this surprise will be seen to have no good foundation ; it was gen- 
rally acceeded that reservoirs of subsidence should be provided that greater purity 
of water might be obtained. 

The discussion that ensued called forth a notice that the College was supplied 
with apparatus by which such objects could be well displayed to all who desired to 
see them, and members were advised that with the microscopic attachment to the 
Zentmayer lantern the peculiar structure of different drugs was exhibited by Prof. 
Maiscli in connection with his lectures. 

A query whether any member present had made use of spun glass as a filtering 
medium was replied to in the affimative. The substance may be used for filtering 
acids and other corrosive liquids, and is made by Messrs. Whitall, Tatum & Co., 
glass manufacturers, of this city. 

Prof. Maisch placed on the table the report of the regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, as presented by their secretary to the College ; he also called the atten- 
tion of the members to the first three numbers of the " Chemist and Druggist," 
published in Victoria, Australia. 

The Actuary called attention to the valuable collection of works already in the 
library relating to the subject ot the cinchonas and their cultivation, and Prof. 
Maisch presented several volumes upon the same subject by Prof. Reichardt, by 
Prof. Fliickiger and by Soubeiran and Delondre. On motion a vote of thanks was 
tendered to Prof. Maisch for his acceptable donation. 

Prof. Maisch presented to the cabinet specimens of the Mexican soap root, which 
is the upright rhizome of a monocotyledonous plant and is used as a substitute for 
soap by the Mexicans 5 it was brought here by Mr. Fesquet who had traveled in 
Mexico, but was unable to ascertain its botanical origin. 

Mr. Jacobs, through Prof. Maisch, presented specimens of China berries, the 
fruit of the Melia Azedarach, which grows freely in Virginia and further South, 
and is planted for its shade $ the berries during the war of the rebellion were used as 
a source of whiskey. 

The oil of asarum canadense was exhibited by Prof. Maiseh, who stated it was 
>much used in perfumery, not so much for its own odor as for reinforcing the odor 
of other perfumes. It was made by Fritsche of New York j it was thought by 
some to resemble oil of rhodium, and by others oil of sandalwood Prof. Maisch 
exhibited specimens of the bark of Rhamnus Purshiana, which had been introduced 
under the fictitious name of Cascara sagrado, which name, according to Dr. Gibbons 
of San Francisco, is unknown on the Pacific coast, as is likewise the name of Yerba 
Reuma. The latter has a very salty taste and has been recognized as the Frankenia 



54 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am ja™ 1 ";^ arnu 

grandifolia, nat. ord. Frankeniacea. Prof. Maisch stated that this order was related 1 
to the caryophyllaceae, and it seems that only one plant belonging to it, Beatsonia 
portulac<ejolia y Roxb , a native of Southwestern Africa, was at one time employed 
medicinally. Prof. Maisch also stated that Berberis aquifolium had been introduced 
as a medicinal agent. Out of twelve specimens received from different parts of the 
country only one proved to be the plant in question, the others were the B. nervosa* 
He expressed the belief that the species named as well as others belonging to the 
section mahonia, probably possess identical psoperties. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper from Mr. L. Wolff on oleic acid and the use of benzin 
in its preparation. (See p. 8.) The proposed use of oleic acid for the isolation 
of alkaloids called forth some favorable comments. 

The Librarian reported that the entire set of the " Paris Journal of Pharmacy," 
commencing, in 1809, with the " Bulletin de Pharmacie, 1 "' for six years, then as 
" Journal de Pharmacie et de Sciences Accessoires," for 27 years, and since then 
continued as "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie," could now be consulted in the 
Library. 

In answer to a question concerning the so-called Unguentum petrolei, a member 
stated that he had received prescriptions for it, and had found it a good material, 
for making certain ointments, and that it would serve as a basis for ungt. hydrargyri 
oxidi rubri, keeping through the heat of summer without change. Prof. Sadtler 
said certain .samples he had examined gave unmistakable signs of rancidity, but that 
if it were really a pure petroleum product, it was not liable to this objection. 

The Actuary asked if any of the members had experimented with monobro- 
mated camphor in its relations to resins ; that experiments he had made showed that 
it would not produce the pilular mass that ordinary camphor did. It was suggested 
to try whether artificial camphor resulting from the action of hydrochloric acid oa 
turpentine would produce similar reactions. 

There being no further business, a motion to adjourn was carried. 

T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Alumni Association, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The third social 
meeting of this season was held on Thursday, December 5th, at 3.30 P.M. In the 
absence of the regular officers, Dr. Miller was chosen to preside. There was an 
attendance of between thirty and forty. 

After the reading of the minutes, Mr. Sayre read an instructive paper on Pill 
Excipients, and promised, at some future time, to continue the subject. 

Dr. Miller suggested glucose as a good excipient, but few seemed to have tried it,, 
except in the form of honey. It was stated that honey was frequently adulterated 
with glucose, and that terchloride of iron was the best test to detect it, as a black, 
coloration was produced by the addition of the terchloride to honey diluted with* 
glucose, but not to the pure article. (?) 



Am Jour Pharm. 

Jan., 1879 



Editorial, 



55 



Mr. Mattison read an essay on Sulphur Mining on the Pacific Coast, and showed 
a number of specimens. 

"Mr. Wiegand spoke of the advantages of cold cream when properly used, and 
thought it should be retained in the Pharmacopoeia. 

Mr. Vansant read a paper by Mr. G. W. Paine, on the same subject. 

Mr. Gaillard read a paper on an Arsenical Test. 

Dr. Murray showed some specimens of new drugs from California, and crystals 
of different salts, obtained from hydrastis. 

Mr. J. B. Moore presented specimens of Goulard's Cerate, Fluid Extract of Wild 
Cherry and a substitute for lard. 

After examination of specimens, on motion, adjourned. 

Pharmaceutical Association of South Carolina. — The annual meeting was 
held in Charleston, on the evening of the 20th November, 1878. The following 
officers were elected to serve during the coming year : 

President, E. S. Burnham 5 Vice Presidents — Dr. H. C. Guerin, H. E. Heinitsh ; 
Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. E. H. Kellers ; Board of Examiners at Charleston — 
A.W. Eckel, chairman, G. J. Luhn, A. W. Schwacke and CO. Miehaelis; Board 
of Examiners at Columbia — H. P. McGregor, chairman, E. E. Jackson, C. H. 
Miot and L. T. Silliman. 

Dr, C. A. Tufts, of Dover, N. H., and Professor J. M.'Maisch, of Philadelphia, 
were elected honorary members. 

After the transaction of business, the members, with their invited guests, partook 
of a bountifully-supplied supper, spending the remainder of the evening in the enjoy- 
ment of social conversation and pleasant sentiments. 



EDITORI AL DEPAR TMENT. 

The Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the Publication of the " American 
Journal of Pharmacy." — In April next it will be fifty years since the regular publi- 
cation of this journal was commenced under the title of the Journal of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. Previous to that time, from 1825 to 1827, four 
numbers were published at irregular intervals under the supervision of a Publishing 
Committee, consisting of Dr. Samuel Jackson, Henry Troth, Solomon Temple, Ellis 
H. Yarnall and Daniel B. Smith. When the College determined upon the publica- 
tion of the journal at regular stated periods, it was also agreed to commence the 
consecutive numbering of the volumes with the new issue, hence the four numbers 
previously published became known as the preliminary volume, and the one of which 
the present issue is the first number is the fifty-first of the regular series. In 1835 
the title was changed to that of the American Journal of Pharmacy, and the 
publication continued as a quarterly until the close of the twenty-fourth volume in 
1852. In the meantime the volume had been made to commence with the year, 
five numbers having been issued in 1847. With the twentieth volume (1848) the 
size of each number was increased to 96 pages, and with the twenty-fifth volume 
(1853) the journal was issaed bi-monthly instead of quarterly, the size of each 
number remaining unchanged, except in 1864, daring which year the numbers 
published contained only 80 pages each. With the forty third volume (1871) it had 
become necessary to issue the journal monthly instead of bi monthly, and the change 



56 



Editorial, 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 

Jan., 1879. 



was accomplished without increasing the size of the volume by making the monthly- 
numbers cover 48 pages each. At the same time the size of each page was widened 
and lengthened, which change, while it does not disturb uniformity with previous 
volumes in binding, yet added additional matter to each number equivalent to about 
seven pages or more. But even this increase in the text of the journal has been 
found insufficient at times, necessitating the additional increase in the size of a num- 
ber from 48 to 64 pages, while at the same time most of the papers bearing on phar- 
macy and published in foreign journals are transferred to our pages in a condensed 
form as " Gleanings," " Selections," or " Varieties." 

The different changes referred to are indicated on the title pages of the journal 
by " series," the first one comprising the six volumes published under the original 
title, and the second all the volumes issued in quarterly numbers under the present 
title. The third series, volumes xxv to xlii inclusive, embraces the bi-monthly pub- 
lications, and with the change to monthly numbers in 1871 the fourth series was 
commenced. 

Although the Journal is published by authority of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, the College is evidently not responsible for the views of the editor, nor 
is the latter responsible for the opinions held by the authors of contributed and 
selected papers, except in keeping the pages of the Journal unsullied from person- 
alities and other unsuitable matter. But from the very commencement the College 
has annually appointed a Publishing Committee, whose members have assisted the 
editors with valuable advice and not unfrequently with original contributions. Of 
the first Publishing Committee, appointed about 54 years ago, the most active 
member, who contributed many valuable papers to the preliminary and the earlier 
volumes of the regular series, the venerable Daniel B. Smith is the only survivor, and 
being also one of the few surviving original members of the College, has ample reason 
to enjoy the prosperity and extended influence of the institution and the Journal, to 
the success of both of which his assiduous disinterested labors have materially con- 
tributed. The names of nearly all who served on the Publishing Committee are 
well known in American pharmacy, and several have exerted a well recognized and 
duly appreciated influence upon the elevation and progress of pharmacy in the 
United States. We refer more particularly to Drs. George B. Wood and 
Franklin Bache, and to William Procter, Jr., and Edward Parrish, all of whom 
have also labored in the College as professors, and of whom only Prof. Wood 
survives, honored by both the pharmaceutical and medical professions for his untir- 
ing and successful labors extending over half a century. In addition to those pre- 
viously named, the following members of the College have served on the Publishing 
Committee: Chas. Ellis, S. P. Griflitts, Dr. Benjamin Ellis, Dr. Rob. Egglesfield 
Griffith, Dr. Joseph Carson, Elias Durand, Wm. Hodgson, Jr., Jos. Scattergood, 
John C. Allen, Dillwyn Parrish, Dr. Rob. Bridges, Ambrose Smith, Augustine 
Duhamel, Wm. R. Fischer, Thos. P. James, Alfred B. Taylor, Jno. M. Maisch, 
Thos. S. Wiegand, Chas Bullock, James T. Shinn and Henry N. Rittenhouse. 

During the fifty years of the uninterrupted publication of the Journal, the edito- 
rial chair has been occupied by Dr. B. Ellis from 1829 to 1833, Dr. R. E. Griffith 
from 1833 to 1836, Dr. Jos. Carson from 1836 to 1850, Wm. Procter, Jr., from 
1850 to 1871, and since that time by the present incumbent. In addition to these 
Dr. Rob. Bridges served as assistant editor from 1839 to J ^45> ar *d Wm. Procter, 
Jr., in a like capacity from 1848 until he was elected editor. 

The publication of the journal was commenced about simultaneously with the 
beginning elevation of pharmacy in the United States. Some years previous, in 
1 82 1 , the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy had been organized, and lectures were 
instituted and continued to the present day. A few years afterwards the Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy was organized in Boston, but lectures were not com- 
menced until a more recent date. The New York College of Pharmacy followed 
in 1829, and at once entered the field as an educational institution. The other 
teaching Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States were all founded or reorganized 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1879. 



Editorial. 



SI 



since the formation of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1852, since 
which time also a number of State and more local pharmaceutical societies date 
their existence. Although attempts were made in some of the Southern States 
about 50 years ago, and in New York nearly 40 years ago, to regulate the practice 
of pharmacy by legislative measures, the pharmacy laws at present in force in about 
a dozen States have all been enacted within the last 10 years — since the subject has 
more prominently attracted the attention of the American Pharmaceutical Associ- 
ation. 

The field of which 50 years ago the " American Journal of Pharmacy " was the 
sole occupant in the United States has been considerably extended since then, and is 
to some extent now cultivated by several other journals. The pharmacists who 50 
years ago had no voice in the revision of the Pharmacopoeia, now exert a very 
important influence in the periodical improvement of this national pharmaceutical 
law book. The educational advantages of which 50 years ago but few of the 
younger pharmacists could avail themselves,. are now shared by a hundredfold the 
number. The pharmaceutical literature of North America which 50 years ago was 
in its infancy, and which, in fact, dates its birth with the beginning of the " Amer- 
ican Journal of Pharmacy," is at present well known and duly appreciated through- 
out the civilized world. 

In all these changes the Journal has not been merely a spectator, but has actively 
participated in bringing them about, so that its pages from the beginning form a 
faithful record of the rise and progress of pharmacy in the United States and abroad. 
Its aim will remain unchanged on entering the second half-century of its existence, 
and the editor, while he will continue to use his best endeavors in advancing what 
he conceives to be the true interests of our profession, urges upon the former con- 
tributors to continue, and upon the younger graduates and other members of the 
profession to commence recording their experience in the field of pharmacy and to 
offer them for the good of all. The editor earnestly bespeaks for the Journal a 
continuance of the interest which has been so liberally extended to it before. 



The Pennsylvania Patent Medicine Tax.— -In a report on the meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association at Reading, published on page 360 of our 
last volume, we stated that the Committee on Legislation was instructed to memori- 
alize the Legislature for the repeal of the law imposing the tax mentioned. It was 
stated at the time that in some counties the tax was not collected, and that in fact 
there was no legal authority for collecting it. The matter in the meantime has been 
judicially decided, as will be seen from the following, which we copy from the 
Pittsburg Commercial Gazette of Nov. 26, 1878 : 

Common Pleas No. 2 — Judges Kirkpatrick and Ewing. — In eleven cases 
of appeals from aldermen, where the County Treasurer sought to collect additional 
mercantile license tax from druggists selling patent medicines, the judgments against 
defendants were reversed, the Court holding that the act of 1849, under which 
the tax claimed was assessed, had been repealed by act of 1858, and even if it had 
not been, there was no power under the act to collect the tax. The names of the 
defendants were J. B. Cherry, Emanuel & Maits, Joseph Abel, J. B. Hill, Mans- 
field Foster, Arnold Koch, Charles Schwann, J. T. McKennan, A. F. Sandhill, G. 
R. Splane and Theodore Doerflinger. 

Poisoning by Carbolic Acid.— Early in October last a boy, Helmuth Hartmann, 
of Milwaukee, was bitten by a dog, and Dr. Grasttinger being called in soon after- 
wards saw the patient at 1 o'clock P. M., and prescribed a solution consisting of 
about nine parts of carbolic acid to one part of glycerin. The prescription con- 
tained no special directions, but before the Coroner the doctor testified that he gave 
verbal directions that a teaspoonful should be diluted with a pint of water, and in 



58 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharmr 
Jan., 1879. 



this 6tate applied to the wound by means of a cloth. The mother and a neighbor 
on the contrary testified that verbal directions for the application of the solution, 
but not for its previous dilution, were given. At 7 P. M., the boy became uncon- 
scious ; later in the evening and during the night the doctor was sent for, but did 
not visit the patient until about 7 o'clock the next morning, when he met Dr. 
Schorse who had in the meantime been summoned. The patient died at 1 o'clock 
the same afternoon. The Coroner's jury returned the following verdict: 

First — That Helmuth Hartmann came to his death through the excessive use of 
carbolic acid prescribed by Dr. Grasttinger in treatment of a very slight wound 
inflicted by a dog. 

Second — The jury in this case find that Dr. Graettinger committed a criminal 
offence in not writing directions for the use of the medicine prescribed by him, as he 
was well aware of the poisonous nature of the same, and in not responding to two 
successive calls during the night — not even when he was told that the patient was in 
a very dangerous condition. • 

Revoking a Physician's Certificate.— At the October term of the Cook Circuit 
Court, State of Illinois, an interesting decision was rendered by Hon. E. S. 
Williams, in a case which will probably be a precedent for similar cases also in 
other States, and, to a certain extent, seems to be also applicable to the pharmacy 
laws which have been recently enacted in several States. 

A State Board of Health, consisting of seven persons appointed by the Governor,, 
was created for the State of Illinois, by Act of May 29, 1877. The law contains the 
following sections : 

" Sec. 10. The State Board of Health may refuse certificates to individuals guilty 
of unprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and they may revoke certificates for like 
causes." Section 13 provides for the punishment of any person practicing medicine 
or surgery in this State without complying with the provisions of the Act, except 
that it exempts from the operation of the law all persons who " have been practicing 
medicine ten years within this State." 

The nature of the complaint in the case of Nathan J. Aikin us. State Board of 
Health, and the remedy sought before the court, are explained in the following sen- 
tence, with which the learned judge opens his decision : 

"This bill is filed by complainant, alleging that he is a duly-licensed practicing 
physician in the city of Chicago 5 that he was regularly educated as a physician, 
graduated at the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery in 18655 and that in 
July last a certificate was also issued to him by the State Board of Health as such 
physician, under the laws of the State of Illinois 5 that his practice is of great value 
to him 5 that while holding said certificate he has received from the State Board of 
Health a notice that said Board threatened to revoke his license 5 that the alleged 
cause of such revocation is the publication by complainant of divers professional 
notices in divers public newspapers, which notices are set out in full in complainant's 
bill ; that the proposed action of the Board of Health originates from the fact of 
the publication of these printed notices by complainant, which conduct said Board 
alleges to be unprofessional and dishonorable, but which complainant claims is 
neither dishonorable nor unprofessional within the meaning of the statutes, and com- 
plainant denies the right of the State Board to revoke his license for any such cause, 
and prays for an injunction restraining such proposed action upon the part of the 
State Board of Health." 

We have not the room to give even an abstract of the judge's review of the law, 
his legal explanations and the citing of analogous cases, by which he arrived at con- 
clusions adverse to the complainant's argument and prayer ; we merely give the 
concluding paragraph, which appears to us to be of more general importance than 
the remaining portion of his decision. 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Jan., 1879. j 



Reviews y etc. 



59 



" Inasmuch as the right to practice medicine is a mere statutory privilege, subject 
to be changed at any time by the Legislature, and does not rise to the dignity of a 
contractor of property, there is no reason why such a privilege should not be denied 
to one man and extended to another in the discretion of the legislators. In this 
view, the objection to the law for want of uniformity in its application fails, and to 
this purport are the decisions of The People <vs. Judge of 12th District, 17 Cali- 
fornia, 547, and Cohen <vs. Wright, 22 California, 321, and other cases. 

" The prayer for injunction will therefore be denied." 



Gallate of Atropia. — A correspondent in Texas has asked our opinion concerning 
the possibility of combining gallic acid with atropia to a saline compound. From 
the few experiments which we have made, we believe that such a compound may 
be obtained, though we have as yet not obtained it in an uniformly crystalline con- 
dition. Both articles are slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in alcohol. 
Gallic acid is a tribasic acid, having a molecular weight = 188. The molecular 
weight of atropia is 289. To form a neutral salt, one part of the former would 
require rather more than 4-6 parts of the alkaloid. The combination is best effected 
in alcoholic solution. But even if a salt of definite composition could be readily 
obtained, we doubt its superiority over other soluble salts of atropia, since the 
amount of gallic acid in a medicinal dose of its atropia salt would be too minute 
for exerting any characteristic influence. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRA PHICAL NOTICES. 

Yearbook of Pharmacy, comprising abstracts of papers relating to Pharmacy, Materia 
Medica and Chemistry contributed to British and foreign journals from July 1, 
1877, to June 30, 1878, with the Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference at the Fifteenth Annual Meeting, held in Dublin August, 1878. London : 
J. & A. Churchill, 1878. 8vo, pp. 627. 

The year-book occupies the first 390 pages of this volume, the remaining pages 
being occupied by the lists of members, the minutes, officers' reports, papers read 
and discussions at the meeting. A report of the meeting will be found on page 
504 of the October number, and several of the papers read have since been pub- 
lished in the Journal. The typographical execution and the general appearance of 
the book is in the usual good style which we have been accustomed to see in the 
previous volumes. On page 385 we notice that credit is given for a paper by Mr. 
H. Betz on Sapo viridis, to the Petersb. Med. Wochenschr., 1877, No. 20, while, we 
believe, that the original appeared in this journal February, 1878. 



Medicinal Plants; being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants 
employed in medicine and an account of their properties and uses. By Robert 
Bentley, F.L.S., and Henry Trimen, M.B., F.L.S. Philadelphia: Lindsay & 
Blakiston, 1878. 4to. Price per part, $2.00 

Parts 33 and 34 of this handsome and useful work now before us contain the fol- 
lowing plants: Allium sativum, Lin.; Citrullus colocynthis, Schrader ; Citrus 
medica, Risso ; Citrus vulgaris, Risso ; Coffea arabica, Lin.; Dorema ammoniacum, 
Don ; Gossypium barbadense, Lin.; Prunus serotina, Ehrh.; Saccharum officinarum, 
Lin.; Salix alba, Lin ; Statice caroliniana, Walter; Taraxacum officinale, Wiggers ; 
Ulmus campestris, Lin.; Ulmus fulva, Mich. Most of the plants figured and 
described in these two parts are either indigenous or cultivated in the United States,, 
and both the plates and letter press are as excellently executed as in the preceding 
Darts. 



6o 



Reviezvs, etc. — Obituary. 



( Am Jour. Pharm. 

I Jan., 1879 



Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the year 1877. Washington: Govern- 
ment Printing office, 1878. 8vo, pp. 592. 

This volume contains the report of the Commissioner, supplemented by the 
reports of the chiefs of the various subdivisions and by a number of papers on dif- 
ferent agricultural subjects, among which the following may be mentioned as being 
of more or less direct interest to the pharmacist and druggist : Maize and sorghum 
as sugar plants; the Chinese tea-plant, giving an account of the cultivation and pre- 
paration of tea and of the growth of the plant in the United States, embellished 
with 11 plates ; the olive, advocating the more extended culture of the tree, and 
furnishing some information from South Carolina, Florida and California, where 
the olive is cultivated to some extent 5 the orange, with accounts of its culture in 
Alabama, Florida and California, and other interesting facts concerning its culture 
and consumption, and cranberry culture in Nenv Jersey. 



OBITUARY. 

T. Curtis C. Hughes, Ph.G., died in October, having attained the age of 52 
years. He learned the apothecary business with John Klett & Co., of Philadelphia, 
and graduated at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1847. Shortly after- 
wards he commenced business in Pottsville, where he has been located ever since. 
The deceased enjoyed a good reputation in his county for profession2l attainment 
and uprightness. His thesis on " Uva ursi" was published in the 19th volume of 
this journal, p. 88. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

Class of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

For the Fifty-eighth Session, 1878-79. 

WITH A LIST OF THEIR PRECEPTORS AND LOCALITIES. 



Matriculants. 
Agthe, John Fred'k Oscar, 
Armstrong. William Engalls, 
Atkinson, Edgar Harrington, 
Ballantine, Chas. Hamilton, 
Barrington, Richard Calcott, 
Bennett, Alex. Elwell, 
Behringer, Albert Christian, 
Beringer, George Mahlon, 
Boysen, Edward George, 
Boysen, Lewis Colloredo, 
Brakeley, Philip Fine Howell, 
Brooks, Mitchell Baxter, 
Brown, Channcey Dewey, 
Campbell. Samuel, Jr., 
Carl, Charles Blair. 
Cashmann, Nathaniel Alex. 
Clark, Harry Scott, 
Clark, Robert Jr., 
Clymer, Chas. Wesley, 
Collier, Louis Clay, 
Collins, Thomas. 
Colton, George Haven, 
Courtney, Samuel Walter, 
Crichton, Jas. Alexander, 
Croasdale, Jos. Wifred, 
Crouse, James Norton, 
Cowperthwait, Milton, 



JUNIOR. 

Town or County. 
Salem, 
Philadelphia, 
Dover, 
Philadelphia, 
Mt. Holly, 
Mt. Holly, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Buffalo, 
Buffalo, 
Bordentown, 
Philadelphia, 
Cadiz, 

Philadelphia, 

Greencastle, 

Philadelphia, 

Lancaster county, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Kenton, 

Springfield, 

Philadelphia, 

Richmond, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Camden, 



State. Preceptor. 

N. C. Wm. Simpson. 

Pa. T. M. Perot & Co. 

Del. David F. Burton. 

Pa. E. Jos. Davidson. 

N. J. Louis Miller 

N. J. Geo. M. Snowd^.n. 

Pa. Russell & Newburg. 

Pa. Bullock & Crenshaw. 

N. Y. Dr. O Boysen. 

N. Y. Dr. O. Boysen. 

N. J. Lancaster Thomas. 

Pa. C, P. Elfreth. 

O. W. J. Myers. 

Pa. Samuel Campbell. 

Pa. Adam Carl. 

Pa. James T. Shinn. 

Pa. Chas. H. Clark. 

Pa. E. Jos. Davidson. 

Pa. Barker, Moore & Mein. 

O. Luther B. Tyson. 

N. J. Benj. Carter. 

Mass. H. & I. Brewer. 

Pa. John R. Augney. 

Va. John Wyeth & Bro. 

Pa. Stackhouse & Buckman. 

Pa. J. F. Zoellin. 

N. J. George D. Borton. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

JaD., 1879. J 



Catalogue of the Class. 



61 



Matriculants. 

Chapin, Joseph Allen, 

Dahis, George Emil, 

Daley, Watson, 

Daniels, Adam Clarion, 

Danner. William Edward, 

Davis, Chas. Sumner, 

Davis, Frank Clifford, 

Detzer, August Jacob, 

Dockstader. Wm. Crossett, 

Davis, Walton Elliott, 

Elder Horace, 

Elkins, Charles William, 

Evans, George Bryan, 

Famous, P. H. 

Fisher, George Washington, 

Freeman, Oliver John, 

Fry, Daniel Joshua, 

Furey, Thomas May, 

Gadd, Samuel Wesley, 

Galbreath, Thomas Mullin, 

Geraghty, Martin Peter, 

Gibson, Robert, Jr. 

Glick, George Clinton, 

Goldsmith. George Washington, 

Gosling, Thomas Richard, 

Grimes, Robert Thomas, 

Hallowell, James Alexander, 

Hamilton, Naudain, 

Hanigan, Wm. Thomas, 

Harrison, Francis Edward, 

Hay, Harry Allen, 

Hayes. George Washington, 

Hertsch, Bernhard August, 

Higbee, Charles E. 

Hodgson, Francis, 

Hoffa, John Wilson, 

Holden, Louis Henry, 

Holland, George, 

Holland, Henry, 

Holzhauer, Wm. Christian Emil, 

Hoyt, Franklin, 

Jackson, George Henry, 

Jacoby. Wm. Oscar, 

Jenks, Wm. Earl, 

Jones, Frank Eugene, 

Jost, Washington Wm. 

Kelly, Irving Washington, 

Kern, David Edgar, 

Kerr, Stirling, Jr. 

Keys, Thomas Franklin, 

Knott, Isaac Miller, 

Kooker, John Leedom, 

Krause, John Harry, 

Krell, Fred'k Bethazer, 

Laedlim, Edw. Ranson, 

Lafeau, Albert Henry, 

Lantz, Wm. Henry, 

Lascheid, Peter Wm. 

Latin, George, 

Leith, Clinton Hess, 

Levan, James Harvey, 

Lewis, Arthur E. 

Loos, Fred'k, Jr. 

Love, John Henry, 

Luethe, Amandus Julius, 

Lavenson, Isaac, 

McCambridge, John Edm'd, 

McClintock, Wm. C. 

Madden, Ferdinand Sharp, 

Madison, Joseph Summerfield, 

Maier, John, 

Maits, John Will, 

Marshall, Rush Porter, 

Matthias, Joseph Ingles, 

May, Harry Wm. Daniel, 

Maywood, Fenton, 

Miller. Samuel Warn, 



Town or County. State. 



Greenfield, 

Philadelphia, 

Orange C. H. 

Lyken, 

Bethlehem, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Fort Wayne, 

Dover, 

Shiloh, 

Bloomington, 

Philadelphia, 

Colmar, 

Conshohocken, 

Catawissa, 

Allentown, 

Vineland, 

Philadelphia, 

England, 

Dublin, 

San Francisco, 

Wheeling, 

Catasauqua, 

Philadelphia, 

Germantown, 

Jeffersonville, 

Trinity county, 

Harrisburg, 

Unionville, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Philadelphia, 

Saxony, 

Cleveland, 

Penn Yan, 

Harrisburg, 

Allegheny City, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

New Cassel, 

Philadelphia, 

Mahanoy City, 

Quakertown, 

Philadelphia, 

Warren, 

Philadelphia, 

Pemberton, 

Belvidere, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

New Brighton, 

Germantown, 

Limerick Square, 

Mahanoy City, 

Wililamsport, 

York, 

Bethlehem, 

Pittsburg, 

Dayton, 

Leithsville, 

Philadelphia, 

Scranton, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Milwaukee, 

St. John, 

Ardmore, 

Camden, 

Dunmore, 

Bridesburg, 

Pittsburg 

Princess Anne, 

Philadelphia, 

Egg Harbor, 

Davenport, 

Marietta, 



Mass. 

Pa. 

Va. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ind. 

Del. 

N. J. 

111. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Md. 

Cal. 

W. Va. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Cal. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Germany 
O. 

N. Y. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Wis. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

O. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Wis. 

Canada. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Md. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Ia. 

Pa. 



Preceptor. 

D. I. W. Mease. 
Dr. C. W. Karsner. 
Isaac Tull, 

Alfred G. Stanley. . 

John Wyeth & Bro. 

McKeown, Bower, Ellis & Co. 

Robert Shoemaker & Co. 

Detzer & Bro. 

B. F. Johnson. 

Dr. Titsworth. 

Dr. Wm. A. Elder. 

Lewis F. Segrest. 

George I. McKelway. 

H. G. J. Hallowell. 

Dr. Thomas Hunter. 

James Van Busk irk. 

Samuel Gerhard. 

Wm. R. Warner & Co. 

Dr. Samuel Creadick. 

H. C. Blair's Sons. 

A. F. Colman. 

Logan, List & Co. 

Wm. Heckenberger. 

Wm. Weber. 

C E. Davis. 

Jos. P. Bolton. 

Henry Blithe. 

John Wyeth & Bro. 

H. C. Archibald. 
A. H. Bolton. 
Hamilton Hutchison. 
Keasbey & Mattison. 

, J. W. Dallam & Co. 
Chas. Shivers. 
G. W. Davis & Son. 
Dr. G. H. Markley. 

E. Holden & Co. 
Dr. Charles Tuller. 

August Von Trott. 

A. L. Lumb. 
Reuben L. Jacoby. 
W.J. Jenks. 
Hazeltine & Co. 
Wm. B. Webb. 
Henry A. Borell. 
J. T. Kern. 
Dr. Charles Tuller. 
Dr. Roger Keys. 
Mansfield Foster. 
L. A. Treichler. 
A. G. Coleman. , 
W. A. Cantrell. 
Milton Huber. 
J. P. Remington. 

E. H. Luckenbach. 
Urben & Co. 
Sachs & Pruden. 

J. O. Eberhard. 
Thomas R. Coombe. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
John Wieland. 
Hance Bros. & White. 
August Von Trott. 

F. R. Pershing. 

Wm. R. Warner & Co. 
Lutz & Crothers. 

I. D. McFerren. 
Wm C. Bakes. 
Dr. J. K. Knorr. 
Emanuel & Maits. 

G. A Sanborn. 
Barker, Moore & Mein. 
Dr. Theo's H. Boysen. 
F. Wait. 

H. Gampbell. 



■62 



Catalogue of the Class. 



( Am. Jour. Pharra. 
1 Jan., 1879. 



Matriculants. 

Miller, Wm. Leland, 
Miller, Wm. Moses, 
Wilby, Arthur Robinson, 
Muhlenberg. Henry Melchior, 
Muldoon, Edward Joseph, 
Myers, Charles Wm. 
O' Daniel, Andrew Alison, 
Ochse, Geotge Henry, 
Ogram, Thomas Edwin, 
Opdyke, Wm. Maxwell, 
Openheimer, John Henry, 
Owen, Horace Hildebrand, 
Paxson, Oric Henry, Jr. 
Peters, Henry Eugene, 
Pettit, Louis Clark, 
Poley, Linnaeus S. 
Rinck, Charles Adam, 
Rehfuss, Emil Gustav, 
Reuting, Theo. Wm. 
Reynolds, John Brewster, 
Robins. Howard George, 
Ross, George Redseeker, 
Rottner, August Albei t, 
Sandt, Joseph Peter, 
Saylor, Albert, 
Seiberlich, Albert, 
Shaw, Allen, 
Shelly, Jacob, 
Sherk, Harry Huber, 
Short, Wm. Hurtley, 
Shull, Silas Henry, 
Smith, Wm. Clay, 
Sombart, John Edward, 
Speakman, Wm. Elwood, 
Stathem, Beach J. 
Stamp, James Edward, 
Steltzer, Lewis Joseph, 
Stevenson, Charles Reeves, 
Stout, Charles Pettit, 
Stuekert, Hermon Houpt, 
Swayne, Walter Scott, 
Simes, Washington Lane, 
Tag, Wm. 

Thornley, Wm. James, 

Toplis, Wm. George, 

Turley, George Stuart, 

Turner, Francis Samuel, 

Tattle, Wm. Channing, 

Van Allen, Herman, 

Wallis, John Edward, 

Warner, Frank Stephen, 

Whitaker, Daniel Kelsay, 

Wilgus, Wm. Alcott, 

Willever, Stephen Arnold Douglas 

Williams, Charles Henry, 

Williams, George Eli, 

White, Addison, 

Winebrenner, George Byron, 

Yeakle, John, 

Young, Preston Reuben, 

Young, Thomas Clemson, 

Zaun, Henry, 

Zimmerman, Mason Woodward, 



Aaron, James Polk, 
Alleman, Emanuel Allison, 
Allen, Alex. Bonnell, 
Allen, John Reese, 
Ancker, Louis, 
Ashmead, Alfred Croskey, 
Bancroft, George Hickman, 
Barnes, Thomas, Jr. 
Beale, Charles, 
Beitenman, Wm. Wallace, 
Belleville, Allen Leslie, 



Town or County. State. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Bridgeton, N. J. 

Frederica, Del. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
New Oxford, Pa. 
Oxford, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Media, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Canton, O. 
York, Pa. 
Atglen, Pa. 
Allentown, Pa. 
New Lisbon, O. 
Norristown, Pa. 
Easton, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
TitusvMe, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chester, Pa. 

Lebanon, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Easton, Pa. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Quakertown, Pa. 

Mechanicsburg, Pa. 

Lebanon, Pa. 
Ardmore, Pa. 
Mansfield, O. 
Ottumwa, la. 

Booneville, Mo. 

Woodbury, N. J. 

N.J. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Haddonheld, N. J. 
Florence Heights, N. J. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Norristown, Pa. 

Germantown, Pa. 

Haddonfield, N.J. 

Doylestown, Pa. 

Albion, Mich. 

Ionia, Mich. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Newark, O. 

Newport, N. J. 

Bordentown, N. J. 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Elmira, N. Y. 

Mt. Vernon, O. 

Frederick, Md. 

Norristown, Pa. 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Parkersburg, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

SENIOR. 

Hollidaysburg, Pa. 

Milton, Pa. 

Flemington, N. J. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Charleston, S. C. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reading, Pa. 

Delaware City, Del. 



Preceptor. 

H. C. Blair's Sons. 
H. A. Jorden. 
Dr. B. Whiteley. 

Dr. Roger Keys. 
P. P. Fox. 
George Cooke. 

B. J. C. Toboldt. 
George I. McKelway. 
Dr. W. Opkyke. 

J. M. Stoever. 
Isaac H. Kay. 
James A. Parker. 
L. W. Adams. 
King & Young. 
Dr. F. B. Poley. 
Drs. Moyer & Richie. 
Alex. R. Lawson. 
E. K. 1 hompson. 
Dr. Harrison Dufheld. 
Mortimer H. Bickley. 
Dr. George Ross. 
Dr. A. W. Miller. 

D. E. Becker. 

C. C. Hughes. 

Dr. Charles G. Frowert. 
Dr. R. J. Linderman. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
Dr. J. A. Armstrong. 
S. F. Stadelman. , 
B. M. Magill 
Samuel T. Jones. 

E. Roeschel. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

G. J. Kilbride. 

John I. Gallagher & Bro. 

H. P. John. 

Dr. J. R. Stevenson. 
Leidy Seipel. 
J. H. Allen, Jr. 
Jones & Shaw. 
W. F. Simes & Son. 
L. P. Reimann. 
Wm. Stahler. 
Wm. Conner. 

F. M. Tilton. 
French, Richards & Co. 
A. W. Silsbee. 
George Gundrum. 

Dr. Wallis. 
Gilbert Bulform. 
L. H. Streets. 
J. Frank Wilgus. 
A. J. Odenwelder. 
John S. Ward. 
Alonzo Robbins. 
Baker Bros. 
Wm. S. Bell. 
Atwood Yeakle. 
M. J. Hess & Bro. 

W. W. Moorhead. 
P. Hiskey. 



Frank H. West (dec'd). 
Wm. C. Bakes. 
W. D. Robinson. 
James Kemble. 
George W. Notson. 
A. L. Helmbold. 
R. W. Cuthbert. 
Asa Jones. 
Edmond Seale, M.D. 
J. H. Stein. 
A. W. Test. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1879. 



Catalogue of the Class, 



Matriculants. 

Bellous, Charles Edward, 

Beyer, John Jacob, 

Bicker, Francis Joseph, 

Blankenhorn, John, 

Brakeley, Joseph, 

Bullock, John Griscom, 

Castleton, Edw. Ligou Eroders, 

Carpenter, Fred. White, 

Caterson, Wm. Henry, 

Clapham, Hesser Charles, 

Cochran, Alfred W. 

Costelo, David, 

Cox, Harry Oscar, 

Cravens, Harry Otis, 

Curran, John Prescott, Jr. 

Crawford, Walter, 

Day, Wm. George, 

Deacon, George Frank, 

Diehl, Benj. Harper, 

Dinges, Robert Pitcairn, 

Drake, Theodore, 

Driver, Joseph Benjamin, 

Eckels, George Morris, 

Eyler, Maurice Edgar, 

Eyre, Clarence Preston, 

Fahnestock, Levi, 

Flowers, Hiland, 

Forbes, Wm. Henry, 

Freas, Wm. Kerr, 

Frederick, John Henry, 

Frey, Andrew G. 

Fri'ih, Earnest, 

Garcia, Amador de Jesus, 

Gerhard, Wm. Henry, 

Graham, James Lord, 

Griffin, Edwin Clarence, 

Hallam, Daniel, 

Hallowell, James Alex. 

Hammer, Edw. Howard, 

Harmanson, John Henry, 

Hano, Simon Louis, 

Haring, Henry Gettman, 

Harker, Frank Scott, 

Harrold, Charles Albert, 

Hart, George Franklin, 

Henry, George Wm. 

Higgins, Charles Austin, 

Hoell, Conrad Gabriel, 

Hoguet, Wm. 

Hudson. Leonard Adkins, 

Hull, Morris Albert, 

Humrich, Wm. Beetem, 

Jacobs, Joe, 

Jones, Roland Davis, 

Jungman, Emil, 

Kain, Wm. Wilkins,, 

Kays, Lo'ren Dewey, 

Klein. James Pecor, 

Kelly, Patrick Mulcahy, 

Kelly, Robert, 

Kemble, Robert Hayes, 

King, George Henry, 

Koch, Emil, 

Kohlerman, John Wm. 

Krogman, Joseph Francis, 

Lawall, Harry Clarence, 

Levi, Alex. Benj. 

Lins, John Allen, 

Llewelyn, John, 

Lock, John Herman, 

Longaker, Daniel, 

McComas, Charles Edgar, 

McCullough, Clement Brook, 

McFadden, Eugene Anson, 

McFeeters, Andrew James, 

McKinley, Wm. Samuel Morrison, 

Mangold, Gustav Adolphus, 



Town or County. State. Preceptor. 



Bridgeton, 
Philadelphia, 


N. J. 


Dr. Wm. Notson. 


Pa. 


Vogelbach, Bros. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Wm. B. Bicker. 


Poughkeepsie, 


N. Y. 


Wood & Tittamer. 


Bordentown, 


N.J. 


Lancaster 1 homas. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


Bullock & Crenshaw. 


Houston, 
Poughkeesie, 


Texas, 


R. Cotter. 


N. Y. 


Wood & Tittamer. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Dr. Wm. M. Caterson. 


Mifflinburg, 


Pa. 


John A. Milliac. 
S. W. Cochran. 


Camden, 


N. J. 


Indianapolis, 


Ind. 


George F. Traub. 


Gloucester, 


N. J. 


Dr. Duncan W. Blake. 


Dallas, 


Texas. 


S. S. Bunting, 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


A. Hohl. 


Nazareth, 


Pa. 


R. F. Babp. 


Hillsborough, 


Md. 


George I. McKelway. 


Bordentown, 


N. J. 


Bunting Hankins. 


Quakertown, 


Pa. 


Harry Fisher. 


Lock Haven, 


Pa. 


W. H. Hickman. 


Bethlehem, 


N. J. 


Dr. Willard Wright. 


Darlington, 


Wis. 


James Hillis. 


Mechanicsburg, 


Pa. 


Alfred B. Wenrich. 


Waynesr oro, 


Pa. 


Dr. J. B. Amberson. 


Woodbury, 


N.J. 


John Wyeth & Bro. 


Pittsburgh, 


Pa. 


B. L. Fahnestock & Co. 


Gettysburgh, 


Pa. 


A. D. Buehler & Co. 


Indianapolis, 


Ind. 


Dr. John Smith Forbes. 


Norristown, 


Pa. 


Wm. Stahler. 


Allentown, 


Pa. 


Wm. C. Bakes. 


Mountville, 


Pa. 


D. G. E. Husselman. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Carl D. S. Fri'ih. 


Santiago de Cuba, 


Cuba, 


A. J. Shick. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Robert Shoemaker & Co. 


Camden, 


Del. 


S. D. Marshall. 


Niles, 


Mich. 


Emmor H. Lee. 


Gloucester, 


N. J. 


Thomas Hallam. 


Cal. 


0. E. Hutchings. 


Cleveland, 


O. 


Daniel S. Jones. 


Pungoteague, 


Va. 


Wm. Procter, Jr., Co. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


H. B. Lippincott. 


Quakertown, 


Pa. 


John E. Grove. 


Baltimore, 


Md. 


C. N. Wills. 


Washington, 


D. C. 


F. Brown. 


Wllliamsport, 


Pa. 


Louis Dembinski. 


Camden, 


N.J. 


George D. Blomer. 


Flemington, 


N. J. 


H. Higgins. 


Camden, 


N. J. 


Dr. T. G. Rowand. 


Bristol, 


Pa. 


Louis A. Hoguet. 


Milford, 


Del. 


E. E Hazlett. 


Manayunk, 


Pa. 


S. W. Brown. 


Carlisle, 


Pa. 


H. C. Blair's Sons & Co. 


Athens, 


Ga. 


R. T. Brumby & Co. 


Milton, 


Del. 


C. B. Lowe. 


Heidelberg, 


Germany. C. C. Spannagel. 


Camden, 


N. J. 


Herman W. Miller. 


Scranton, 


Pa. 


John Wyeth & Bro. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Jones & Shaw. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Mellor & Rittenhouse. 


Mifflinburg, 


Pa. 


L. A. Dix. 


Belvidere, 


N.J. 


A. G. Smith. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Louis Koch. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


Dr. A. Nebeker. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Benj. Falkenberg. 


Oatasauqua, 


Pa. 


Jacob S. Lawall. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


C. C. Hughes. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


F. P. Lir.s. 


Johnstown, . 


Pa. 


Peter Paul Fox. 


Philadelphia. 


Pa. 


Dr. Hildebrand. 


Schwenksville, 


Pa. 


V. H. Smith & Co. 


Hagerstown, 


Md. 


James G. Wells. 


Oxford, 


Pa. 


Madison Lovett. 


Hollidaysburg, 


Pa. 


S. C. Snyder & Son. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Wm. R. Warner & Co 


Ireland. 




Trenton, 


N. J. 





6 4 



Catalogue of the Class. 



( Am Jour. Pharm, 
t Jan., 1879 



Matriculants. 

Matthews, Albert Hudson, 
Megill, Watson, 
Menger, Edw. Fred'k, 
Metherington, Thomas, 
Millington, Joseph Thomas, 
Mitchell, Jacob Myers, Jr. 
Mittelbach, Wm. 
Moffatt, Walter Ely, 
Moffet, David, 
Moser, John Hendricks, 
Murray, Bayard, 
Ott, Emile. 
Paris, Edgar Price, 
Patterson, Wm. Renick, 
Payne, George Alex. Woodson, 
Pechin, Wm. Joseph, 
Pennypacker, Nathan, 
Peters, Horatio Gates, 
Pleibel, Charles Fred. Will., Jr. 
Plumer, Wm. S.. Jr. 
Raab, Ernst Philip, 
Radley. Aaron Wm. 
Rapp, Fred, 
Reed, Eugene Lewis, 
Reed, Willoughby Henry, 
Reeve, Walter Sharpless, 
Reichard, Charles Wolff, 
Resag, Charles Edward, 
Richards, Alfred Nathan, 
Roberts, Charles Haines, 
Roberts, Charles Henry B. 
Roberts, Victor Christopher, 
Ross, Augustus Harvey, 
Rudolph, John Mason, 
Rush, Warren Blachley, 
Scliandein, Harry, 
Schimminger, George Wm. 
Siglinger, Charles Jacob, 
Simpson, Moses S. 
Slough, Charles Edward, 
Smedley, Harry Leedom, 
Smeltzer. Jacob Daniel, 
Smith, Augustus Swartz, 
Smith, Henry George, 
Sparks, Alfred Denny, 
Speaker, George Sylvester, 
Sprissler. Theodore, 
Stark, Albert August Gustav, 
Sterner, Oliver Henry, 
Stites, Albert Harvey, 
Stock, Jacob Frederick, 
Strunk, Samuel Wm. 
Talbot, Stephen Liversidge, 
Thayer, Edward Monroe, 
Thomas, Emil Conrad, 
Thorp, Alex. Proudfit, 
Troll, Conrad Wm. 
Turner, Alexander, 
Turner. Curtis Waugh, 
Turner, John Basketter, 
Uhland, John Augustus, 
Vansant, Robert Hays, 
Wade, McClanahan, 
Wagener, Charles Hugh, 
Wallington, Edward Morrell, 
Watson, Charles Wesley, 
Wendel, Win. 
Wessels. John Louis, 
Whiteside, Wm, Elder, 
Whitney, Henry Clay, 
Williams, Fred. Tyacke, 
Wlliams, Wm. Chapman, 
Wilson, Wm. Rufus, 
Witsil, George Edward, 
Woodnutt, Wm. Warren, 
Zaegel, Max Robert, 
Zeller, Charles Frederick, 



Town or County. State. 



Bethel, 

Owensboro, 

Crete 

Philadelphia, 

St. Clair, 

Salem, 

Booneville, 

Perrysville, 

Philadelphia, 

Norristown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Germantown, 

Hillsboro, 

Lynchburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Chester, 

New Oxford, 

Philadelphia, 

Columbia, 

Belleville, 

Easton, 

Mt. Carroll, 

Atlantic City, 

Phoenixville, 

Medford, 

Wilkesbarre. 

Easton, 

Woodbury, 

Philadelphia, 

Salem, 

Camden, 

Philadelphia, 

Washington county, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Dayton, 

Allentown, 

Media, 

Croskill Mills, 
South Bethlehem, 
Allentown, . 
Smyrna, [nut Hill 
Philadelphia, Chest 
Philadelphia, 
Danville, 
AJlentown, 
Millerstown, 
Woodbury, 
Quakertown, 
Boston, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Rocky Mt. 
St. Clairsville, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Lebanon, 
Trenton, 
Christianshurg, 
Lawrenceville, 
Trenton, 
Cochranville, 
Frankfort, 
Bremen. ' 
Philadelphia, 
Glassboro, 
Philadelphia, 
Havre de Grace, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Salem, 
Sheboygan, 
Philadelphia, 



N.J. 
Ky.. 
Neb. 
Pa, 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Mo. 
Ind. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
O. 
Va. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
S. C. 
111. 
Pa. 
111. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 

Germany. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

O. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 
,Del. 
- Pa. 

Pa. 

111. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Mass. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. C. 

O. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa, 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Va. 

N.J. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Germany 
Germany, 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Md. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Wis. 
Pa. 



Preceptor. 

Dr. W. L. Matthews. 
Dr. Henry Megill. 
Alex. Kennedy. 
Wetherill & Bros. 
A B Wenrich. 
James B. McElroy. 
E. Roeschel. 
Dr. T. C. Van Huys. 
John Moffet. 

A. R. Slemmer. 
Robert Shoemaker & Co,. 
L Wolff. 

Charles A Daniel. 
Chas. Shivers. 
Lumsden & Hamner. 
Francis C. Clemson. 
Warrington & Trimble; 
Dr. T. V. S. Quigley. 
Dr. Fred. Pleibel. 
C. A. Rutherford. 
Dr. A. W. Miller. 
E. B. Garrigues & Co. 

H. A. Borell. 
E. S. Reed. 

I. M. Buckwalter. 

H. P. Thorn. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 

E. Mclnall, Wilmington. 
Dr. J. A. C Hanly. 
Joseph W. Merritt. 

I. R. Landis. 
L. M. Bullock. 
Dr. J. S. Everton. 
Dr. Wm. Hargreaves. 

W. S. Throckmorton, M.D. 

Charles L. Mitchell. 

J. W Dallam & Co. 

H. H. Godschalt. 

Thomas Dover. 

C. K. Christman & Co. 

Jones & Shaw. 

F. G. Thomas. 
Val. H. Smith & Co. 
Jos. B. Shaw, M.D. 
S. P. Wright. 
Wm. A. Whittem. 

B. Falkenberg. 
J. N. Marks. 
Wm. H. Rinker. 
J. P. Thatcher. 

Aug. P. Blomer, M.D. 

Stephen F. Penrose. 

Jos. P. Remington. 

J. W. Simpers. 

Hugo Oppermann. 

J. T. Weaver. 

J. Bartley Hoge. 

W. L. Turner. 

F. S. Boisnot. 

R. R. Stewart. 

Dr. George Ross & Co» 

Henry B. Chumar. 

J. E Waddell & Co. 

Fred. C. Qrth. 

Randal Rickey. 

Dr. L M. Pratt. 

,C. H. Risk. 

JohrvG. Baker. 

P. S. P. Whiteside. 

C. H. Kolp. 
H H Rose. 

W. F. Roche. 

Dr C. W. Seary. 
Barker, Moore & Mein. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 
J. A Heintzelman. 
Jos. P. Remington. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



FEBRUJRT, 1879. 





NITRITE OF AMYL. 

By Dr. Wm. H. Greene. 
A paper on nitrite of amyl by D. B. Dott, read before the B itish 
Pharmaceutical Conference and published in the " American Journal of 
Pharmacy," 1878, p. 499, may give some erroneous ideas on the proper- 
ties of amylic alcohol obtained from fusel oil, and the nitrite derived 
from it. 

Theory indicates the existence of eight isomeric amylic alcohols, six 
of which are actually known. They are : 

(1) Normal primary amylic alcohol : CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 .OH 

(2) Two normal secondary alcohols: CH.,-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH.OH-CH 3 methylpropyl- 

carbinol. 

(3) CH 3 -CH 2 -CH.OH-CH 2 -CH, diethylcarbinol 

CH 

(4) Two primary isoamylic alcohols : qjj 3 ^ CH-CH 2 -CH 2 .OH the ordinary alco- 

hol of fusel oil. 

(5) £^j 3 Qjj^> CH-CH 2 -CH 3 unknown. 

CH 

(6) One secondary isoamylic alcohol : qj| 3 ^> CH-CH.OH-CH 3 methylisopropyl- 

carbinol. 

(7) One tertiary alcohol : CH^ C.OH-CH 2 -GH 3 ethyldimethyl-car- 

binol. 
CH C H 

(8) One primary alcohol : CH 3 -^^ ^CR OH un ^ nown « 

(4) represents the constitution of the amylic alcohol of fermentation. 
This compound is definite, and when carefully separated from fusel oil 
by fractional distillation, boils constantly at I32°C. Portions may be 
obtained which when fractionated in an imperfect apparatus may pass 
entirely at 128 to I29°C, but if these be subjected to several careful 
rectifications in a suitable fractionating apparatus, they may be entirely 
resolved into the alcohol, boiling at 132 and into isobutylic alcohol 
boiling at 109 . 

5 



66 



Nitrite of A my I. 



\ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1879. 



However, two amylic alcohols do exist in the fusel oil of commerce : 
one of them is levogyrate and the other is inactive or a mixture of levo- 
and dextrogyrate alcohols, almost impossible to separate, for their boil- 
ing points are very nearly the same. If, however, the mixture be 
treated with sulphuric acid, two amylsulphuric acids are obtained, of 
which the barium salts present different solubilities. 

It has long been doubtful whether these two alcohols were of the 
same or different molecular structure, but inasmuch as the active 
alcohol yields a valerianic acid of which the quinia salt refuses to 
crystallize, while the quinia salt of the acid obtained from the inactive 
alcohol crystallizes readily, it may be fairly assumed that the difference 
is dependent upon chemical constitution. 

The recent researches of J. A. Le Bel 1 have considerably eluci- 
dated the subject. By subjecting the low residues obtained in the frac- 
tionation of propylic (98°C.) and butylic (ioo,°C.) alcohols to fractional 
distillation in a vacuum, he has succeeded in separating the two amylic 
alcohols, grace to the greater tension of vapor of the inactive variety. 

Are we to conclude that the difference in purity of different samples 
of nitrite of amyl is due to the mixture of the two alcohols ? By no 
means, for the boiling points of the two isomeric nitrites would not be 
widely separated. 

But, by whatever process nitrite of amyl be made, it is quite possi- 
ble that its isomeride nitropentane may be formed at the same time, 
and this would raise the boiling point of the product. 

The amylic alcohol which passes after two or three fractionations 
between 128 and I32°C. can be considered sufficiently pure for all 
pharmaceutical preparations, and should the nitrite of amyl made from 
it be of poor quality, a faulty process or carelessness in the rectification 
must have been the cause. 

A very fair yield of nitrite of amyl may be obtained by the action 
of potassium nitrite and sulphuric acid on the alcohol. The potassium 
nitrite may be easily made by maintaining potassium nitrate for some 
time at a dull red heat. It is then heated with amylic alcohol in a flask 
on a water bath, and sulphuric acid, diluted with its volume of water, 
gradually added. Nitrite of amyl distils over regularly with some 
vapor of water. After washing the product with a solution of 



Comptus Rendus. Tome lxxxvii, p. 213. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1879. J 



Nitrite of Amy I. 



67 



potassium carbonate, and drying it with solid potassium carbonate, it is 
distilled and all that passes below ioo° may be retained. 

Perfectly pure nitrite of amyl can only be obtained by many and 
careful fractionations,and would be too expensive for pharmaceutial use. 
It boils constantly at 96 , the boiling point given by Balard, and its 
vapor is not dissociated at its boiling point. Mr. Tichborne's state- 
ment, made some ten years ago and subsequently contradicted by 
Chapman, that nitrite of amyl is decomposed by boiling, is erroneous. 
No gas of any description is evolved during the distillation of amyl 
nitrite, as can be demonstrated by most rigorous experiment. 

It might naturally be expected that there would be a diminution of 
5 or 6 per cent, of the portion passing between 90 and ioo° at each 
fractionation. Ten degrees is a very considerable range, and the very 
fact that Mr. Dott could not get all of his nitrite to pass between 90 
and ioo°, should have indicated to him that his product was not per- 
fectly pure, but it was gradually approaching purity as shown by the 
residue left at ioo°. 

Much time may be saved in fractionating, especially such substances 
as nitrite of amyl which has a high tension of vapor, by the use of the 
Le Bel and Henninger apparatus described in the Comptes Rendus (vol. 
Ixxiv, p. 480), as two or three fractionations will then effect an 
almost perfect separation. 

I have examined specimens of nitrite of amyl from reputable houses, 
and have found boiling points between 70 and 180 . Such products, 
it is needless to say, have never been rectified. The whole result of 
the action has been distilled and bottled as nitrite of amyl. One speci- 
men had not entirely distilled at 220 ; another contained about ten 
per cent, of water, twenty-five per cent, of amyl nitrite (90 to ioo°C)., 
and the remainder was composed almost entirely of unaltered amylic 
alcohol. 

The boiling point of the nitropentane derived from ordinary amylic 
acid is in the neighborhood of i6o°C. I have found traces of it in all 
of the commercial nitrite of amyl I have examined ; and sometimes 
the proportion is not inconsiderable. It may be detected by subjecting 
that portion which passes between 150 and I70°C. to the action of 
nascent hydrogen. Amylamine is thus formed. Commercial amyl 
nitrite seems also to contain very small quantities of nitrate of amyl. 

11.29 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 



68 Orange Flowers and Oranges. {^fIk^™* 

ORANGE FLOWERS AND ORANGES FROM THE 
SOUTHERN STATES. 

By W. B. Rush. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings "January ai. 

Flowers and fruits of Citrus aurantium and of Citrus vulgaris, nau 
order, Aurantiaceae. Anthers, twenty; calyx, five-cleft; petals, five;, 
fruit containing about nine cells. 

This interesting genus is composed of small, evergreen, much- 
branched trees, growing about 15 feet high, and having coriaceous,, 
ovate, shining leaves, and odoriferous flowers and fruits, which combine 
beauty and color with pleasant taste and odor. The leaves are pale 
green and, when bruised, have a very fragrant odor and a warm, pun- 
gent taste. They contain volatile oil. 

Of the eight species of Citrus, yielding interesting flowers and 
fruit, the sweet and sour oranges, limes, shaddocks, lemons and citrons 
are the ones interesting to us. The flowers, which have a delightful 
odor, are large, white and attached by short peduncles simply or in 
clusters to the smallest branches. The petals are oblong, white, con- 
cave and beset with numerous small glands. The filaments are united, 
at their base in three or more distinct groups and support yellow an- 
thers. The calyx is saucer-shaped with pointed teeth. The flowers 
in the several varieties differ in color and odor. The orange flowers 
are of a creamy white ; those of the limes and lemons violet-blue,, 
and of the citrons and shaddocks same as the oranges. The sour or 
wild orange flowers possess the largest amount of volatile oil. 

The writer has had some experience in orange culture, extending, 
over a period of two years, at New Orleans, and closely watched the 
different stages of growth from seed to the full bearing tree. 

In Florida the orange, lemon and lime grow wild and are found in 
abundance. In Lousiana and Mississippi they are grown from the 
seed. The seeds are planted in early spring or in hot-beds in January. 
When one year old, they are transplanted in a nursery arrangement. 
At the age of two and a half years, they are budded, i. e., the seed- 
lings are of the sour variety, and to produce sweet oranges fully ma- 
tured buds are taken from bearing trees and inserted. This is done to 
render the tree more hardy, since the sweet seedlings are subject to a 
root disease called heel, while the sour seedlings are not. Hence,, 
orange growers resort to this means to produce sweet oranges. The 



A % I e°Ci8 7 h 9 arir '} Orange Flowers and Oranges, 69 

trees are transplanted at the age of four years into orchards. At the 
age of six, flowers first appear, and at ten years the trees are called 
full bearers. 

This beautiful evergreen is found in every civilized country where 
the climate is favorable, and in colder countries it is the cherished 
ornament of the hot-house. It flourishes in our most southern limits, 
largely in Florida, and to a considerable extent in Mississippi and Loui- 
siana, south of the lakes. In Mississippi and Louisiana they are 
favored by the lakes tempering the cold north winds. There seems 
but little difference between these States in their favorable localities. 
However, the tree requires delicate cultivation and studied treatment. 
About the year 1816 oranges were introduced as ornaments to this 
country by the French. In 1830 an orange tree in a box, in bloom,- 
brought 400 francs, and about this time some attention was paid by 
horticulturists, and blooming trees in boxes were sold at from 50 to 100 
francs in New Orleans. The beginning of the cultivation of oranges 
for fruit, in the South, dates back to 1848, when numbers of trees 
were planted, but in January, 1856, a cold wave from Texas brought 
the temperature down to 19 F. above zero, and a large proportion of 
the trees were killed. Not much attention was paid to the cultivation 
afterwards until r 867 and '68, and since then orange growing has been 
quite successful and assumed commercial importance. 

The orange family afford the pharmacist two important articles — 
flowers and fruit. From flowers we obtain oil of neroli and orange 
flower water, and from the fruit we have the volatile oil of the rind, the 
juice of the pulp and, last but not least, citric acid. 

As the orange tree is so little known in the North, a brief account 
will not be out of place. Owing to unfavorable conditions in cold 
climates, the beauty of foliage, the very grateful odor of the flowers and 
the delicious fruits are very imperfect in comparison to those localities 
where the trees attain perfection. The fruit, as it comes from Florida, 
is a good representation. The oil which is made from the rind is 
generally less agreeable. The oil of the flowers has only a faint 
resemblance to the odor of the flowers, and the orange-flower waters, 
as usually sold, have but little of the delicate odor of the fresh petals. 
Prof. Remington exhibited a specimen of oil of neroli which, after 
being exposed on cloth a short time, gave the true odor of the petals, 
with some aridity. This was considered, and doubtless was, a choice 



70 Orange Flowers and Oranges. { Am F{K\^ 9 arm ' 

specimen, but other varieties are probably made from whole flowers,, 
branches and young fruit. 

The time of flowering is from the beginning of February until the 
tenth of April, in healthy trees ; unhealthy ones are found in bloom 
sooner or later. The last week of February finds most of the trees, 
blooming. The petals remain on the flowers for about two weeks. Un- 
favorable conditions shorten the time. The humidity of the atmos- 
phere materially affects the flowers — when too wet the pollen heads 
are injured and the secretions are imperfect. Dryness has a similar 
effect on the pollen and nectar, but does not affect the secretion of oil. 
When the temperature is too low, but few flowers are fructified, the 
oil cells are limpid and no nectar is secreted. The most favorable 
temperature is about 68 to j6°F. Under 6o°F. flowers are blighted.. 
When the busy bee is found collecting the nectar, the conditions are 
favorable for the development of flowers and fruit, and then the flowers 
contain their most agreeable odor. 

An ordinary tree will yield from two to ten pounds of flowers^ 
ordinarily about seven. As soon as the petals begin to fall a canvas is 
spread under the tree and by brisk shaking the petals will fall, with some 
leaves, which are easily separated. The time when flowers are most 
fragrant is early in the morning, and late in the day the odor is greatly 
diminished. Prior to the late conflict, negroes collected and sold 
orange petals in New Orleans. A tea-saucer full (about 2 ozs.) was 
measured out, put upon a china plate and set in the room, for which 
the negro received about fifty cents. From two to three plates would 
perfume a room for a week. Orange flowers produced in the extreme 
southern borders are believed to possess a stronger odor and more oil. 
The difference is accounted for in this manner : In the tropics and 
semi-tropics the trees do not begin to bear very much until about 
twenty years old, while in this country they begin at about seven. 
The development is more rapid, the tree more vigorous, and it is rea- 
sonable to suppose a better development of odor in the flower. The 
writer was informed by an orange grower who had extensive observa- 
tions in different countries and fully confirmed this supposition. The 
flowers are more fragrant and the fruit more juicy, but not so sweet 
as in some other countries. 

The pharmacist buys the products of the orange from over the 
sea. That oft used name imported always adds an imaginary value of 



Am Feb U , r i8^ rm } Orange Flowers and Oranges. 7 1 

more than a hundred per cent. It is said to pay the producer of Cal- 
ifornia wines to send his wine to France and, having the label changed 
and translated into French, bring it back here, pay freights and double 
duty, and then realize one hundred per cent, on the transfers, because 
the consumer considers it far superior to our wine. Just so with our 
neroli and the orange-flower water and fruit juices. Almost all the 
crude material for citric acid is imported. This need not be. There 
is abundance to be had in the South. Florida furnishes flowers suf- 
ficient for America for the oil of neroli, orange-flower water, citric acid, 
fruit juice and oils of the rind, and if no misfortune happens to the 
sweet orange plantations, there will soon be fruit sufficient for the 
United States from the first of November until May. 

The writer made several experiments with orange flowers. When 
placed in the direct sunlight, in the course of two days they lose all 
their odor. In diffused daylight they retain it for at least three days, and 
in a dark, humid atmosphere the odor is quite distinct after one week. 
When bruised, they lose their odor in half of the time stated. The writer 
had no means for experimenting as to amount of volatile oil, but he 
believes that the better plan for the pharmasist is to have the petals 
hermetically sealed and to make his preparations direct. 

Orange-flower water is one of the most agreeable vehicles for nauseous 
medicines that we have, and when the pharmacist can make fresh pre- 
parations they will be fully appreciated and the expense will not be greater. 
The syrup of either flower or fruit has no superior, especially the syrup of 
the fruit. A honey collected from orange flowers is very fragrant 
with the orange odor. The flowers, placed in tin cans and sealed up, 
are known to have retained their odor unimpaired for nine months. 
As a perfume they have no equal. To sit under a tree when in full 
bloom is delightful — the fragrance intoxicating. If any one has made 
the syrup of orange from the fresh juice of the fruit and used it, he 
will not want to use any more which is made from simple syrup and a 
few drops of the oil of the rind. 



72 Apparatus Stand. 

APPARATUS STAND. 

Br Alonzo Robbins. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting January ai. 

The apparatus stand shown in the accompanying wood-cut was 
devised for my own use, and a year's constant employment of it has 
fully proved its utility; great strength, with extreme lightness of form, 
is by no means its least recommendation. 




Apparatus Stand. 

Owing to the total absence of unoccupied wall space, I was obliged 
to place it in front of shelving containing small bottles; yet, even when 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 Feb., 1879. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1879. J 



Apparatus Stand. 



73 



the stand was loaded with apparatus, as shown in the engraving, very 
little inconvenience was felt in using the bottles on the shelves.. 

The stand was placed on a semi-circular table 65 inches long, 28 
inches wide in the centre, and 33 inches high; the lower part of this 
table is divided into three very convenient closets, and, as shown in the 
•cut, the top is left entirely free, and may be used as a writing table. 

The table and closets are neatly made of black walnut, and, with 
the stand and percolating apparatus it contains, are rather an ornament 
to the prescription department, besides furnishing ocular evidence of 
the home manufacture of fluid extracts, etc. 

The various parts are all extremely simple, and I have endeavored 
to make the following description of them plain enough to enable any 
machinist to make the stand. 

The clamp is the most important part; it is made 
of brass, and is 2 inches long, ij inch wide and i| 
inch high, with a \ inch elevation opposite the slot. 
The slot is just large enough to allow the clamp to 
be slipped on the iron rods; the clamp also contains 
two smaller holes, bored all the way through, for the 
stems of the rings and the small ends of the rods. 
C ratus Stan^ P " ^ ls fi rm ly m place by means of thumb-screws 

— a separate cut is given showing it more in detail 
than could be done on the large illustration. 

The remaining parts are two iron rods, nine-sixteenths of an inch in 
diameter and 48 inches long ; a i-inch screw is cut on one end of each 
of these rods. 

Four iron rods of the same diameter and 42 inches long ; two inches 
of each end of these four rods is turned down on a lathe to five-six- 
teenths of an inch diameter. 

Two 2J inch circular brass feet, to screw on the lower ends of the 
48-inch rods. 

Two pieces of brass J inch thick, ij inch wide and 7|*inches long, 
with a round hole in one end to slip over the top of the 48-inch rod, 
and a square hole in the other end, through which a screw bolt is 
passed to secure it to the shelf. Should there be no shelving where 
the stand is set up, an L-shaped bracket must be used instead of this 
straight piece. 

The rings are made of five-sixteenth inch iron, and are from 1 to 10 




* 



74 Improvement in Pill Compressing. { ^1™%*^*™° 

inches in diameter; the stems range in length from 4 inches on the 
10-inch rings to 9 inches on the i-inch. 

The stand is to be erected by first screwing the brass feet to the 
table at the proper distance apart, then attach the long iron rods and 
slip the brass brackets over the top; fasten them each firmly to the 
shelf with a screw bolt and nut; next place a clamp on each end of 
one of the 42-inch rods, and attach it to the uprights 2 inches from the 
top; attach another rod in the same manner 8 inches from the bottom,, 
and one at an equal distance between the other two; the remaining 
rod is attached in an upright position to the top and bottom rods. The 
clamps for holding the rings may be put on either the upright or hori- 
zontal rods wherever most convenient; there is also one hole unoccu- 
pied in each clamp used in setting up the large rods. 

I had also a number of circular blocks of walnut wood, turned with 
a half-inch raised edge; these were of various diameters, and were 
used as stands for the receiving bottles during percolation. They were 
secured to the rings by small bolts with thumb-screws/ These blocks- 
also answered admirably as covers for funnels and percolators, the 
small hole in the centre admitting the rubber tube for automatic supply 
of menstruum. 

The rings conveniently hold evaporating dishes and cloth strainers,, 
and the smallest size makes a good burette holder. Any of the vari- 
ous pieces of Dr. Squibb's apparatus stand may be used on the upright 
rods. 

The stand is capable of many changes in addition to those shown in 
the cut, and can be reduced to a single upright rod, a few clamps and 
rings, or indefinitely extended as the needs of the operator may require. 



IMPROVEMENT IN PILL COMPRESSING. 

. By Bennett L. Smedley. 

In the many mechanical aids to the busy druggists, which of late 
years have so greatly lightened his labor and simplified the process of 
preparing remedies in more elegant form, none surpass the pill com- 
pressing machine. 

The complex mechanism at first employed has now been simplified 
as far as is apparently desirable, and pills of varying composition can 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

Feb., 1879. J 



Improvement in Pill Compressing. 



75 



now be made in a form at once compact, small in size, and free from 
foreign matter heretofore necessary to hold the mass together. 




Apparatus for compressing Pills. 

Having experienced difficulty in removing the pill from the com- 
pressor at times without breaking it, I have designed the apparatus rep 
resented in the above cut, a sectional view of which is given in the cut 
below. Its operation being so successful in producing a pill at once per- 
fect and with the least expenditure of power, has induced me to offer a 
brief description of it to the readers of the " Journal. " It can be 
constructed at a small cost, and after the necessary patterns have been 
made, can be furnished for $3.50, exclusive of the compressor, or at 
$6.00, including two sets of compressors for three and five grain pills. 

" A " is a block of hard wood 16 inchos long, 7 
inches wide at one end, tapering uniformly to 5 
inches at the other end. It is 3 inches thick 
throughout. A hole is sunk at a point 2-f inches 
from the smaller end of the block, in its central 
line, to receive the compressing cylinder. At the 
bottom of this hole an iron washer is fitted. The 
depth of the washer is f of an inch. From the 
bottom of the hole a central tube is bored for an 
additional f of an inch, at which point it is met by 
a similar tube bored through the side of the block. 
Through this tube, which slopes sufficiently to per- 
mit its passage, the pill escapes. 

An upright, " B," 4 inches high is screwed firmly to the smaller 
end of the block, and to its upper end is attached by a hinge joint the 
lever " C," 24 inches long. The iron in each one is 1 inch< 




Section through 
Cylinder. 



7 6 Adulteration of Potassium Iodide. { Am > J e b U ^8 7 h 9 ! rm, 

wide, and half an inch thick. The lever is slightly countersunk at 
the point where it touches the head of the compressing rod to admit of 
lateral motion. 

The second figure presents a transverse section through the cylinder. 
" A " is the hole admitting the cylinder, between the upper and lower 
segments of which a pill is shown at u B." " C " is the outlet tube 
emerging at " D." The action of the apparatus is apparent. The pill 
having been compressed, the lever is raised sufficiently to permit the 
removal of the lower segment of the cylinder, when a slight pressure of 
the lever will force the pill from the tube and it will emerge at " D " in a 
perfect condition. 

Philadelphia, January, 1879. 



ADULTERATION OF POTASSIUM IODIDE. 

By C. E. DePuy, Ph. G. 

Not long since a sample of potassium iodide bearing the label of a 
western manufacturer came under my notice, which from its appear- 
ance I suspected was adulterated. 

Its crystals were not of the form so characteristic of a pure drug, but 
on the contrary were of an irregular formation, traversed in all direc- 
tions by deep fissures which enabled them to be easily broken with the 
fingers, while its odor was strong and offensive. 

To more fully determine its real character, I applied tests, with the 
following results : 

Alcohol of the sp. gr. 835 dissolved but about 50 per cent, of the 
salt. 

With tartaric acid and starch no change took place until several 
hours after, when a brownish precipitate was deposited. 

With starch, black oxide of manganese and sulphuric acid cautiously 
added at first produced a blueish tinge, which soon changed to a dark 
brown color. 

With chlorine water and starch a similar reaction occurred. 

With nitrate of silver a copious yellowish white precipitate was 
obtained. This precipitate, when treated first with nitric acid and then 
with ammonia, was placed upon a filter, and to the filtrate was added 
nitric acid in excess, by which means a very small white precipitate 
was obtained. 

By the addition of a solution containing two parts of ferrous sulphate 
to one of cupric sulphate, a dirty white . precipitate was the result. 



Ara F J eb u ) r i8 P 79 arm "} Chemical Notes. 77 

With ferrous sulphate a small reddish flocculent precipitate was pro- 
duced. 

Lime water gave a slight turbidness, while a saccharated solution of 
lime produced a small white precipitate. 

All tests to the contrary proved the absence of other salts than 
potassium. 

From the foregoing results I concluded that the drug under exami- 
nation consisted of a mixture of the iodide, bromide, chloride and 
carbonate of potassium. When upon carefully separating the several 
radicals in the form of Cu 2 I 2 , AgBr, AgCl and CaCO s (operating 
each time upon 10 grains of the salt), I found them existing in the fol- 
lowing proportions : Iodine 3 grains, bromine 3*89 grains, chlorine 
and carbonic acid each traces. 

The equivalents of these, in combination with potassium, being (to 
10 grains) potassium bromide 578, potassium iodide 3*29, potassium 
chloride a trace, and potassium carbonate a trace. 

Chelsea, Michigan, January 12th, 1879. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. S. P. Sadtler. 

New Elements. — On the New Element Philippium. — Delafontaine, 
who had announced last year the existence of a fourth earth in the 
mineral samarskite, now gives a fuller and more exact account of his 
discovery. He names the new element Philippium, after Philippe 
Plantamour of Geneva. Its oxide is yellow, and has a molecular 
weight between 90 and 95, standing intermediate between yttria and 
terbia (YO=74'5, TbO=ii4). Philippium formate is easily crystal- 
lizable and less soluble than yttrium formate. The philippium oxalate 
is more soluble in nitric acid than the terbium salt, less so than that of 
yttrium. Concentrated solutions of philippium show a spectrum con- 
taining a magnificent absorption band in the indigo (>^=about 450),, 
very intense, tolerably broad, with sharply-defined edges, especially 
upon the right side. This band is characteristic of philippium, not 
being found in the spectra of terbium, yttrium or erbium. Two other 
narrow bands occur in the green, of which the more refrangible appears 
to belong to erbium, the other, however, to philippium. A weak band 



78 



Chemical Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 Feb., 1879. 



in the violet (^=400 to 405), attributed by Soret to terbium, the 
author thinks may belong to a new element coming between terbium 
and erbium. — C. 87, 559. 

On the New Element Decipium. — Delafontaine announces the discovery 
of a second new element in the mineral samarskite from North Carolina, 
to which he gives the name Decipium, from decipiens, deceiving. The 
protoxide, DpO, has a molecular weight of 122; as it has not yet been 
obtained perfectly free from didymium oxide, the author cannot say 
whether its oxide is white, though its salts are colorless; the acetate 
crystallizes easily, being less soluble than that of didymium, but more 
so than that of terbium. The nitrate gives an absorption spectrum 
•consisting of three bands in the blue and indigo. The most refrangi- 
ble of these is less broad than that of philippium, is dark, and corres- 
ponds to a wave length near 416, being about half way between G. 
and H. The second band corresponds to a wave length of 478. 
Finally, a little to the right, and nearly to the limit of the blue and 
green, is an appearance of the third. The earths of samarskite, as now 
known, are given by the author in the following tabular form : 



Name. 
Yttria 
Philippia 
Didymia 
Terbia 
Decipia 
Erbia 
Thoria 
Ceria 

— C. R. 



Color. 

White 
Yellow 
Brownish 
Orange 
White ? 
Rose 
White 
Pale yellow. 
87, 632. 



Molec. weight. Wave length of band. 

YO=74*5 (Delafontaine) none. 

PpO=9o about (Delafontaine) 449 about. 

DiO=ii2toii4 (Marignac-Cleve) 572 to 577. 

TbO=ii4 to 115 (Delafontaine-Marignac) 400 about. 

DpO = i22 about (Delafontaine) 416. 

ErO=i3o (Bunsen-Cleve) 52010522. 

Th0 2 =267'5 (Delafontaine) none. 



On the New Element Ytterbium. — Marignac has announced the exist- 
ence of a new element in gadolinite from Ytterby, Sweden, where it 
is found associated with yttrium and erbium. The earth was gotten 
perfectly white, forming colorless salts, and showing no absorption 
bands in its spectrum. The purest preparation of oxide possessed a 
molecular weight of 130-8, so that Marignac assumes 131 as the 
molecular weight of the purified oxide. Its sulphate is easily soluble 
without residue in a saturated solution of potassium sulphate. All of 
these properties easily distinguish it from thoria, which is the only 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1879. J 



Chemical Notes. 



79 



earth which could in this case raise the equivalent of the erbia. Pro- 
bably the equivalent of this latter earth has hitherto been placed too 
high. Taking the molecular weight of the Ytterbia as 131, the atomic 
weight would be 1 15 or 172*5, according as the oxide is YbO or Yb 2 3 . 

—a r., 87, 57 8. 

On the New Element Mosandrum, — J. Lawrence Smith, of Louisville, 
Ky., has sent a sealed note to the French Academy of Sciences, where 
it was read November 25th, 1878, in which he claims priority for his 
metal mosandrum over Delafontaine's announcement of philippium. 
Delafontaine published a rejoinder (C. R., 87. 400) in which he asserts 
that Smith's characterization of mosandrum was so vague that it might 
have applied to any mixture of the earths of this group occurring in 
samarskite, and that September 22d, 1877, Smith had no suspicion 
even of the existence of Philippium. 

On the Probable Composite Character of Didymium. — Since the time of 
Mosander, didymium has been regarded as a single element. Delafon- 
taine, however, after examining the spectrum of didymium solutions 
prepared from cerite and the spectrum of didymium solutions prepared 
from samarskite, finds the latter much simpler, containing fewer lines 
than the former. After comparing this didymium spectrum (from 
cerite) with the spectra of terbium and decipium, he regards it as very 
probable that cerite contains at least one new element, not as yet 
isolated, which would explain the lines not found in the spectrum of 
didymium from samarskite. — C. R., 87. 634. 

Miscellaneous. — Chemical Notes from the Paris Exhibition. — Alum- 
inium^ prepared from bauxite, was displayed in large bars. The price 
was 50 francs per kilogram. Thallium was also shown in large 
blocks, preserved under water, and constituted one of the most inter- 
esting objects shown in the chemical line. Iodine preparations, derived 
from the iodine of sea-weeds, were shown in abundance. A note 
accompanying them gave the cost of iodine as follows : extraction of 
one kilogram of iodine, 2 francs ; purifying the same, 2 francs; total 
cost of one kilogram purified iodine 4 francs. A number of French 
chemical establishments make a speciality of working up the beet-root 
molasses for potash salts. According to reliable information, 18 facto- 



8o 



Chemical Notes. 



An. Jour. Pharm. 

Feb., 1879. 



ries use yearly some 25,000 tons of molasses-ashes from which they 
obtain 10,000 tons of refined potash, which are used in soap manu- 
facture, in flint-glass works and in the preparation of yellow prussiate 
of potash. According to a report made on the ultramarine exhibited 
at Paris, the yearly production of Europe is now more than 10 
million kilograms, sold at an average price of 2 francs per kilo- 
gram. (The blue prepared from Lapis lazuli as late as 1820, cost 
4000 francs per kilogram). — Chem. Industrie, Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1878, 

On the Determination of Nitrogen as Ammonia. — A. E. Grete states 
that he is able to obtain the theoretical amount of ammonia in the 
ignition of nitrates with soda-lime by mixing with the soda-lime potas- 
sium xanthogenate (obtained by mixing carbon bisulphide with alcoholic 
solution of potassium hydrate). This compound, CS 2 KOC 2 H 5 , when 
heated with the soda-lime, yields hydrogen sulphide in statu nascendi, by 
the aid of which the nitrate is completely reduced to ammonia. The 
author has applied this method also to the determination of nitrogen in 
various albuminoids, and finds that for the first time the full theoretical 
amount of nitrogen can be gotten in their analysis. — Ber. der Chem. 
Ges., xi, pp. 1557 and 1558. 

On the Supposed Existence of Chrysophanic Acid in Goa Powder. — Lie- 
bermann and Siedler find that in the drug known as Goa or araroba 
powder, in which Attfield ( u Phar. Jour, and Trans.," 1875, p. 721* 
"Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1875, p. 330) found, along with 2 per cent, 
resin, 5-5 per cent, woody fibre and 7 per cent, bitter extractive mat- 
ter, 80 to 84 per cent, chrysophanic acid, there exists no chrysophanic 
acid at all, but a substance easily converted into it. This substance 
they call Chrysarobin, and give to it the formula C 30 H 26 O 7 . If this be 
treated with an excess of potassium hydrate and air be conducted into 
the mixture, at the same time the chrysarobin is oxydized to chryso- 
phanic acid, the potassium salt of which forms 

— Ber. der Chem. Ges., xi, 1603. 



An, F J eb u , r 'i8 P 7 9? rm } Gleanings from the German Journals. 81 

GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

Cinchotenicia. — On dissolving one molecule of cinchotenia, a deriva- 
tive of cinchonia, in dilute sulphuric acid containing one molecule of 
H 2 S0 4 , and evaporating this solution at a moderate heat, an amor- 
phous residue was obtained by O. Hesse, which, after fully drying at 
I20°C. became crystalline, still apparently consisting of cinchotenia- 
sulphate. If this is heated to 140 to I50°C, or is melted, it will be 
transformed into amorphous cinchotenicia-sulphate, aad still retain 
almost the same weight, but assumes a dark-brown color. By dissolv- 
ing it in water, removing the sulphuric acid by baryta-water, and the 
excess of baryta by carbonic acid, a brownish-yellow solution of cin- 
chotenicia is obtained, which, after treatment with animal charcoal and 
evaporation, leaves dark-brown, amorphous cinchotenicia ; after pow- 
dering, it is yellow, dissolves readily in cold and hot water, alcohol, 
chloroform, diluted acids, ammonia, potassa or soda, but is insoluble in 
ether. Its brownish-yellow, bitter solution in water rotates polarized 
light to the right. It yields the characteristic reactions of alkaloids, 
melts at I53°C, is decomposed at i8o°C, and differs from cincho- 
tenia in being more easily acted upon by boiling nitric acid. — Ber. 
d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 1983. 

Quinia-Carbolate of Commerce, according to the statement of 
Dr. Biel, is alwavs a sulpho-carbolate, as can be proved by melting it 
on platinum foil with soda and saltpetre, when the resulting mass, 
dissolved in dilute nitric acid, will yield a strong reaction for sulphuric 
acid. — Pharm. Ztschr. f. Russl, Oct. 15, 1878, p. 616. 

Substitutes for Cinchona Barks. AUtonia constricta. — The bark 
was analyzed by Palm, who found it not to contain a trace of quinia, the 
presence of which had been asserted. He isolated, however, a bitter 
principle, alstonin^ which is not an alkaloid and not in the least similar 
to quinia. 

AUtonia scholaris, R. Br. — According to O. Hesse, the bark which 
is known as dita bark does not contain 5 per cent, of an alkaloid similar to 
quinia, as alleged by Gruppe, but contains 0'02 per cent, of ditam'w, an 
alkaloid soluble in ether, and another alkaloid, echitamia, crystallizing 
with oxalic acid, and soluble in concentrated H 2 S0 4 . 

A. spectabilis^ R. Br. — The bark is used as a fever-medicine in Java 

6 



82 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am, / e b.%87 9 arm " 

and contains an alkaloid which Hesse calls alstonamia. It differs from 
ditamia principally in being crystalizable. 

Crossopteryx Kotschyana, Henzl., s. C. febrifuga, Afzelius, Nat. Ord. 
Rubiaceae, is indigenous to Abysinnia. The bark was analyzed by 
Hesse, who isolated from 20 grams of the bark 3*6 mg. = 0*018 per 
cent, of an alkaloid which Hesse calls crossopteria. It is soluble in ether, 
alcohol and diluted hydrochloric acid, and does not resemble the 
cinchona alkaloids. — Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 1546. 

Symplocos Racemosa, lotur-bark, indigenous to India, considered by 
Winckler identical with Batka's China californica, was analyzed by 
O. Hesse, who found it to contain 0*24 per cent. of loturia, o*02 per cent. 
colloturia and 0'o6 loturidia — three different alkaloids. Loturia crystal- 
lizes in brilliant, very long, smooth prisms, efflorescing in the air, is 
soluble in acetone, ether, alcohol and chloroform ; insoluble in water, 
ammonia or soda ; melts at 234°C, and completely neutralizes acids. 
Colloturia crystallizes in long, brilliant prisms, from alcohol, and in 
granules from ether, and is not efflorescing in the air ; its solutions in 
diluted mineral acids possess a blueish-violet fluorescence. Loturidia 
solutions have the same fluorescence. The alkaloid forms amorphous 
compounds with nitric and hydrochloric acids, which are very soluble 
in water. The bitter principle isolated by Winckler from the bark, 
and called californin, is considered by Hesse to have been a mixture of 
the acetates of the three alkaloids found by him. — Ber. d. Deutsch. 
•Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 1542. 

Adulterations and Substitutions of Angustura Bark. — Oberlin 
and Schlagdenhauffen publish the following distinction between genuine 
Angustura-bark and other barks used as adulterations and substitutions: 

1. Genuine Angustura bark is found in the market in either nearly 
flat, slightly curved or quilled pieces, pared towards the edges, 2 or 3 
millimeters (about J- inch) in thickness, differing in length and pos- 
sessing a characteristic odor and a bitter taste. The pieces swell to 
two or three times their original size when macerated in water, 
becoming soft and easily divided in a logitudinal direction ; when dry, 
the bark has a short, resinous fracture, and a grayish-yellow or dirty 
white, more or less spongy or compact outer surface, while the inner 
bark is pale yellow, smooth or longitudinally striate. 

2. Nux-vomica bark, known as "False Angustura-bark." — When from 
the stem it is of an irregular shape, covered with a dense, spongy rust 



Am Feb U , r 'i8 P 7 5 arm *} Gleanings from the German Journals. 83 

or orange-colored layer. The bark from the branches is curved, has a 
dark-gray corky layer, from which numerous white warts protrude, and 
comes in solid pieces not pared towards the edges. 

3. Brazilian Angustura bark 1 consists of slightly curved pieces, 20 to 
25 cc. (8 to 10 inches) in length, and 1 to \\ mm. (about ^ inch) in 
thickness. It possesses a lasting bitter taste, does not swell in water, 
is often covered with an ash-gray layer, occasionally with extraordi- 
narily strongly developed warts, and is always marked with longitudinal 
red or black spots on a yellow ground. The inside of the bark is red, 
and has paler, distinct, elongated fibres. 

4. Guaiacum bark. — Flat or slightly curved, very hard and compact 
pieces, 4 to 6 mm. (about \ inch) in thickness, covered with a brown- 
gray, corky layer, partially peeling off, and having a smooth, whitish* 
gray bast. 

5. Copalchi bark. — Long, cylindrical quills, 2 to 6 mm. (^ to -|-inch) 
in thickness, covered with a corky layer, whitish or light yellow, dense, 
hard, compact ; bast reddish-brown, fracture coarse and irregular. The 
odor of the powdered bark is terebinthinous and its taste strong and 
bitter. 

6. Cinchona bicolorata or Tecamez. — Flat, curved or quilled pieces, 7 
to 30 cc. (3 to 12 inches) in length, and 1 to 2 mm. to y 2 inch) 
in thickness, externally smooth or somewhat wrinkled, variable in 
color; the middle layer is cinnamon-brown, the inner surface is longi- 
tudinally striate, and the bast layer very thin. 

7. Bark of Samadera Indlca. — Voluminous, slightly curved pieces, 
having a yellow or brown corky layer and a fibrous bast; the inner 
layer is darker than the bark-parenchyma. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Dec. 11, 
1878, p. 853. 

Adulterated Kamala. — A sample of Kamala imported from India 
consisted of a reddish-brown, heavy powder, appearing under the 
microscope as transparent masses, and of white amorphous and crystal- 
line bodies. It left 79*5 per cent, of ashes, and as analyzed by A. 
Kremel was found to be adulterated with a silicate, very probably red 
bole. 

Another more interesting sample was exhibited at Vienna by Dr. 



1 The bark of Esenbeckia febrifuga, Martius. See "Amer. Jour, of Phar.," 1874, 
pp. 50 and 414. — Editor. 



84 Gleanings from the German Journals. {^'fII^'Jt^ 

Bidier, of Madras, and labelled "Kamala, Rotlera tinctoria, Roxb." It 
was a reddish-brown, hygroscopic, light powder, had a peculiar strong, 
odor, and on examination proved to be merely the dried and powdered 
flowers of Carthamus tinctorius, partially destroyed by insects and 
mixed with them. This so-called kamala contained ir8 per cent, of 
water and left 0/7 per cent, of ashes. Several other samples obtained 
in Vienna were more or less pure, containing from 27 to 4*2 per cent, 
of water, and leaving from 8*4 to 22'8 per cent, of ashes. — Ztschr. d„ 
Oest. Ap. Ver., Nov. 20, 1878, p. 527. 

Chemical Constitution of Rhamnetin and Xanthorhamnin. — 
Derivatives of xanthorhamnin and rhamnetin were made on a large 
scale and carefully purified and crystallized. Comparative analyses of 
these crystals convinced Liebermann and Hoermann that Schuetzen- 
berger's formula for rhamnetin, C 12 H 10 O 5 , is correct, and that his for- 
mula for xanthorhamnin, C 24 H 32 1± , should be changed to C 48 H 66 29 . 
— Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges n 1878, p. 1 618. 

Malabar Kino and Kino'in, a New Constituent thereof.— On 

extracting Malabar kino with ether a colorless crystalline substance is 
obtained, which C. Etti proposes to call kino'in. The same substance 
is obtained in a more economical manner by the following process : 
To boiling dilute hydrochloric acid (1:5) add one-half its weight of 
kino and remove from the fire, when kinic red will immediately sepa- 
rate as a soft mass, which gradually solidifies, while kino'in slightly 
impure will remain in solution. The kinic red still contains some 
kino'in, which may be obtained by repeated boiling with water ; the 
decoctions are mixed, the kino'in removed by shaking with ether, the 
latter evaporated and the crystals of kino'in purified by repeated crys- 
tallizations from boiling water. Etti obtained thus from 1 kilo of kino 
15 grams of pure colorless kino'in, which is nearly insoluble in cold, 
readily soluble in boiling water and alcohol, and has the composition 
C u H l2 6 .— Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., XL, Nov. 11, 1878, p. 1878. 

Extractum Tamarindorum Purum, s. Mellago Tamarindorum. — 
This is an extract concentrated in the vacuo, introduced by Chas. Erba,. 
and highly recommended as a pleasant laxative in the dose of three to four 
tablespoonfuls, and, dissolved in water, as a refreshing drink in inflam- 
matory and febrile diseases. It is a much more elegant preparation than 
the pulp of tamarinds, has the consistence of honey (hence the name 



Am F{ b U , r 'i8 > 79 arm '} Gleanings from the German Journals, 85 

mellago), is clear, not stringy, possesses a brownish-red color, makes a 
clear solution with water, and has a pleasant sweetish-sour taste. — 
Pharm. Centralh., Dec. 5, 1878, p. 459. 

Boracic and Boro-carbolic Lint and Cotton as Antiseptics. — 
Ed. Solger makes boracic lint and cotton, of different strength, by 
saturating the fabric with a solution of 10, 15 or 20 parts of boracic 
acid in 90, 85 or 80 of hot water. This mixture, which usually 
deposits crystals on cooling, is heated to 50°C. so as to re-dissolve the 
crystals before using, and the saturated lint or cotton is applied as a 
bandage before cooling. 

Boro-carbolic lint and cotton is made in a similar manner, using a 
solution of 5 or 10 parts of boracic acid and 2 parts of pure carbolic 
acid in 100 parts of hot water and 5 parts of alcohol. — Ibid., p. 482. 

Preparation of Vanillin from Siam Benzoin. — Chr. Rump gives 
the following directions for preparing vanillin : Two parts of powdered 
Siam benzoin and 1 part of slaked lime are boiled with water in an 
iron kettle, stirring constantly \ the resulting solution of benzoate of 
calcium is filtered, the filtrate acidulated with hydrochloric or sulphuric 
acid, the precipitated benzoic acid separated by filtration, the acid 
filtrate shaken with ether and the ether evaporated spontaneously. The 
impure vanillin thus obtained is purified by re-crystallization from 
water, from which it separates in long, thick white needles, turning 
yellow on exposure to the air. It is very soluble in ether, alcohol, 
chloroform, glacial acetic acid and slightly in cold benzol, crystallizing 
from all these solvents in well-developed prismatic crystals. — Ber. d, 
Deutch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 1634. 

Benzoic Acid Containing Cinnamic Acid. — G. Reichardt examined 
three different lots of commercial benzoic acid, and found each to con- 
tain a considerable proportion of cinnamic acid. — Pharm. Ztg., Nov. 
20, 1878, p. 800. 

Presence of Furfurol in Commercial Glacial Acetic Acid. — 
Victor Meyer stated some time ago that apparently excellent com- 
mercial so-called 99 to 100 per cent, glacial acetic acid, when brought 
into contact with anilin, caused a beautiful red coloration which did not 
appear any more after the acid had been distilled over chromic acid ; he 
now reports that comparative colorimetric experiments have fully con- 
vinced him that the color reaction is due to the presence of about 0*108 g. 



86 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am * E ^Y$T a * 

of furfurol in a liter of the glacial acetic acid. — Ber. d. Deutch. Chem* 
Ges., 1878, p. 1870. 

Phenolphthalein 1 Indifferent to Bicarbonates. — Experiments with 
phenolphthalein, the use of which is recommended when saturating 
alkaline carbonates with acid, convinced Vielhaber that alkaline bicar- 
bonates have not the least effect upon it. — Arch. d. Pharm., Nov., 
1878, p. 410. 

Delicacy of Several Tests for Hydrocyanic Acid. — A. Link and 
R. Moeckel made a series of experiments in order to investigate the 
delicacy of different tests for hydrocyanic acid with the following 
results : 

l. The silver test (precipitation of cyanide of silver). — On the addi^ 
tion of a solution of silver to an acidulated concentrated solution of 
hydrocyanic acid, a precipitate is immediately formed; but if the liquid 
is much diluted it is necessary to add an excess of ammonia before the 
silver solution is added, and to acidulate afterwards with nitric acid- 
No reaction takes place if the hydrocyanic acid is diluted in the pro- 
portion of 1 : 250,000. 

2. Ferrocyanide of Iron Test. — The precipitation of ferrocyanide of iron 
in a solution of hydrocyanic acid, to which one drop of a moderately 
concentrated solution of sulphate of iron containing ferric salt, and 
sufficient diluted solution of potassa to yield an alkaline reaction, had' 
been added, begins to be doubtful in a dilution of 1 :50,00c 

3. Sulphocyanate of Iron Test. — This is the most delicate test. After 
the addition of 1 drop of a dilute solution of soda-lye to the hydros- 
cyanic acid solution, sulphydrate of ammonium is added, the mixture 
evaporated to dryness, and to the residue a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid and of ferric chloride are added. The resulting blood-red color can 
be noticed in a dilution of 1 14,000,000, although it has then an orange 
tint. 

4. Guai a cum- Copper Test. — Strips of white filtering-paper are dipped 
into a 4 per cent, solution of resin of guaiacum and moistened with & 
drop of a \ per cent, solution of sulphate of copper. The character- 
istic blue reaction resulting when brought into contact with the hydro- 
cyanic acid solution takes place, when diluted in the proportion of 
1 : 3,000,000. 



1 See paper by C. W. Drew in "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1878, p. 513. 



Am 'Fe Ci87 h 9 arm '} Detection and Determination of Alcohol, 87 

5. Iodide of starch solution will only yield a reaction with concentrated 
solutions. — Ztscbr.f. Analyt. Chem. t 1878, p. 455. 

Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid in Bitter Almond Water. 
— H. C. Vielhaber uses Pappenheini's or Baedecker's process, which 
consists in rendering a convenient bulk of the water slightly alkaline, 
by magnesium hydrate suspended in water, adding several drops of 
solution or potassium chromate and then carefully solution of nitrate 
of silver (1:10), until the red coloration, indicating the union of 
chromic acid and oxide of silver, no longer disappears. The exact 
quantity of silver necessary for precipitation can thus be observed and 
the hydrocyanic acid be determined accurately. — Archiv. d, Pharm., 
Nov., 1878, p. 408. 



DETECTION AND APPROXIMATE DETERMINATION 
OF MINUTE QUANTITIES OF ALCOHOL. 1 

By J. C. Thresh, Pharmaceutical Chemist. 

That the detection of small proportions of alcohol is a matter of 
some importance is evident to any one who looks through the Year- 
Books issued by our Conference, no less than sixteen papers bearing 
on the problem being abstracted in the volumes already published. The 
analyst desires a test which will enable him to detect with absolute 
certainty the presence of alcohol in essential oils and other medica- 
ments when mixed therewith, and the physiologist requires such a test 
to solve a number of problems relating to the action of alcohol upon 
the system and its presence or absence in the tissues and animal fluids. 
Hitherto no process has been published which is capable of giving cer- 
tain results in such cases, either qualitative or quantitative. 

Probably the best test as yet proposed is that of Lieben as modified 
by Hager (abs. Y. B. P., 1871, 237), which depends upon the forma- 
tion and deposition of crystals of iodoform, when solutions of iodine 
and potassium hydrate are added successively to the warmed fluid 
containing alcohol. This test is said to be capable of detecting 1 part 
in 2000 of water, but I have failed to obtain by it any decided reaction 
with so dilute a solution. Moreover, a number of other volatile and 
non-volatile compDunds yield the same reaction under similar circum- 

1 Read at an Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
Nov. 6, 1878. 



88 Detection and Determination of Alcohol. { Xm 'J™\l%! m - 

stances (e.g. aldehyd, acetone, methyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, volatile 
oils, gum, sugar, lactic acid, etc.). Another general test is Hardy's 
(abs. Y. B. P., 1872, 161), depending upon the production of a blue 
color when guaiacum resin, hydrocyanic acid and sulphate of copper 
are added to an aqueous solution of alcohol, but it is incapable of 
detecting less than 1 part in 150. In the same Year-Book (page 16a) 
is an abstract of a method proposed by M. Berthelot. Benzoic 
chloride is mixed with the suspected solution, the mixture warmed, 
and a little caustic potash added, when a characteristic odor of benzoic 
ether is evolved if alcohol be present. This test is very sensitive 
with a 4 or 5 per cent, aqueous solution, but when smaller proportions 
are present, or the fluid contains other odorous substances, it is quite 
useless. 

The old chromic acid test as hitherto applied is perhaps the most 
fallible of all, since innumerable substances give the same reaction, in 
virtue of their greed for oxygen. A more modern test is that proposed 
by Davy (abs. Y. B. P., 1877, I0 9)> ana depends upon the production 
of a blue coloration when molybdic acid dissolved in sulphuric acid is 
added to the fluid containing alcohol, but Hager (abs. Y. B. P., 1877, 
285) failed entirely to obtain the reaction. Besides these general tests 
a great many others have been proposed for use in special cases ; thus 
Boettger (abs. Y. B. P., 1873, J ^4) recommends solid caustic potash 
for detecting alcohol in ether, and anhydrous glycerin for its detection 
in essential oils. Fuchsin, tannin, anilin red, jalap resin and many 
other substances have also been similarly employed, but scarcely one 
of the tests enumerated, it is worthy of mark, is capable of being 
employed to make even an approximate quantitative determination of 
the ethyl hydrate. 

Some time ago, when examining a solution containing aldehyd, I 
was struck by the remarkable delicacy of the caustic potash reaction ; 
I found that an aqueous solution containing one one-thousandth part of 
pure aldehyd, when boiled with a fragment of solid caustic soda or 
potash and allowed to stand for a little while, exhibited a distinct yellow 
color. If a solution containing *5 per cent, of aldehyd be thus treated, 
the liquid becomes deep yellow, and a flocculent yellow precipitate 
gradually subsides, and this solution when diluted first with a little 
alcohol and then with 50 volumes of water still exhibits a yellow tint 



Am > J e ° b ^- I ^ arm } Detection and Determination of Alcohol. 89 

when examined in a long test tube over a sheet of white paper or a 
porcelain slab. 

I then commenced a series of experiments, having for their object 
the detection of minute quantities of alcohol by converting it into 
aldehyd, and treating the resulting solution wijh caustic alkali. After 
making a great number of attempts I succeeded in devising a method 
which is not only reliable as indicating with certainty the presence of 
alcohol, but which within certain limits gives fairly approximate quan- 
titative results. 

Distillation with sulphuric acid and permanganate of potash was first 
tried and it was found that with a given proportion of permanganate a 
•1 per cent, solution of alcohol could readily be detected, but with even 
a slight excess of permanganate the results were entirely negative. 
Other oxidizing agents were then tried, and bichromate of potash 
found to be the most reliable, since an excess, unless large, did not 
materially decrease the yield of aldehyd. Still the quantitative results 
obtained from the same solution varied very considerably, and for some 
time the cause was apparently inexplicable. At length, noticing that 
when the determinations were very low considerable bumping took 
place during the distillation, several substances w'ere added to obviate 
this, and it was found that when a few small pieces of pumice were 
placed in the flask the distillation proceeded evenly and the results were 
remarkably uniform. Fresh pumice must be used for each distillation. 
For an aqueous solution containing from "04 to '4 per cent, of alcohol 
the following method may be relied upon for quantitative determina- 
tions, whilst it will detect with certainty *oi per cent., or 1 in 10,000. 
When the quantity of alcohol present differs much from the proportion 
here given the determination is too low, becoming more and more 
unreliable as the* percentage rises above or falls below these limits. 

The requisites are a saturated solution of bichromate of potash, a 
•dilute sulphuric acid (B. P. acid and water, equal quantities), a syrupy 
solution of caustic soda, methylated spirit free from aldehyd, a 200 
cc. flask with good condensing arrangement attached, and a long narrow 
test tube graduated to 3 and 23 cc. 

One hundred cc. of the dilute alcohol are placed in the flask, 2 cc. 
of bichromate solution, 8 cc. of the dilute acid, and a few pieces of 
pumice are added and 20 cc. distilled (not too rapidly), and the distillate 
conveyed by a long tube to the bottom of the test tube in which has been 



9° 



Detection and Determination of Alcohol { Am F J e b u ^ arm 



previously placed 3 cc. of the soda solution. The liquid in the tube is then 
heated, kept at the boiling point for a few seconds and placed aside for 
a couple of hours. If *i per cent, of alcohol was contained in the 
original solution the contents of the test tube will be of a deep yellow 
color, and will have deposited flocks of aldehyd resin ; with '05 per 
cent, no resin is formed, but the fluid is deep yellow and perceptible 
opalescent ; with *oi per cent, the color is just perceptible, but the 
characteristic odor is still very distinct. To make a more accurate 
determination dilute 1 part of pure aldehyd with 200 of water, to this 
add 30 parts of the caustic soda solution and treat in the same way as 
the above distillate. After the lapse of two hours (the reaction not 
being complete for nearly this length of time) dilute with 200 parts of 
warm methylated spirit and add water to 500 parts. This solution is 
quite clear and of a reddish-yellow color and will keep for some time,, 
especially if not exposed to the light. Mix 5 cc. of this solution with 
45 cc. of water in a glass such as is employed for nesslerizing, 
and take this as a standard solution. It does not keep more than 
two or three hours, hence fresh standards must be from time to 
time prepared, or a solution of bichromate of potash made of equal 
depth of color (the tint being almost identical) and kept as a 
standard of reference. To make the quantitative determination, 
dilute the distillate with sufficient warm spirit to make a clear solu- 
tion and add water to 50 cc. Upon ascertaining the quantity of thi 
solution, which must be diluted with water to 50 cc. to bring the 
depth of color to that of the standard solution, the percentage of 
alcohol in the original solution is immediately known. The following 
are fair specimens of the results obtained : 

Strength of Alcoholic Solution. 



02 per cent 
1 " 



Strength calculated from result 
of experiments. 

OI2 

089 

I 

088 
092 
166 
208 

039 
170 
.308 



(3 cc. K 2 Cr 2 7 Sol.) 

Having ascertained the reliability of the method, where the alcohol 



Ar 



Fib u , r "if 7 9? rm } Detection and Determination of Alcohol 91 



was diluted with water only, the effect of the presence of other sub- 
stances was tried. Stiideler has shown that albumin, fibrin, gelatin, 
and lactic acid, yield a trace of aldehyd when treated with sulphuric 
acid and bichromate of potash, or peroxide of magnesia, hence these 
compounds must be removed from solution before the test is applied. 
No substances, with these exceptions, besides the ethyl compounds 
are known to yield aldehyd when thus treated. Various essential 
oils, chloroform, amyl alcohol, etc., were shaken with water and the 
solution distilled with these oxidizing agents, but no yellow color was 
produced. The distillate from clove water was pink, but when *i per 
cent, of alcohol was added the pink tint was quite overpowered by the 
yellow color of the aldehyd resin produced. Ether of course yields 
aldehyd when oxidized, hence this test will not serve to detect alcohol 
in ether. To detect alcohol in essential oils and chloroform, agitate 
the sample with an equal quantity of water, and when the aqueous 
solution has become clear, remove with a pipette and distil with the 
bichromate and acid. *5 per cent, is thus easily detected. The sub- 
joined table gives the results of several quantitative experiments. Four 
cc. of the substance examined were shaken vigorously with 8 cc. of 
the dilute acid and 92 cc. of water, and when clear 50 cc. of the 
acid liquid placed in a flask and distilled with a sufficient quantity of 
bichromate. Ten cc. of distillate are collected in a tube containing 
2 cc. of soda solution and boiled, diluted and nesslerized. 

Name, etc. Q ^TWn Bi ^ r ° mate Result. 

' bolution added. 

Oil of Lemons, . . . . 2 cc. . none. 

" " with 5 p. c. alcohol, . 2 " • 3-6 p. c 

" Rosemary with 5 p. c. alcohol, 2 " . 3-9 " 

" Bergamotte, . . 2 " • none. 

" " with 10 cc. alcohol, 2 " . 97 p. c 

" Lavender, English, . . 3^ " . none. 

" Foreign, . . . 3 £ " . 3 6 p. c 

" " " with 2^ p. c. alcohol, 3^ " . 6-3 " 

" " " washed, . . 3^ " . none. 

A Pure Chloroform, . . . 2 " . a trace. 

" " with 5 p. c. alcohol, . 2 " 4-2 p. c. 



with 1 '* " . 2 " . -92 



The oil of lavender (exot.) was undoubtedly adulterated, since after 
being washed with water, and examined, no reaction was obtained, 



92 Detection and Determination of Alcohol { Am i™'$g rm ' 

Deducting 3*6 from 6*3, we have 2*7 as the percentage of alcohol 
added. 

Alcohol is said not to suffer decomposition in presence of pure water. 
To confirm this, a sample of well boiled water had *i per cent, of 
alcohol added, and determinations made daily. After ten days the 
quantity of alcohol was found undiminished. An impure tank water, 
to which -i per cent, of alcohol had been added, did not contain a trace 
twenty-four hours afterwards. The presence of decaying organic 
matter of all kinds has this effect, and no doubt this reaction is in some 
degree a measure of the quality of awater. 

Rajewsky (Pfluger's "Archiv," xi., 122, "Abs. Y. B. P.," 1876, 125) 
when investigating the action of alcohol upon the system, its passage 
into the brain and muscle, and the length of time which it remains 
there, came to the conclusion that the iodoform test is either not appli- 
cable to the detection of alcohol in the tissues or that alcohol is a nor- 
mal constituent of brain and muscle. I have applied the aldehyd 
test to a number of infusions of fresh muscle, or rather to the distil- 
late from this infusion, but have failed to detect the slightest trace of 
alcohol. 

The chromic acid reaction is still often quoted as a test for alcohol 
in the urine, but as shown by Chaumont (abs. Y. B. P., 1885, 147) 
the test is not to be relied upon even when applied to the distillate. 
A number of experiments were tried with various samples of urine, 
with and without the addition of alcohol. By adding a sufficient quan- 
tity of bichromate to oxidize all the oxidizable matter present in the 
urine good quantitative results were obtained. By distilling the urine 
and estimating the alcohol in the distillate, the results were all much 
too low, but when about a gram of ferrous sulphate was added to the 
urine previous to distillation, the results were much more approximate. 
Should the urine contain albumen it must be distilled and the distillate 
examined, but otherwise equally good results are obtained without dis- 
tillation. After partaking of an alcoholic fluid, distinct traces of alco- 
hol are found in the urine two hours afterwards. The quantity (after 
taking 12 cc. of absolute alcohol) in the urine two hours after was 
about 02 per cent., and about the same proportion was found ten 
hours afterwards, and traces were present for upwards of twenty-four 
hours. Forty hours after no alcohol could be detected. From the 
quantity of urine excreted, the results of two determinations went to 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb , 1879. j 



Aceto-Nitrate of Iron, 



show that not more than *J per cent, of the alcohol taken passes in 
the urine unchanged. 

By concentrating fluids supposed to contain alcohol by one or more 
distillations, exceedingly minute traces can be detected by this pro- 
cess, especially if only one-tenth instead of one-fifth be distilled. — 
Pharm. Jour, and Trans., Nov., 1878. 



PRELIMINARY NOTE ON ACETO-NITRATE OF IRON 
AS A MEDICINAL AGENT. 1 

By John Williams. 

Some few years back, M. Scheurer-Kestner ("Ann. Chim. et Phy- 
sique," third series, vol. lxiii, p. 422, and Watts' " Chemistry," first 
suppl., p. 11) pointed out the existence of a series of salts, formed by 
the combination of peracetate and pernitrate of iron. The descrip- 
tion given of these salts is not very clear or definite, and would lead 
one to suppose that the compounds formed by the union of these two 
salts of iron were so readily decomposable as to preclude any hope of 
utilizing them for commercial or therapeutic purposes. Still these 
salts, if they could be readily prepared, promised to be of such ser- 
vice that it was determined to make some experiments to settle that 
question, and I am indebted to my friend Mr. Miles Smith for sug- 
gesting and undertaking the work of preparing these salts and investi- 
gating the nature of the products obtained. 

Various processes are mentioned by Mr. Kestner for producing these 
salts. > The addition of a strong solution of acetate of iron to one of 
nitrate, the addition of nitric acid to solution of acetate, or of acetic 
acid to a solution of the nitrate, or the solution of hydrated ferric 
oxide in a mixture of the two acids, and one or two other processes 
are named, and, according to the author, yield salts of varying consti- 
tution, and named by him respectively mono-, di-, tri- and tetraceto 
dinitrate of iron. He, however, mentions that the tetraceto salt, 

f(C 2 H 3 0) 4 

having the composition Fe 2 < NO s +4 aq., crystallizes in hard,, 

(HO 

shining, red-brown rhombic prisms, and is less deliquescent than the 
other acetonitrates. 

1 Read at the Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
Dec. 4, 1878. 



94 



Aceto-Nitrate of Iron, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1879. 



Now, in the course of the experiments I am about to describe various 
salts, having different tints of color, some being nearly black and having 
various degress of deliquescence, have doubtless been obtained, and 
may very probably be the salts having the various composition attributed 
to them by Mr. Kestner, and I must admit that no attempt to analyze 
them has as yet been made by me. But, upon recrystallization, the 
various salts all appeared to yield one and the same salt as the final 
product, and this leads me to suspect that the various salts named may 
in reality be one in a more or less impure condition. Of course, I 
should be very sorry to express a positive opinion upon this matter with- 
out making many more experiments and analyses, and it is proper I 
hould mention that the experiments we have in hand are at present in 
a very unfinished state. Still, I am bound to repeat that, as far as I 
can judge with my present knowledge, we appear always to obtain one 
definite salt by the recrystallization of any of the others. 

Perhaps the best mode of forming the acetonitrate of iron is to dis- 
solve bydrated ferric oxide, which must be quite recent and well 
washed, in a mixture of glacial acetic and nitric acids, in which the 
acetic acid is in considerable excess (say two or three parts to one); 
the hydrated oxide contains sufficient water to dilute the solution, and 
the oxide must be added slowly so as to avoid very great elevation 01 
temperature. The solution so formed in 24 hours deposits a quantity 
of the double salt, in hard, well-formed crystals. These, drained from 
the mother-liquor can be dissolved in a small quantity of warm (not 
boiling) water, strained if necessary, and allowed to crystallize. The 
crystals so deposited have all the characters assigned to the tetracetodi- 
aitrate of iron, and I assume may be fairly taken as being represented 
by the formula given for that compound. 

I find these crystals are not by any means so easily decomposed as 
the original description would lead one to infer ; on the contrary, they 
•ire quite permanent, and so slightly deliquescent that they can readily 
be kept in paper for several days without spoiling. 

They are very soluble in water, in the cold or gently warmed, but 1 
find the solution of the salt is decomposed by boiling, basic compounds 
being deposited which cannot afterwards be got into solution. It is 
also freely soluble in alcohol, but practically insoluble in ether. 

The various solutions of this salt have a pure styptic taste, quite free 



Am. Jour. Pharm > 

Feb, 1879. 1 



Aceto-Nitrate of Iron, 



95 



from acidity, and not by any means as disagreeable as the tincture of 
the perchloride. 

Unfortunately, a difficulty attends the keeping of solutions of this 
salt, which, up to the present time, I have not succeeded in overcom- 
ing. Both the aqueous and alcoholic solutions are liable to gelatinize 
after being kept a few days or weeks. Tinctures made with absolute 
alcohol, rectified spirit and proof spirit equally pectized after a time. I 
thought a tincture made with equal parts of rectified spirit and water 
was successful, but it went at last very suddenly and apparently with- 
out cause, it having been liquid in the morning and a jelly in the after- 
noon. I am still trying the effects of spirit of various strengths, in 
hope of obtaining a solution which will prove permanent. The addi- 
tion of free acetic acid, I may mention, has also been tried, but did not 
prove effectual. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Holmes, I have lately made a solution in 
dilute glycerin: 1 oz. of glycerin, 3 ozs. of water and 2 drachms of 
nitro-acetate. The solution is perfect, and up to the present time has 
kept well, and I think promises to be a success, but what effect the 
glycerin might have upon the medicinal properties of the salt I am 
unprepared to state. I should add that the tinctures I have been 
experimenting upon were all made of the strength of 1 oz. troy of the 
crystallized salt to the pint (imperial). This, I calculated, would about 
represent the strength of the tinct. ferri acetatis of the Pharmacopoeia. 

There is no doubt, I think, that this curious compound, the nitro 
acetate of iron, imperfect as it may be in some respects, may probably 
be used with advantage in medicine. There has been a want, long felt, 
of a definite, crystallized, non-deliquescent per-salt of iron, and the 
present salt could be administered in the form of pills with facility, and 
also in mixtures when the medicine is not intended to be kept long, 
but taken within a few days of being dispensed. There is also prob- 
ably an advantage in the fact of the salt containing a large proportion 
of an organic acid and only a small quantity of a mineral one, and 
we should be able to get over the difficulty of keeping a solution suited 
for dispensing purposes, I think the compound would prove of very 
considerable use as a medicinal agent. 

Although the experiments I have described may be considered to 
have resulted in failure as far as a very essential point is concerned, still 
I trust the subject will prove to have sufficient interest to excuse my 
bringing the matter before the Society in its present incomplete form. 
— Pharm, Journ. and Trans., Dec. 7, 1878. 



96 Linimentum Terebinthina Aceticum. ^Ve^is^""' 

LINIMENTUM TEREBINTHINiE ACETICUM. 

By W. Symons, F.C.S. 

In a short paper read at the Bristol meeting of the Pharmaceutical 
Conference in 1875, 1 I suggested an improved method of preparing the 
above liniment, which attracted more attention than J anticipated. The 
object of the paper was not so much to give an exact formula in the 
place of that in the Pharmacopoeia as to point out a way in which a. 
perfectly clear and stable liniment may be prepared, instead of the very 
unsatisfactory one in the Pharmacopoeia. 

Having been desired to suggest a formula as near the Pharmacopoeia 
liniment as possible for dispensing, my attention has again been called 
to the subject. The first proposed formula in my paper was— 

No. 1. 

Glacial Acetic Acid, . . . .1 part. 

Spirit of Camphor, . . , . 2 parts.. 

Castor Oil, . . . . .1 part. 

Turpentine, ..... 2 parts. 

Mixed in the above order. 

The second was — 

No. 2. 

Liniment of Camphor, . . . .2 parts. 

Castor Oil, . , . . 2 " 

Turpentine, . . . . 2 " 

Glacial Acetic Acid, . . . . 1 part. 

The castor oil, however, in this formula is unnecessary, and a clear 

and stable liniment may be made as follows : 

No. 3. 

Turpentine, . ; . . .3 paits. 

Liniment of Camphor, . . . 3 " 

Glacial Acetic Acid, . , . 1 part. 

This may be said to be identical with the Pharmacopoeia liniment, 
minus 2 parts of water, for as, according to the Pharmacopoeia, glacial 
acetic acid contains 84 per cent, of anhydrous acetic acid, while the 
B. P. acetic acid contains 28 per cent., it is assumed to be near enough 
to the truth for the purpose of this paper to speak of B. P. acetic acid 
as containing one part glacial acid and 2 parts water. The Pharmaco- 
poeia liniment will thus contain 1 part in 9 of glacial acid, while No. 3 
will contain 1 part in 7, although the proportion of glacial acid to the 
turpentine and camphor will be identical in each. 

Should it be thought desirable to have in the liniment exactly the 



1 See " Amer. Jour. Phar., 11 1875, P- 54°- The " turpentine " in the formulas is. 
intended for " oil of turpentine. " — Ed. A. J. Ph. 



Am fi°b U , r 'i8 P 7 9 arm '} Linimentum Terebinthina Aceticum. 97 

same proportion of acetic acid as in the Pharmacopoeia, i. *.,in relation 
to the whole quantity of liniment, the formula would be — 

No. 4. 

Turpentine, . . . . .4 parts. 

Liniment of Camphor, . . 4 " 

Glacial Acetic Acid, . . . .1 part. 

Should spirit be considered a desirable ingredient of the liniment, of 
course No. 1 may be adopted, but it will be perceived that the propor- 
tion of glacial acid in this formula is 1 in 6. If this be thought too 
much, the following may be a satisfactory formula : 

No. 5. 

Glacial Acetic Acid, . . . .1 gart. 

Spirit of Camphor, .... 3 parts. 

Castor Oil, . . . . . 2 " 

Turpentine, . . . . 2 " 

Mixed in the above order. 

Of course it is a medical rather than a pharmaceutical question as to 
which of the above formulae may be the best, but as it has been stated 
to me that it is not desirable to increase the proportion of acetic acid, 
I should say that No. 4 is the preferable one. 

It may be well to say that the above liniments were made with glacial 
acetic acid from a respectable London house, labelled " solid at 50 ," 
but which has actually crystallized at 5 2°, and the crystals have not 
completely dissolved in a day in a temperature of 58 to 62 , so that 
it is stronger than the Pharmacopoeia acid, which " crystallizes when 
cooled to 34 , and remains crystalline until the temperature rises to 
above 48 ." On mixing only 5 per cent, of acetic acid, B. P., with 
the above acid, none of the above formulae gave satisfactory results. 

Probably it may be said that no simpler or more quickly applied test 
of the strength of glacial acetic acid has hitherto been suggested than 
the making of this liniment. With regard to the point of crystalliza- 
tion, and as an illustration of the apparent anomalies so fully discussed 
by Mr. Tomlinson in his paper on " Supersaturation," I have had the 
same glacial acetic acid in a similar bottle, exposed during a night to a 
temperature of 49 without crystallizing : but on dropping in a crystal 
it was at once converted into a solid mass. 

Has not this subject also some bearing on the discussion as to the 
solubility of Magnesium sulphate as contrary to Mr. Brown's experi- 
ence ? I do not find Howard's magnesium sulphate even remain in 
solution in its own weight of distilled water at 6o°. — Pharm. your, and 
Trans., Dec. 21, 1878. 

7 



9 8 



The Geysers of California. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Feb., 1879. 



THE GREAT GEYSERS OF CALIFORNIA. 1 

By Richard V. Mattison, Ph.G. 
Of aU the wonders nature has so bountifully lavished on the Golden State, there 
is not one so interesting to an Eastern druggist or chemist as the great geyser region. 
There is something even terrifying in its indescribable grandeur in the Valley of 
the Yosemite, a feeling of awe overcoming us as we gaze far above us at the verdant 
domes of the gigantic Sequoias, nor does the kelp -fringed shores of the Pacific 
lack appreciation ; but all lack the soul-absorbing interest one takes in the chemical 
refuse of the Pluton canon. We reach it by stage from Cloverdale, winding six- 
teen miles along through the canon, crossing and re-crossing the Arroyo Piscaro, 
which the ^ers, or some more modern ranchmen, have rather freely translated to 
" Pluton Creek " Passing through the canon — one of the most beautiful we have 
ever seen — we reach, after a few hours' ride, the junction with Geyser canon, which 
is situated in a spot of rare loveliness. Upon either side are mountains shutting off 
the view in any direction, while at our feet rushes the rapid stream so famous foi 
its speckled beauties. As we cross the rustic bridge of logs and gain entrance 
to the Geyser trail, there flashes over us the thought that we have been there in years 
gone by. Yes, it is the same familiar odor with which we long ago became 
acquainted, while a student in the laboratory of the College of Pharmacy, the 
fumes of hydrogen sulphide, sulphurous acid, etc , make a combination which to 
become once acquainted with is to .always remember. The earth beneath us is 
white, as if we were treading the vicinity of an ancient lime kiln, and as we pass up 
the canon amidst the rumbling and roaring of the escaping steam, we fancy our- 
selves either treading the refuse of a large chemical laboratory or surrounded by the 
many-colored productions of a paint and color mill; and such, in truth, it is,. or 
rather was, for a legend still remains that, as the gallant brave resorted here to pro- 
cure his war paint, so the coy maiden of the Digger tiibe came also to touch her 
dusky cheeks with the rouge of nature's manufacture. On either hand, the banks 
stretch away up the mountain side and we place a hand on the hot vermillion, which 
tints the face of the serpentine cliff whose cheeks are now too pale from the mag- 
nesium salts so abundantly strewn around. In front of us is a grotto lined with the 
long, silky, asbestos-like needles of magnesium sulphate, the floor is carpeted with 
the ferrous salts, the green tint of which is relieved by the yellow and brown of the 
ferric compounds and the cerulean of the copper salts. Alum crystals are on 
every hand, and as we touch our lips to the waters of the boiling stream at our feet, 
we think the taste as familiar as was the odor upon our first entrance 5 it is that of 
ammonio-ferric ajum, though here the salt is a magnesio-ferric one. The rock 
formation of the whole region is a mixture of stratified and igneous varieties, the 
cinnabar occurs here, as it does usually, in veins among the serpentine} iron and 
copper, as usual, exist with it and, as the whole undergoes decomposition, the 
imagination must picture the various tints. A few paces in front is a circular basin 
about twelve feet in diameter, where the water boils unceasingly year after year. 
It is called the Witch's Cauldron, and we cooked eggs in it after three minutes 
exposure} just beyond, the steam issues forth in a stream of some six inches diam- 
eter with the regular puff! puff!! puff!!! of an exhaust pipe from an ordinary 



l Read at the Alumni Meeting, January 2d. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1879. J 



The Geysers of California. 



99 



•engine. Some idea of the strength of this discharge may be had from the fact that 
a stout Alp-stick, weighing six pounds, was repeatedly raised from eight to twelve 
inches by the violence of the puff and thrown to one side, while a handkerchief 
was carried fully ten feet by the violence of the discharge. Under our feet, and 
<upon every side, are numerous apertures called " blow-holes," from which the 
steam issues with varying force. Most of these blow-holes are lined with the most 
perfect crystals of the purest sulphur in needle-shaped, oblique, rhombic prisms 5 
■steam issues from every side, and, in the early morning, in many places it is scarcely 
possible to obtain secure footing upon the slippery rocks, so en-veloped are we in 
clouds of steam, while the heat is intense and the ground rumbles beneath our feet, 
■reminding us of the stamp mills of the quartz mining districts. The quartz veins 
here remain intact, the magnesium silicate being dissolved and the mercuric sul- 
phide disintegrated, leaving the rock of peculiar honeycombed appearance, and by 
the side of the boiling stream at our feet mingles another stream of the coldest 
water. To our right, as we pass along, we find the fountain of " eye-water," 
which is of a slight astringent character, while further on a basin of ink, so called, 
is discovered, consisting of a finely disseminated mixture of mercurous sulphide 
with the acidulated water. The water passing through the canon is so distinctly 
acid as to instantly remove the color from the clothes where it splashes upon them ; 
these spots afterwards easily develop into holes upon very slight inducement after 
drying. Upon either side of the canon, rising one after another, are brilliant crusts 
of alum tinged with ferrous and cupric salts*, and the rocky basins along the sides 
of the stream are full to overflowing with boiling, seething, villainous chemical con- 
coctions, their sides decked with various crystal efflorescences. Sulphur, here, is in 
his element ; the whole family is represented, of almost every ending and color. 
A few miles below, we have the remains of an extinct geyser, now the Pluton 
Sulphur Mines, while at Sulphur Banks is another, and a few miles above still in 
Pluton Canon, there is another small geyser, the steam from which, in the cool, 
brisk air of the early morning, can be seen for miles. When they become extinct, 
•the remaining debris is profitably worked for both sulphur and mercury. The 
cause of the violent ebullition is chemical action intensified by the action of water. 
The ground-work of the geyser patches is an easily decomposed serpentine, holding 
with it mercuric, ferrous and cupiic-sulphides. We believe the heat is generated by 
their decomposition and not from any volcanic action, as seems the universal 
belief of the dwellers in and around the region. Crossing Temperance Creek, 
which seems a misnomer to the traveler in California, so almost universal is intem- 
perance, we come upon what is perhaps the greatest wonder of all. We find here 
a large blow-hole, two or three hundred yards from the canon, and seemingly not 
connected with it, from which the steam rushes forth with astonishing violence. A 
bucket of water thrown into it is ejected with a roar, and stones, several ounces in 
weight, are projected a distance of several feet. At one time a steam whistle was 
sunk into this blow-hole and was heard night and day for a distance of many miles, 
but it was impossible for guests at the hotel, half a mile or more distant, to sleep, 
so it was voted a nuisance and finally removed. Pages might be spent in describing 
the steam baths and hot springs of the Pluton Canon, but if we have beea able to 



loo Sugar in the Nectar of Flowers. { Km '^\ln^ 

interest our pharmacal friends in this wonderful region of natural curiosities situated 
amid the most delightful scenery and with the best hunting and fishing we have 
ever enjoyed, and within a short distance of the Petrified Forest, where trees of 
stone a dozen feet in diameter can be seen, we will be abundantly satisfied, while if the 
interest is such as to project a visit in person, verily great will be their reward ! 
Philadelphia, 12th mo. 30th, 1878. 



AMOUNTS OF SUGAR CONTAINED IN THE NECTAR OF 
VARIOUS FLOWERS. 

By A. S. Wilson. 

The sweet-tasted fluid which is secreted within the cups of insect-fertilized, flowers 
is called nectar, and the object gained to the plant by its presence is that insects,, 
induced to visit flowers for its sake, are useful to the plants by effecting a cross-ferti- 
lization. In many instances this sweet liquid is exuded from special glands, but to- 
other cases from portions of the flower which do not seem to have been specially 
adapted for this purpose. It is a point in dispute amongst biologists whether th : > 
saccharine matter is a true secretion, or simply an excretion of effete matter from 
the vegetable cells — a bye-product of the chemical changes taking place within the 
cells. The latter view seems to be favored by the fact that a similar sweet-tasted 
fluid, much sought after by insects, is exuded on different parts of some plants quit - 
unconnected with the flower, as in the laurel, brake, fern, lime tree, acacia, etc. The 
bright colors, as shown by Lubbock's experiments, serve to guide insects to the 
flowers, and the od^rs which they emit fulfill the same end. The importance of these 
guides to insects will be apparent from the following estimations, which show how 
indispensable it is that as little time as possible should be lost by an insect collecting; 
honey. The formation of nectar is observed to take place most freely in hot weather* 
and to be prevented by cold or wet. By biologists, the visits of bees, butterflies and 
other insects are believed to have exercised in past time an important influence in 
modifying the size, shape, color, etc , of flowerss and the following experiments are 
of interest as showing to what an extent this action takes place in nature, and as 
helping to determine the value of this factor. The nectar was extracted with water, 
and the sugar determined, before and after inversion, by means of Fehling's copper 
solution. In the case of fuchsia — which is not deprived of its nectar by any insect 
in this country, the nectar being inaccessible to native species — we have probably the 
whole amount formed, but in other cases the visits of bees, etc., may have reduced 
the amounts considerably. In this case it is a clear colorless liquid, having an acid 
reaction and an intensely sweet taste ; that of many others has the strong character- 
istic odor of honey. 

Sugar in Flowers. 

1. Fuchsia per flower, 

2. Claytonia Alsinoides, ditto, 

3. Everlasting pea, ditto, 

4. Vetch [Vicia Cracca) per raceme, 

5. Ditto, per single flower, 

6. Red clover, per head, 

7. Ditto per floret, 

8. Monkshood, per flower, . 



Total 


Fruit 


Cane sugar ' 


mgram. 


-sugar. 


(as frirt). 


7'59 


1*69 


5'9 


0-413 


0-175 


0-238 


993 


8-83 


i-6o 


3"i6 


3'15 


01 


0-158 


0-158 




7'93 


5'95 


1*98 


o'i 32 


0-099 


0033 


6*41 


4 63 


178 



4m, lour. Pharm. ) 

Feb , 1879. / 



Researches on Peptones. 



101 



Approximately, then, 100 heads of clover yield o*g gram sugar, or 125 give 1 
gram, or 125,060 1 kilo of sugar 5 and as each head contains about 60 florets, 
7,500,000 distinct flower tubes must be sucked in order to obtain 1 kilo, of sugar. 
Now as honey, roughly, may be said to contain 75 per cent, of sugar, we have 1 
'kilo equivalent to 5,600,000 flowers in round numbers, or say 2^ millions of visits 
for one pound of honey. This shows what an amazing amount of labor the bees 
must perform. Another point worth notice in these results is the occurrence of 
what appears to be cane-sugar, and in the case of fuchsia in the proportion of nearly 
tthree-fourths of the whole. This is remarkable, as honey is usually supposed to 
contain no cane sugar, the presence of the latter being usually regarded as certain 
evidence of adulteration. The question therefore arises whether this change, which 
takes place while the sugar is in the possession of the bee, is due to the action 
of juices with which it comes in contact while in the honey-bag or expanded 
-oesophagus of the insect, or whether the process of inversion goes on spontane- 
ously, as may perhaps be the case. — Jour. Chem. Soc , Dec, 1878, from Chem. 
News, xxxviii, p. 93. 

RESEARCHES ON PEPTONES. 

By A. Henninger. 

Peptones, the ultimate products of peptic digestion, have hitherto been found diffi- 
cult to obtain in a state of purity, owing to their tendency to retain mineral salts or 
bases, and have yielded on incineration from 3 to 7 per cent, of ash. Maly obtained 
a fibrin-peptone, which yielded only C64 per cent, of ash, by separating the mineral 
substances by diffusion. The author proposed to attain the same end, by starting 
with albuminoids free from mineral matter, and using subsequently only such reagents 
as could be completely removed by precipitation. Substituting, therefore, sulphuric 
for hydrochloric acid, he found the process required two or three times as long for 
-completion, but the acid could then be exactly removed by baryta. 

The pepsin used was of three kinds — an aqueous solution dialyzed from a dog's 
gastric juice, a glycerin solution obtained by Wittich's method, and a very active 
•commercial pepsin. The albuminoid matters were free from mineral matter, as 
detailed below. 

Fibrin. — The substance, after having been soaked in water containing 1 per cent, 
of hydrochloric acid, was tied up in a cloth, gently expressed and hung in distilled 
water, which was constantly changed 5 the mass in the cloth was frequently kneaded 
and squeezed, and all the acid and the salts rendered soluble by the acid were thus 
removed in the course of three or four days. The gelatinous mass was then thrown 
-into absolute alcohol, which was changed several times. The fibrin, after a final 
prolonged treatment with ether, to remove fatty matters, did not yield more than 
29 per cent, of ash. 

Albumin, purified by dialysis, yielded only 0*48 per cent, of mineral matter. 

Casein. — Skimmed milk was mixed with 1-200 of soda solution and freed from 
fat by four successive treatments with ether 5 the product was then partially neutral- 
ized with dilute phosphoric acid and mixed with a little hydrocyanic acid to hinder 
putrefaction. . This liquid was subjected to dialysis for twelve days, changing the 



102 



Varieties. 



Am. Jour. Pharm^ 

Feb., 1879. 



water twice a day 5 the casein was then separated by adding acetic acid and boiling, 
and was washed with water. 

The purified albuminoid matter is heated at 44 , with five times its weight of 
water containing 3-1000 of H 2 S0 4 , and the quantity of pepsin requisite to secure 
rapid digestion. After three or four days the liquid is filtered, freed from all its sul- 
phuric acid by baryta and evaporated at 6o° to 70 . Alcohol is gradually added to 
the syrupy residue until the liqnid becomes turbid and separates, on standing, into 
two layers • the lower consists of a little impure peptone, and contains the greater 
part of the coloring matters. The upper layer is poured in a fine stream into six. 
times its volume of 98 per cent, alcohol, which is meanwhile vigorously stirred • the 
peptone which settles down is dissolved in a little water and precipitated by alcohol, 
and this process is repeated The peptone is then treated with absolute alcohol, first 
cold and then warm, and finally several times with ether. These treatments with, 
alcohol and ether render insoluble a small quantity of albuminoids, which remain as 
a residue on re-dissolving in water 5 one more precipitation with alcohol yields a 
peptone perfectly soluble in water. A trace of impurity, detected by a slight tur- 
bidity being produced with acetic acid and potassium ferrocyanide, can be entirely 
removed by dialysis, continued for about ten days. A small quantity of peifectly 
pure peptone was thus obtained. 

The peptones prepared from fibrin, albumin and casein are amorphous, infusible,, 
white powders, very soluble in water and in glacial acetic acid. They behave like 
feeble amidated acids. In an acetic solution of the peptones sulphuric, hydrochloric 
or nitric acid produces at once an abundant white precipitate, consisting of a salt of 
the peptone, corresponding to the acid used. The different peptones show no differ- 
ence in their reactions • they differ from albuminoids in being less easily coagulated 
and precipitated • they very nearly resemble gelatin, but their hot solutions do not 
set on cooling. The peptones prepared from albumin, fibrin and casein show diff- 
erent rotatory powers, that from albumin causing least, and that from casein most 
rotation. So long, therefore, as the albuminoids which differ in their rotatory power 
are allowed to be different varieties, we must also admit the existence of varieties of" 
peptones. — Journ. Chem. Soc , Dec, 1878, from Compt. Rend., lxxxvi, p. 1413-1416. 



VARIETIES. 



Honey, recently sent to England in the comb for the first time, reached Liverpool! 
safely on Dec. 5th, and the experiment is pronounced successful. There were eighty 
tons in one ship, stored— says the " Pall Mall Gazette, " with some curiosity — "by 
American bees themselves into half a million neat little glass side boxes. " That 
the honey was the partial product of 12, coo swarms of bees, in which a large mer- 
cantile firm is interested, and which are distributed throughout the honey-producing 
sections of the United States in apiaries of 100 swarms each. "There seems to be 
no limit,'' 1 it says, "to the provisions with which America is prepared to supply iis, 



**f4LTiSr™ ' I Varieties. 1 03 



The first experiment of bringing honey in the comb on a large scale to Europe from 
America having proved successful, it will, no doubt, be repeated. Honey will even 
perhaps become with us as it was with the ancients, an important article of food.' 1 



Cow's Milk. By Schreiner. — On boiling milk hydrogen sulphide is evolved, and; 
can be easily detected in the usual way. 

Boiled milk does not coagu'ate spontaneously so soon as unboiled milk ; whilst, 
on the contrary, boiled milk requires 10 to 12 per cent, more acid to coagulate it 
than unboiled milk does. The amount of rennet which serves to curdle fresh milk 
is insufficient to curdle one-tenth the amount of boiled milk, even when applied ten 
times as long, and at the same temperature (35*0). The time required for spon- 
taneous coagulation of fresh milk and the amount of acid required to produce the 
same effect, depend on the amount of solids in the milk. Unboiled milk treated with 
rennet curdles the sooner the less the amount of total solids. The amount of acid 
required to coagulate milk from the same animal increases in the time from the last 
calving up to the subsequent dry period, with the increase of the total solids during 
the lactation period. Milk from Friesland cows gave an increase of solids during 
this period of from 11 to 13 per cent., whilst that from Simmenthal cows gave an 
increase from 12 to 16 per cent. Crosses between the two breeds gave milk which 
sometimes approached the one and sometimes the other in the amount of increase. — 
Journ. Chem. Soc , Dec , 1878, from Landiv. Versuchs-Stat., xxii, p. 60 to 64. 



Cloth from Pine Apple Fibres.— At Singapore, in the East Indies, there is quite 
a thrifty branch of business in prepaiing the fibres of the pine-apple leaves for 
exportation to China, where they are manufactured into cloth. The process of 
extracting and bleaching the fibres is exceedingly simple. The first step is to 
remove the fleshy or succulent sides of the leaf. A Chinese, astride on a narrow 
stool, extends on it in front of him a pine-apple leaf, one end of which is kept firm, 
being packed beneath a small bundle of cloth on which he sits. He then, with a 
kind of two-handled plane of bamboo, removes the succulent matter. Another man 
receives the leaves as they are planed, and with his thumb nail loosens and gathers 
the fibres about the middle of the leaf, which enables him, by one effort, to detach 
the whole of them from the outer skin. The fibres are next steeped in water for 
some time, after which they are washed, in order to free them from the matter which 
still adheres and binds them together. They are now laid out to dry and bleach 
on rude frames of split bamboo. The process of steeping, washing and exposing 
to the sun is repeated for some days until the fibres are considered to be properly 
bleached. Without further preparation they are sent into town for exportation to 
China. Nearly all the islands near Singapore are more or less planted with pine 
apples, which, at a rough estimate, cover an extent of 2,000 acres. — Public Ledger. 



104 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { A VeCis^™* 

Color-blindness.— M. Delboeuf, says " La France Medicale," has found that when 
a person afflicted with color-blindness looks through a layer of fuchsin in solutiou 
his infirmity disappears. M. Javal has made this discovery practical by interposing 
a thin layer of gelatin, tinted with fuchsine, between two glasses. The latter are 
said to correct the difficulty. — Boston Med. and Surg. Journ. 



Nickel-plating of Iron or Steel Without a Galvanic Battery. — After adding 
to a dilute (5 to 10 per cent.) solution of pure chloride of zinc in a porcelain dish 
sufficient sulphate of nickel to produce a dark-green coloration and heating to the 
boiling point, Prof. Stolba immerses the metal, previously well cleaned, into this 
liquid, and boils for 30 to 60 minutes, when the metal is washed off with chalk-water 
and crefully dried, when it is covered with a durable but thin plating of nickel. — 
Ztschr. d. Oest. Apoth., Oct. 10, 1878, from Dingl. Polyt Jour. 



Electro-Deposition of Cobalt. By A Gaiffe. — Cobalt as deposited by the elec- 
tric current is preferable to iron and nickel as a protective surface to cliches, &c, 
as it does not oxidize like iron, and when necessary it can be readily dissolved by 
dilute acids, which do not attack the copper under-surface. For the electro-depo- 
sition of cobalt on copper the author employed a neutral solution of the double sul- 
phate of cobalt and ammonium. The positive electrode is connected with a plat- 
inum or preferably with a cobalt plate, and by passing a regular current through the 
solution for four hours an adhering and regular deposit of white metallic cobalt, 
0.025 mm. in thickness, was obtained. 

Becquerel claims to have already described a method similar to the above in a 
paper published in 1S62. — Jour. Chem. Soc. y Dec, 1878, from Compt. Rend. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 



January 21st, 1879. 

In the absence of the President, Mr. Alonzo Robbins was elected chairman. 

A paper, describing a general apparatus stand, written by Mr. A. Robbins, w<;s 
read by the Registrar, and the clamp with the rod, a ring and bottle support were 
exhibited to the meeting. The paper was illustrated by a drawing, and the stand 



ArK Feb U , r ;8^9^ rm *} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 105 

-was thought to be well adapted to the purpose designed. On motion it was referred 

to the Committee on Publication (see page 72). 

Mr. B. L. Smedley exhibited an arrangement for manufacturing compressed pills 

without the trouble and risk of breaking, usually attendant upon removing them 

from the mould in which they are compressed. The device will be gladly welcomed 

by those interested. A description and illustration will be found on page 74. 

Prof. Maisch presented, on behalf of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, the 
Year Book of Pharmacy " and " Transactions of the Conference " to the College 

for the Library. The Registrar was directed to return the thanks of the College for 

the courtesy. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited the fruit of Hura crepitans, Lin., sent to him several years 
ago from Southern Mexico. It is commonly known as the " Sand-box," on account 
of its being used for the purpose indicated after the removal of the seeds. The fruit 
had been sent in the unripe state, and, after having been kept in a warm room, had 
recently split into the separate carpels with considerable force. The plant belongs 
to the natural order Euphorbiacea? ; the seeds are flat, disk-like, brown, and are 
whitish internally, of an oily taste, are used as a purgative, and, externally applied, 
are said -to be useful in rheumatic affections. 

Mr. Boring exhibited a sample of what was sold as squill, and upon examination 
proved to be squill which had been submitted to the action of the drug-mill, and, 
being moist, had agglutinated into masses. 

Carbolate of bromine was exhibited and its composition queried, but no one pres- 
ent was acquainted with the formula for preparing it ; it is recommended as a remedy 
for catarrh. 

Mr. Rush read a very interesting paper upon orange-flowers and oranges from the 
Southern States (see page 68). The paper elicited considerable discussion. 
On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Thos S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Alumni Association Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The Fourth Social 
Meeting was held at the College Thursday, January 2, 1879, Vice President Procter 
presiding. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. This being the time 
announced for the bestowment of the Botanical Prizes, Dr. Murray, for the Prize 
Committee, reported that two gentlemen had presented collections for examination, 
but neither had conformed to the rule requiring the specimens to be arranged accord- 
ing to Gray's " Manual." The matter was postponed till the next meeting, in order 
to give the gentlemen time to make the necessary changes. 

A communication was received from the Alpha Phi Society, tendering the thanks 
cd that association for the specimens donated at the last meeting. 



io6 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { ^flb^'iln™* 

Mr. Sayre spoke of the difficulties students encounter when writing their theses 
for want of proper guides in conducting their investigations. He thought the 
Alumni Association would be doing a good' work if they would, through a com- 
mittee, publish in pamphlet form some plain rules to follow in making a proximate 
analysis, as all existing works on the subject are so profound as to puzzle even 
chemists of some experience. 

Mr. Mattison and others spoke strongly in favor of the plan, and the Secr.tary 
was instructed to invite Mr. Sayre to be present at the next meeting of the Execu- 
tive Board in order to bring the subject regularly before them for action. 

Mr. Mattison read a paper entitled The Great Geysers of California, and, on 
motion, the thanks of the meeting were tendered for the interesting communication. 

Dr. Murray exhibited some rare specimens of compounds of allyl, ethyl and 
amyl, which were manufactured by Dr. Greene. 

Mr. Procter presented for examination some specimens of officinal preparations,, 
which were all recognized by the students. 

Adjourned. W. W. Moorhhad, Secretary. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At a meeting held January 8, 1879, the fol- 
lowing officers and trustees were elected for the ensuing year: President, J. D. 
Wells 5 Recording Secretary, A. W. Bain; Corresponding Secretary, Jno. Weyer ; 
Treasurer, Chas. Faust ; Trustees, George Egar, R. M. Byrnes, F. L. Eaton and 
H. H. Koehnken. 

The reports of the retiring officers and standing committees showed a lively 
interest taken by the members in the welfare of the College. 

Prof. E. S. Wayne, from the Committee on the Progress of Pharmacy, presented 
a long report, which was laid over to the first regular pharmaceutical meeting. 

The Secretary reported an attendance of 98 students upon the lectures. 

The Library Committee reported additions of various foreign and American 
journals, text-books and pharmacopoeias ; also, many donations to the Library and 
Museum, by individuals and by the various departments of the government at Wash- 
ington, all of which will be of educational and pharmaceutical interest to members 
and students. 



Pharmacy in Indianapolis. — -A very full meeting of druggists and pharmacists 
of Indianapolis was held at the Grand Hotel January 15, to make arrangements for 
the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association next September. 
Dr. Boswell Ward was called to the chair and Eli Lilly appointed secretary. Com- 
mittees were appointed as follows : Supervisory Board, Messrs. Keilhorn, Perry and 
Lilly; on Finance, Messrs. Sloan, Emil Martin, Weiss, Dill, Dryer, Traub and 
Ward 5 on Railroads, Messrs. J. W. Bryan, Kiefer and Stewart ; on Hall, Messrs. 
Metzner, Martin and Mueller. 



The Alumni of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy residing on the Pacific 
coast had a social gathering at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, as the guests of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1879. J 



Editorial. 



Henry S. Wellcome, Ph.G. Most of the Alumni and several prominent gentlemen, 
of San Francisco were present. The re -union was a very pleasant one, and after 
justice had been done to the repast prepared for the occasion, reminiscences of college 
life were related and toasts proposed to various gentlemen who held or still hold 
prominent positions in the American Pharmaceutical Association or in the College, 
of which nearly all the participants are graduates. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The Pennsylvania Patent Medicine Tax In our last issue (page 57) we 

have given an account of the decision recently rem'ered in Pittsburg concerning 
this tax. We have since been favored with a copy of the Pittsburg Legal Journal 
of January 1st, 1879, m which we find a fuller report, from which it appears that 
the question was decided by t-ivo courts, and on account of its importance to our 
readers in Pennsylvania we insert it in full : 

Common Pleas Nos. 1 and 2. 

Simon Johnston, Plaintiff in error, v. Commonwealth, Defendant in error; and 
Joseph Abel, Plaintiff in error, v. Commonwealth, Defendant in error. 

These were actions brought by the Treasurer of Allegheny county in the name 
of the Commonwealth, against the said plaintiffs in error to recover an additional 
Mercantile License for the sale of patent medicines, under the provisions of the 
Act of April 10th, 1849, il 2 5 a "d 

The plaintiffs in error are apothecaries, and, with a number of others in the same 
business, were assessed by the Mercantile Appraiser for said license, but refused to 
pay, whereupon actions were brought against all of them before various aldermen,, 
and judgment obtained in favor of the Commonwealth. The actions were then 
removed by certiorari — the former, with others, into the Court of Common Pleas 
No. 2. They came up on the last argument list in each of said courts, and after 
argument the judgments of the aldermen were reversed by both courts, for the rea- 
son that the above mentioned Act of 1849, which imposed such additional license,, 
was repealed by the Act of April 22d, 1858, $ 9. (P. L. 1858, pages 468-70.) 

The Court of Common Pleas No. 2 (Judges Ewing and Kirkpatrick), in decid- 
ing the matter, expressed the further opinion that even if the Act of 1849 na ^ not 
been repealed, the plaintiffs in error would not have been liable, as that act itself 
clearly excepted regular apothecaries from its operation. 

Alfred Kerr, Esq., for plaintiffs in error. 



The Preparation of Pepsin.— In the Southern Medical Record, issued December 
20, 1878, a paper by Jos. Adolphu^, M. D., is published on the preparation of pep- 
sin and the good to be obtained from it, which commences as follows: 

In 1872 I read an interesting paper on the preparation of pepsin, by an American 
author whose name I have unfortunately forgotten. The simplicity of the process, 
the way of obtaining the ferment according to the manipulations of this method, so 
impressed my attention as to fasten itself on my memory. 

We call the attention of the writer to the fact that the process, which is imper- 
fectly described by him, originated with Prof. E. Scheffer, of Louisville, and was 
published in the February number of the "American Journal of Pharmacy" for 1872.. 



io8 Reviews, etc. { ^Zj^' 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRA PHICAL NOTICES. 

The Chemists' and Druggists" Diary, 1879. London, England. 4to. 

A number of useful formulas of perfumery, cocmetics, flavoring extracts, etc., 
and other interesting information are republished. 



A Manual of Prescription Writing, etc. By Matthew D. Mann, A.M., M.D , Lec- 
turer on Clinical Microscopy, etc., in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
New York. New York: G.P.Putnam's Sons, 1878. i6mo, pp. 155. Price, 
90 cents. 

This little work attempts to be more than merely an aid for writing prescriptions 
grammatically correct, but it covers pretty much the ground of knowledge neces- 
sary for the proper formulation, as will be seen from the following brief account of 
its contents: Definition and parts of a prescription 5 weights and measures ; offici- 
nal and non-officinal preparations 5 grammatical construction of a prescription; 
list of words and phrases, with pronunciation and proper abbreviations ; the vari- 
ous forms for extemporaneous prescriptions (a chapter particularly full of useful 
information to the physician); doses of medicines ; the metric system (a very good 
and practical exposition of its advantages); medicinal combinations ; incompatibility. 

Each chapter indicated above has evidently been written with a thorough apprecia- 
tion of its importance to the young physician, while, at the same time, the wants of 
the more experienced practitioner have not been lost sight of. Nearly all of them 
will also be advantageously consulted by apothecaries. The most important short- 
coming, if such it can be considered, is, in our opinion, the want of a guide for the 
proper quantity of very active and poisonous medicines to be given within a day. 
We appreciate the difficulty and even the impossibility of drawing a line between 
the allowable and dangerous daily dose ; but the difficulty can scarcely be greater 
than for fixing the single dose, and if the line be drawn at any point we believe that 
it would render both the physician and pharmacist more careful in overstepping it. 
The want of such a posological table in our National Pharmacopoeia we regard 
one of the most serious defects of that work. 



The Cell Doctrine: its history and present state. For the use of studei ts in medi- 
cine and dentistry; also, a copious bibliography of the subject. By James Tyson, 
M.D., Prof, of General Pathology and Morbid Anatomy in the University of 
Pennsylvania, etc. Second edition — revised, corrected and enlarged. Phila- 
delphia : Lindsay & Blakiston, 1878. i2ino, pp. 20a. Price, $2.00. 
The first edition of this work was reviewed in this journal 1870, page 186. All 
that has been said there in praise of it is equally applicable to the present issue, in 
which not only a critical re-examination of the original sources of information is 
apparent, but which bears also abundant evidence that the researches of the numer- 
ous investigators in this fascinating department of science up to the time of publi- 
cation have been carefully examined and accurately reported. The historical 
accounts of the views entertained by scientists of the origin and development of 
cells is very appropriately followed by a chapter giving a brief summary and dwell- 
ing more especially upon " the present state of the cell doctrine," and likewise 
embodying the author's views on the same subject. The bibliography occupies 
over 40 pages, and enumerates the different works published separately and the 
-essays on this subject which have appeared in various journals. The work con- 
tains two plates and a number of other illustrations printed in the text. The 
mechanical portion of the book is very commendable. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

Feb., 1879. J 



Reviews, etc. 



Practical Surgery: including surgical dressings, bandaging, ligations and amputa- 
tions. By J. Ewing Mears, M.D., Demonstrator of Surgery in Jefferson Medi- 
cal College, etc., with 227 illustrations. Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blakiston, 
1878. J2mo, pp. 279. Price, $2.00 

The scope of this work is indicated by its title. The author has endeavored to 
present the subjects in a concise manner, and* at the same time, to omit nothing 
which might interfere with completeness. The illustrations are mainly reproduc- 
tions from well-known larger works on surgery, and of improved surgical instru- 
ments. The descriptions are clear and to the point, and the volume will be found 
an excellent and useful addition to the library of the student in surgery. 



Recherches sur la digestion, P assimilation et Voxydation organique ou <vitale. Par M» 

le docteur Mialhe. Paris : G. Masson, 1879. 8vo, PP- 99- 
Researches on digestion, assimilation and organic or vital oxidation. 

This essay has been honored with a gold medal by the French Academy of 
Sciences, April 23, 1877. I f ' s a review of the labors of physiologists and of 
observations made by the author on the subjects indicated in the title, but more 
especially with regard to their influence on the secretion of sugar through the urine. 
The digestion and assimilation of amylaceous, saccharine and albuminous matters 
and the destruction of the sugar in the organism are considered at length ; the 
modifications or changes, either partial or complete, which the organic acids undergo 
in the animal economy are reviewed ; and, after some remarks on respiration and 
on the chemical influence upon the animal organism of alkalies and of carbonic 
acid, the author proceeds to his observations on diabetes mellitus, and urges the 
employment of alkalies, as well as hygienic and dietetic measures, as the proper 
remedies for affording relief and effecting a cure. 



Etude sur le groupe des aphides et en particulier sur les pucerons du terehinthe et du 
lentisque. Par L. Courchet, Pharmacier de Premiere Classe. Montpellier i 
Boehm et Fils, 1878. 4mo., pp. £6. 

Observations on the group of aphidae, and particularly on the plantlice of the 
turpentine pistacia and the lentisk. 

This is an interesting and very creditable investigation into the development of 
the aphidae inhabiting the two trees named. The essay is accompanied by three 
lithographic plates of the third generation of these insects, and of their antenna?,, 
wings and the galls which they produce upon the leaves of the two trees. 

Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Ne<w Jersey Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, held in Elizabeth, May 15, 1878. Camden, N.J. 8vo., pp. 48. 
An account of the meeting will be found on p. 316 of our last volume. The 
pamphlet before us contains the minutes, reports and other matters usually found 
in such publications, and the following papers which were read at the meet- 
ing : Pharmacy <vs. Quackery, by H. P. Reynolds; Practicality, by D. W. Brant > 
Hypophosphite of Zinc, a new remedy, by R. W. Gardner, and Syrups of the 
hypophosphites, by Jas. W. Mercein. The Association numbers about 175 mem- 
bers. The next meeting will be held in Princeton, May 21st next. 

Zur Kenntniss einzelner chemischer Bestandtheile der Weiden und deren pathologischen 
Gebilde, und uber einige React ionen mit Gerbstojfen und denen ^veruoandten Korpern* 
Von Magister Edwin Johanson 

Contributions to the knowledge of some chemical constituents of the willows, 
and of their pathological excrescences (galls), and on some reactions with tan- 
nins and allied compounds. 

This is a reprint of an essay published in "Archiv der Pharmacie." The ex- 
periments were made in the laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Institute at Dorpat, 



5 IO 



Reviews, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb., 1879. 



where the author is assistant to Prof. Dragendorff. A hitherto unknown com- 
pound, somewhat resembling quercitrin, was discovered in the willows examined. 



Vcrtrag des Professor Dr. Mohr in der Generalversammlung des Deutschen Apothe- 

ker-Vereins zu Coblentz, am 11. Sept., 1878. 
Discourse of Prof. Dr. Mohr at the annual meeting of the German Apothecaries' 

Society at Coblence, Septb. 11, 1878. 8vo., pp. 16. 

A very interesting exposition of the relation of pharmacy to chemistry. 

Preliminary Notice on Chromometry, a nenv branch oj quantitative analysis voith 
the blowpipe. By Prof. Geo. Aug. Konig, Ph.D., of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

This paper, which was read before the American Philosophical Society, describes 
a method of mineral analysis, which seeks to quantitatively determine elements by 
the intensity of coloration produced in a borax bead, and is very appropriately 
named chromometry. The paper is accompanied by an engraving of the appa- 
ratus. 

Berberina Phosphate. By Henry B. Parsons and Theo. J. Wampelmeier. New 
York: Wm. Wood & Co. 1878. 

A reprint of an interesting paper, published in " New Remedies." The authors 
determined the composition of berberina phosphate to be C 20 H 1? NO 4 , 7H ;j ,P0 4 .4H 2 ; 
dried at jo°C. the salt was found to be soluble in 10*43 parts, and after drying at 
ioo°C, in 21*52 parts of cold water. The sulphate requires 68 parts. 



The receipt of the following pamphlets is herewith acknowledged : 

Valedictory Address delivered at the Fifth Annual Commencement of the California 
College oj Pharmacy. By Emlen Painter, Ph.G., Professor of Pharmacy. 

.Quarterly Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, 
showing imports and exports of the United States, etc., for the three months ended 
June 30, 1878. Washington: Government Printing Office. 

Annual Address delivered before the American Academy of Medicine at Easton, Pa , 
Sept. 17, 1878, by Frank H. Hamilton, A.M., M.D., President of the Acad- 
emy, etc. 

The Relation of Ozone to Disease. Prize thesis. By Prof. J. F. Baldwin, M.D., 
Columbus, O.: Charles M. Cott. 

Hydrobromic Acid. By De Witt C. Wade, M.D., of Holly, Mich. New York : 
" Wm. Wood & Co. 

A Case of Acute Puerperal Inversion of the Uterus. By John Byrne, M.D., of 
Brooklyn. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

■On Feticide. By Prof Henry Gibbons, Sr., M.D. San Francisco, Cal. 

The American Medical College Association, second annual meeting, held at Buffalo, 
N. Y., June 3, 1878. Detroit : Free Press Printing House. 

Thirty-sixth Annual Reports of the Board of Visitors, Trustees, Superintendent, Treas- 
urer and Financial Agent of the Nevu Hampshire Asylum for the Insane to the Nevj 
Hampshire Legislature, June session, 1878. Concord. 

Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Free Dispensary for Skin Diseases. Fro n Nov. 1, 
1877, to October 31, 1878. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1879. / 



Reviews, etc. 



1 1 1 



Subcutaneous Infections and 'Tables of the Metric System with Equivalents. By Chas. 
J. Powers, of Syracuse, N. Y., assisted by Prof. Francis Engelhardt. 



Annual Report of the Western Druggists" Mutual Benefit Association. Cincinnati, 1878. 

On page 205 of our last volume, we have called attention to this organization and 
explained the plan upon which it proposes to carry out its object, w ich is the insur- 
ance of the lives of its members. The report now before us accounts for receipts 
during the year ending November 6, (878, amounting to $1,605.90, and for disburse- 
ments during the same period amounting to $905.20. This latter sum includes all 
the expenses of organization, such as charter, printing, salary of secretary, etc. The 
membership of the Association extends over a number of the Western and Atlantic 
States, and branch organizations have been formed in several large cities with the 
view of facilitating the business of the Association. 

For the city of New York a local board has been organized, comprising such old 
and well-established houses as McKesson & Robbins, represented by William L. 
Vennard and T. H. Sherwood ; Lazell, Marsh & Gardiner, represented by Prof. P. 
W. Bedford; Hall & Ruckel, represented by Wm. H. Hall ; Caswell, Hazard & 
Co., represented by R. N. Hazard; S. H. Ambler & Co., represented by Starr H. 
Ambler, 36 Vesey street ; Theo. Ricksecker, 146 and 148 Williams street 5 A. J. 
Ditman, cor. Barklay and Broadway ; John Newton, of the " Druggists'" Circular 5" 
Dr. F. A. Castle, of " New Remedies, 1 ' cor. 57th street and 4th avenue, with Henry 
A. Cassebeer, Jr., cor. Ninth street and 4th avenue, as local secretary. 

In Philadelphia, the local organization will be represented by Prof. Jno. M. Maisch, 
Joseph P. Remington, cor. 13th and Walnut streets ; Messrs. Edmund A. Crenshaw, 
William F. McPherson, of Johnston, Holloway & Co.; Joseph Wayne, of Turner 
& Wayne; Richard V. Mattison, of Keasbey & Mattison, and Henry N. Ritten- 
house, of Mellor & Rittenhouse, who is selected as the local secretary for this city. 

The object of the Association, the reduction of expenses to the lowest possible 
figure, and the exceedingly small outlay required for securing the benefits, cannot 
fail but to commend the Association to the druggists and pharmacists of the United 
States. The Secretary is Mr. James M. Dodge, Cincinnati. 



The Pharmacist and Chemist. Chicago, 1879. 

The first number of the twelfth volume of our Western cotemporary comes to us 
in a new and improved dress, and with its scope extended so as to cover, besides 
pharmacy and chemistry, also therapeutics and the allied sciences. As heretofore, 
it is issued monthly, at $1.50 per year. Commencing with the present volume, the 
Chicago College of Pharmacy has placed it in charge of a publishing committee, and 
the various labors connected with the publication have been apportioned by appoint- 
ing F. M. Goodman, Ph.G., editor, Matt. W. Borland, manager of the subscription 
department, and Henry Biroth, manager of the advertising department. 



Index Medicus 5 a monthly classified record of the current medical literature of the 
world. Compiled under the supervision of Dr. John S. Billings, Susgeon U. S. 
Army, and Dr. Rob. Fletcher, M.R.C.S., Eng. New York: F. Leypoldt, Pub- 
lisher. Price, $3 00 per year. 

This new periodical will record the titles of all medical books and of all valuable 
original articles published in medical and allied journals in English and other lan- 
guages, the whole material to be classified under appropriate subject headings. The 
importance of this enterprise is readily understood by the physician, and though 
interested to a more limited extent, the intelligent pharmacist will likewise find the 
Index Medicus of great value. That the work will be well performed does not 



I I 2 



Obituary. 



f A.m. Jcur. Pi am. 
t Feb., 1879. 



admit of any doubt, when it is remembered that the chief editor, Dr. Billings, who 
is in charge of the National Medical Library at Washington, has prepared a 
National Catalogue of Medical Literature," which has been most fav r orably com- 
mented upon by all who have examined the manuscript or had occasion to consult 
the portion which was published a few years ago. 



The National Dispensatory. By Professors Alfred Stille and John M. Maisch. 
Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea. 

On going to press, we are informed that the index of this work is now in the 
hands of the printer, and the book will be issued in a few days. 



OBITUARY. 

Benjamin Lyman, senior member of the firm of Lymans, Clare & Co., of 
Montreal, and of Lyman Brothers, of Toronto, Canada, died in the latter city 
December 5, 1878, of inflammation of the lungs. He war born at Derby, Vermont, 
in 1 810, and when a young boy came with his parents to Montreal, where he entered 
the drug business established in 1803 by his uncle, Dr. M. J. Lyman, and wit!) 
which establishment he has been connected ever since. His extensive business 
relations did not prevent him from taking a lively interest in all public affairs ot 
the city where he resided, and he warmly supported the various movements made in 
Canada for the elevation of pharmacy. The deceased leaves a widow, two sons 
and two daughters. 



Professor John B. Biddle, M. D., died in his native city, Philadelphia, 
January 19th. He was born in 1 8 1 5, graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, and* 
in 1865, was called to the chair of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the Jefferson 
Medical College, which position he held at the time of his death. The deceased 
was widely and favorably known and was the author of a work entitled " Materia 
Medica for the Use of Students, 1 ' which has been adopted as a text book in many 
medical colleges. 



Dr. Jacob Bigelow died in Boston on January 10th, at the age of 91 years. 
He graduated from Harvard College in 1 806, published the Florula Bostoniensis'm 
1815, and a few years afterwards his illustrated American Medical Botany, was elected 
Professor in 18 15, and inaugurated or participated in various movements of educa- 
tional interest and hygienic importance. The deceased was one of those prominent 
men whose lives are intimately connected with the early history of medicine in this 
country. He was the oldest member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and 
was an honorary member of the Philadelphia Col'ege of Pharmacy. 



Edward T. Hehr died suddenly at Hazleton, Pa., on Christmas day, 1878. He 
was born at Minersville, Pa., and graduated in 1871 at the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MARCH, 1879. 

AIXOHOLMETRICAL TABLE. 

By Alonzo Robbins. 

Showing the strength of commercial alcohols, and of different mixtures^ 
by weight, of commercial 95 per cent, alcohol and distilled water, 
at 6o°F. 





I Percentage 
J by volume. 


Percentage 
by weight. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Absolute alcohol, 






I 99'6o 


99-19 


•7962 


Extra co 


logne spirit, 






9475 


9 2 *03 


•8170 


Cologne 


Spirit, 






1 9375 


91-02 


•8199 


95 per cent, alcohol, 






1 93^5 


1 9° -I 9 


'8223 


Neutral sweet spirit, 






41-50 


34-8o 


'9494 


95 per cent, alcohol 


10 parts, 


water 1 part, 


87*00 


82-07 


•8433 


it 


a 


9 « 




8575 


80-58 


•8469 


a 


tt 


8 " 




85-50 


80-26 


•8477 


it 


a 


7 " 




84*00 


78-53 


•8521 


a 


a 


6 " 




8275 


76-94 


•8559 


ti 


it 


5 " 




81-50 


75-38 


8595 


ti 


tt 


4 " 




78-25 


7i-43 


•8685 


a 


tt 


3 " 




74-00 


66'8o 


•8798 


a 


tt 


2 " 




67-50 


59 9° 


•8959 


tt 


a 


1 " 




52^00 


44-50 


•9303 


t : 


tt 


2 " 


tt 3 tt 


43-00 


36-10 


•9469 


tt 


tt 




tt 2 tt 


36-00 


29-90 


•9579 


it 


ti 




a 3 tt 


27-00 


22-17 


-9689 


it 


a 




a 4 a 


23-00 


18-77 


•973i 


tt 


a 




tt 5 tt 


1 9*00 


i5'43 


•9772 


tt 


tt 




tt 6 a 


1 700 


13-78 


•9791 


a 


a 




a 7 a 


1 5"oo 


12-13 


•9814 


it 


a 




tt 2 " 


13-00 


10-50 


•9834 


ti 


tt 




tt 9 tt 


I2'00 


9 68 


•9844 


tt 


tt 




tt 10 n 


IO'OO 


8-05 


•9869 



All the alcoholmetrical tables of the books being based on mixtures 
of absolute alcohol and water, it appeared desirable to have a table 
taking as a basis the commercial 95 per cent, alcohol, mixed with such 



ii4 



Alcoholmetrical Table. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



various proportions of water as might be used by the pharmacist in the 
preparation of menstruums. 

The table here given is not presented as entirely correct ; but it is 
believed that the figures are sufficiently accurate for use in practical 
pharmacy, for which purpose alone the table was prepared. 

As it is proposed to use only parts by weight in the next United 
States Pharmacopoeia, the quantities of alcohol and water were in each 
case so taken. 

The first five lines in the table give the strength of different spirits 
as found in the market. The extra Cologne spirit differs from the 
Cologne spirit by being a portion reserved from the first part of the 
distillation ; the Cologne spirit is the entire product of deodorized 
alcohol obtained in the run ; the 95 per cent, alcohol is that in most 
general use, and it is often as free from odor as the Cologne spirit ; 
neutral sweet spirit is very extensively used, under various names, in 
the liquor trade, and might be employed with advantage in pharmacy. 

The percentages by volume given in the table are too high in the ten 
lower items, but this error in most of them does not exceed one-fourth 
of one per cent., and in some is much less. 

The percentage by volume was obtained by Tralles' centesimal 
hydrometer, and the book of tables prepared by Prof. McCulloh for the 
use of the revenue officers of the United States. The percentages by 
weight were obtained by the following rule, taken from Muspratt's 
" Chemistry," page 118 : " The content, by weight,of alcohol in a 
liquid, the centesimal value of which per volume has been found, is 
ascertained by a simple calculation. This operation is done by multi- 
plying the content per volume of alcohol into the specific gravity of 
absolute alcohol, and dividing the product by the specific gravity of the 
liquid and page 131 : "Knowing the percentage volume of alcohol 
in a liquid at any temperature, the same results are arrived at when 
such percentage is multiplied by the specific gravity of the pure anhy- 
drous spirit at the normal thermometric degree — 07939 in Tralles' 
tables, and 07947 in Gay-Lussac's — and dividing this product by the 
density of the liquid at the observed temperature." But 07938 being 
now more generally considered as the specific gravity of anhydrous 
alcohol, that was taken as the basis of the calculations to obtain the 
percentage by weight. The percentage by weight was then compared 
with the specific gravity in Fownes' table, to correct error due to differ- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Mar., 1879. / 



Improved Minim Pipette. 



"5 



ence of temperature, it being found impracticable to maintain a regular 
temperature of 6o°F. during the time required to take the percentage 
bv volume with the hydrometer and the specific gravity with the bottle. 



NOTE ON AN IMPROVED MINIM PIPETTE, 



2011 



"4 

mil 



By Charlrs W. Drew, Ph.B. 

The disadvantages incident to the accurate measurement of minute 
doses of liquid preparations by means of ordinary graduates are appar- 
ent, and to ensure greater precision in dispensing, a graduated minim 
pipette of small calibre has been adopted by many physicians and phar- 
macists. 

The ordinary method of measuring with these pipettes is 
to fill them by suction applied by means of the mouth, 
quickly closing the uper end with the fore-finger, the excess 
of liquid above that desired being allowed to flow out by 
slightly raising the finger. To this method, under certain 
circumstances, no objection can be adduced ; yet if the 
liquids which it is desired to dispense are of a volatile or 
poisonous character, such a method is better avoided, especi- 
ally by unpracticed persons. 

To obviate this inconvenience and danger several appli- 
ances have been proposed, the principle of all of which has 
been to fill the pipette without the use of the mouth. To 
all of these which have come to my notice there have been 
greater or less objections, and I desire to bring to the notice 
of physicians and pharmacists a simple appliance which 
seems better adapted to their needs than any other yet 
described. The appendage to which I refer may be made 
as follows : take a piece of glass tubing, a, about one-half 
the length of the pipette, and of a calibre just sufficient 
to allow the pipette to pass within it, and by means of a gas 
or alcohol lamp, partially close one end of it. Place upon 
the open end of the tube a tightly-fitting piece of soft rubber 
tubing, about three-fourths of an inch in length, allowing 
about one-third of its length to project beyond the end of ^ nat size - 
the tube. Place the pipette within the tube, and the apparatus is corr- 



1 
I 
II 

loii 

III 



1 

If 



Minim Pip- 
ette. 



1 1 6 The Microscope in Pharmacy. { 

plete. In order to fill the pipette, force it upward to the closed end 
of the telescoping tube, place the point beneath the surface of the 
liquid, close the open end of the tube with the finger, and gently raise 
the outer tube. The liquid is sucked upward, and may be raised and 
held at any level within the limit of its intended capacity with the 
utmost readiness. The liquid is readily discharged by either pressing 
the outer tube downward or by removing the finger. 

The principle involved in the instrument is essentially that of the 
syringe, the rubber tube answering to the air-tight piston. If desired,, 
the upper end of the outer tube may be entirely closed, in which case 
the necessity for stoppage with the finger is avoided. If any difficulty 
is encountered from the slipping off of the rubber tube, a slight flange 
may be made upon the outer tube, which will prevent this. Excessive 
friction between the rubber and the pipette may be avoided by moist- 
ening the inner surface of the rubber with glycerin or other lubricant. 

This apparatus, as will readily be seen, is also admirably adapted for 
use as a dropper, the column of liquid being under perfect control, and 
very readily made to flow outward at any desired rate by simply regu- 
lating the downward motion of the outer tube ; for this purpose I 
would recommend the entire closure of the upper end of the tube. 

While for some uses of the pipette such an appliance is unnecessary^ 
yet for many others it will, without doubt, prove of great convenience 
as one of the simplest and at the same time most efficacious of any 
which have been devised. 

Neiv York, Feb. ist, 1879. 



THE MICROSCOPE IN PHARMACY. 

By Edward Gaillard, Ph.G. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, February 1 %th. 

Perhaps no field of microscopical investigation teems with richer 
veins of interest and instruction than its application to pharmacy. 
Feeling deeply interested in it myself, I shall throw out a few sugges- 
tions that will assist those amongst us who have an hour of leisure > 
and taking up the scattered clews may work it into a fabric of infor- 
mation of surpassing pleasure. 

It is a common error to suppose that in order to see anything clearly 
it is necessary to magnify it very much. The majority of objects that 



Am MlZ\ P s^ rm } The Microscope in Pharmacy. 1 17 

are studied or examined by the pharmacist are besfseen with a moderate 
power. It must be remembered that when a great magnifying power 
is applied to the ordinary objects of the store we are able to see only 
a very small portion of them, and the results are unsatisfactory ; most 
interesting objects that are likely to present themselves can be seen by 
means of a power under two hundred diameters. 

Three things will be found necessary, viz.: magnifying power, good 
light and a good instrument. Almost all opaque objects can he seen 
with a power of twenty-five diameters — the list includes seeds, min- 
erals, preparation of plants and their general structure, as shown by 
sections, leaves, roots, the crystals of Epsom and other salts, salicin, 
santonin, quinia, the other alkaloids of cinchona, and many other 
objects. 

The active process of crystallization and the deposition of metallic 
silver in crystalline form from the nitrate in solution may be shown by 
placing a drop of the solution on a glass slide, and in it a small piece 
of brass wire ; immediately crystals will appear and grow till they 
have spread as far as the liquid extends. Similar results will be obtained 
with any concentrated solution made from the crystalline salts we have 
on our shelves if allowed to evaporate spontaneously. 

Many substances of vegetable origin are not fit for medicinal use when 
first gathered ; others, which are reliable when gathered and properly 
and carefully prepared, are subject to deterioration if kept for some 
time. Even the roots of the virulent aconite are sometimes converted 
into impalpable dust by microscopical insects ; the leaves of Conium 
maculatum and other powerful narcotics are rendered inert by the pro- 
cess set up in their interior by fungi. These injurious changes are 
often not discovered by the naked eye, and explain the fact that some 
of the carefully prepared tinctures and extracts are devoid of their 
medicinal power. 

Prof. Baily, of West Point, called attention to crystals found in 
plants, and that saline substances are spontaneously crystallized within 
the cells, existing in infinite numbers throughout barks, woods and 
leaves of numerous trees and shrubs. The beautiful tinted juices to 
which flowers and leaves owe their variety of colors, the sweet odors 
with which they perfume the air, the gums, balsams, starches, natural 
alkaloids in endless profusion, are fabricated by the vegetable cell ; even 
the lichen and smallest moss is an interesting object. Examination 



1 1 8 



Carya Tomentosa. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm- 

t Mar., 1879. 



proves that the crystals viewed by a low power are imbedded in their 
natural position even in the dense guaiacum wood. They may be seen 
by dusting the powder into a little water, picking out the woody par- 
ticles and examining the residue, and by the same manipulation they 
may be found in the borage, hydrastis, matico, chiretta and other 
plants. 

Should we wish, for example, to satisfy ourselves whether a given 
specimen of pulverized cinchona bark is adulterated or not, we first 
examine a thin layer of the perfect bark under the lens and ascertain 
the exact appearance of the crystals therein. Then we place some of 
the finely ground bark under the instrument, and if the crystals are 
identical with those in the perfect specimen, we may decide the former 
to be genuine. If other crystals are found, the testimony is strongly in 
favor of adulteration. This test, with another which consists in the 
investigation of the ultimate structure of barks, leaves, roots, will 
enable the pharmacist to avoid imposition by adulterated drugs. 

The examination of the sediments of our tinctures show crystals, 
and that of water the presence of animalculae and spores of fungi, 
which are capable of contaminating other fluids and starting decompo- 
sition in many of our flavored waters and pharmiceutical preparations. 

The pharmacist who takes up the subject will find his pharmacy a 
vast store-house of endless pleasure and information to dispel his long, 
business hours. 



THE BARK OF CARYA TOMENTOSA, Nuttall. 

By Frank R. Smith, Ph.G. 
Abstract from a thesis presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

In examining hickory bark, collected by himself, the author succeeded 
in isolating a crystalline principle for which he proposes the name 
caryin, but states that it is identical with quercitrin. It was obtained in 
the following manner : • 

An infusion of the bark was treated with solution of lead acetate as 
long as a precipitate was produced ; the precipitate was well washed 
with water, then suspended in water and the liquid saturated with 
sulphydric acid. The sulphide of lead was removed by filtration and after 
standing for about twelve hours, the clear filtrate was of a yellow color 



Am. lour. Pharnri ) 
Mar , 1879 J 



Liquor Ammonii Acetatis. 



119 



and had deposited a number of small crystals, which were purified by 
recrystallization from weak alcohol. 

The principle thus obtained is soluble in alcohol, and the solution has 
an acid reaction on litmus paper. It is almost insoluble in cold water, 
but dissolves freely in boiling water, the solution being of a yellow 
color. On filtering its alcoholic solution through animal charcoal, the 
latter retains the greater portion of the principle. The color of the 
solutions is rendered lighter by acids and deeper by alkalies. Ferric 
chloride added to the solution changes the color to deep green. 

The author determined also the presence in the bark of a small quan- 
tity of tannin and of sugar. Resin, gum and starch appear to be absent. 

On incineration the bark yielded about 2 per cent, of ash, containing 
salts of calcium, potassium and sodium. 

Note by the Editor. — The specimen of the principle presented by 
Mr. Smith shows the usual reactions of quercitrin, prepared from the 
bark of Quercus tinctoria, and when ignited, is decomposed without 
leaving any residue ; it is, however, of a darker color and has a decided 
greenish tint. It deserves a closer investigation. 



CONCENTRATED LIQUOR AMMONII ACETATIS. 

By Louis Emanuel, Ph.G. 

Read before the Pharmaceutical Association of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy, 

January 21st. 

Of late, a number of pharmacists have been making a concentrated 
solution of ammonium acetate, which is diluted to a certain strength 
as required for dispensing. Their favorable accounts induced me to 
try its practicability, and, being pleased with its convenience, I conclu- 
ded to continue its use. Having exhausted the pure acid I had on 
hand, a small quantity was purchased from a wholesale drug house, 
which was labeled " acetic acid, U. S. P.," purporting to be strictly 
pure, and, relying in confidence on the seller, no tests were made, 
although it had a slight empyreumatic odor. The acid was neutralized 
with pure ammonium carbonate and yielded a solution having a 
decided blueish tint, which, after standing several days, changed to a 
light brown color, a brown precipitate being at the same time deposited. 



I 20 



Liquor Ammonii Acetatis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



Upon examination, the acid was found to be of the proper strength 
and to contain copper and sulphurous acid. 

This circumstance called to mind that the solution has another 
important property, which is due to its concentrated form, as in that 
state the impurities common to acetic acid are more readily detected 
and often noticeable to the eye, as in this instance ; for the blueish tint 
could not be noticed upon diluting the solution with five parts of water. 

The commercial acetic acid is, as a rule, unfit for making liquor 
ammonii acet., as it invariably contains copper or other impurities. 
The first I used was that made by Dr. Squibb, which was perfectly 
free from empyreuma and insensible to all tests for copper, lead, etc., 
and produced a perfectly colorless solution This pure acid cost 
thirty-five cents (20 for the acid, 15 for gr. bottle) while the impure 
cost twenty cents, yet this small advance seems to be quite an obsta- 
cle towards the employment of a superior article. 

In preparing this solution, W. H. Woodcock (see Dr. Cir., page 
182, 1878) employs the British formula for liquor ammonii acetatis, 
diluting, however, the concentrated solution, formed only as it is 
required for use ; he also uses U. S. P. acetic acid, which is 3 per cent, 
stronger than that of the British Pharmacopoeia, and, in diluting, he 
uses one measure of concentrated solution and five of distilled water, 
forming a liquor ammonii acetatis somewhat stronger than our pharmaco- 
poeia. Of course, the solution is not of a powerful nature, yet we 
should have uniformity of strength in medicine, if possible, and espe- 
cially should not let the opportunity go by in this instance, when uniform- 
ity can be so readily accomplished and, therefore, I would suggest the 
following modification: 

Take of acetic acid ten fiuidounces, ammonium carbonate, three 
troyounces or a sufficiency. Pour the acid in a capsule, add the 
carbonate, set aside until effervesence has ceased (this will measure 
eleven fluid-ounces), evaporate by the aid of a gentle heat to ten fluid- 
ounces and add ammonium carbonate until the solution is neutral. 
Wood and Bache recommend to • make it slightly alkaline, as the 
acetate of the alkalies are alkaline to test paper when they are neutral 
in composition, so it is very difficult to ascertain the exact point of 
saturation.. I have here the solution made from the impure acid con- 
taining such an excess of ammonium carbonate as to cause a brisk 
effervescence upon the addition of more acid, yet it turns red litmus 



Am M J a r?i8 7 h 9 arm } Extract of Wild Cherry . 



121 



paper only faintly blue, and blue litmus paper will be tinged red at the 
•edges, becoming entirely red when exposed to the air a short time. 
On the strength of this fact, I usually make the solution so that it 
turns blue litmus faintly red. 

By this process ten fluid-ounces of acetic acid are used and ten fluid- 
ounces of the solution are obtained, and consequently we must dilute 
in the same proportions as for making Acid. Acetic. Dil., U. S. P., 
that is, one measure to seven, and, using carbonic acid water instead 
of distilled water, form the officinal liquor ammonii acetatis. The use 
of carbonic acid water is not of a secondary importance, as the officinal 
solution contains carbonic acid gas, and its presence often allays vomit- 
ing. It is not difficult to obtain, as almost every pharmacist has a soda 
water apparatus in constant operation during the summer season, and 
in the winter the syphon bottle may be resorted to, or a quantity may 
be put up in vials of various sizes, being well stoppered, and kept in a 
cool place ready for use. It should, however, be free from copper and 
other impurities. 

The ammonium carbonate should also be carefully examined, as the 
commercial article frequently contains animal oil and tarry matter. 
Pittsburgh, Jan. 2isr, 1879. 



FLUID EXTRACT OF WILD CHERRY. 

Br Wilford O. Higcate, Ph.G. 
Abstract from a thesis presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

A fluid extract of wild cherry bark, prepared by the process described 
below, is regarded by the author as possessing all the virtues of the 
drug and as representing it fluidounce f r troyounce. 

Eighteen troyounces of the bark are reduced to a powder, passing 
through a No. 40 sieve. Of this powder sixteen troyounces are well 
moistened with a mixture consisting of 4 parts of glycerin, 4 parts of 
simple syrup and 2 parts of water. The moistened powder is then 
packed moderately tight into a cylindrical glass percolator, and a suffi- 
cient quantity of the mixture is poured on until the liquid just begins 
to drop. The percolator is then corked and covered, and set aside for 
four days, during which time the amygdalin will be decomposed into 
volatile oil and hydrocyanic acid. Percolation is then commenced with 
the mixture mentioned above, to ten parts of which one part of alcohol 



1 22 



Adulterations. 



J A.m )our. Pharn* 
\ Mar., 1879 



has been added. The first fourteen fluidounces are to be reserved and 
the percolation continued until six fluidounces more have been obtained,, 
the latter portion being employed for percolating through the reserved 
two troyounces of the bark, after they had been moistened with a por- 
tion of the original menstruum for three or four days. From this second 
portion of bark, two fluidounces of liquid are obtained, and this is mixed 
with the reserved 14 fluidounces. 

Fluid extract of wild cherry bark thus prepared keeps well, has the 
proper odor and the taste of the bark, and possesses the advantage of 
mixing in all proportions with water without causing precipitation. 



ADULTERATION S. 

By Geo. W. Kennedy, Ph.G. 
Read at the Meeting of the Alumni Association, Phila. College of Pharmacy. 

A sample of powdered gum arabic was handed the writer by a 
friend, which was purchased at a drug store in a neighboring town, with 
the request that I examine it as to its purity. Its behavior, when 
treated with boiling water in the preparation of mucilage to be used as 
a paste, indicated that it was an impure or an adulterated article, and 
that some foreign substance must be present, since the mucilage was 
not so adhesive as some prepared on former occasions from gum 
purchased elsewhere It is known that flour, starch and dextrin have 
been used as adulterants, and, on a close ocular examination, small 
white pieces or globules of what appeared to be starch were discovered 
in the powder, which was of a yellowish tinge and furnished a 
yellowish mucilage. With the .assistance of a small pocket magnifying 
glass, there was no difficulty in determining that the adulterant was 
starch, evidently very badly mixed, and certainly not by an expert or 
an experienced hand in this reprehensible practice. The writer is of 
the opinion that the adulteration was made by the retail druggist where 
the article was purchased, and not by the wholesale dealer who often 
has to shoulder such ignominious proceedings. In making the investiga- 
tion, I was induced to examine some six other samples, purchased by 
the author from as many retail drug stores, with the following results: 

A mucilage was prepared from each sample with boiling water and 
allowed to cool. The reagent used was tincture of iodine, largely 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. 

Mar., 1879 



Adulterations. 



123. 



diluted, and, with sample No. 1, the suspected article, a deep-blue 
color was immediately produced, proving the presence of starch, the 
amount present being, approximately, 25 per cent. Five other sam- 
ples, judging from their appearance, solubility and behavior to the 
test, I would pronounce very good specimens of gum acacia. A 
seventh sample was much darker in color than the others, and, since 
the reagent produced a reddish-purple color, the presence of dextrin 
would seem to be indicated. 

It is high time that some means should be resorted to for preventing 
the fraudulent mixing and reducing of drugs, and I hope that the 
State Pharmaceutical Association will take this matter in charge and 
endeavor to have a law passed prohibiting, under severe penalties, the 
manufacture and sale of all adulterated articles. In some localities, a 
conscientious pharmacist is hardly able to earn a livelihood, owing to 
the mean and dishonest competition which surrounds him. It is natu- 
ral for people to seek the cheapest places to make their purchases, and 
this necessarily places the reputable apothecary to a great disadvan- 
tage. Pharmacists should endeavor to make the people understand 
the difference in goods of guaranteed purity and the opposite, and that 
the latter is dear at any price. 

A few years ago, I was offered a lot of India senna leaves for 5 cts. 
a pound ; at the time, in small lots, it was selling for 25 cts. The 
price being extremely low, my suspicions were aroused and, upon close 
examination, I found it was considerably damaged by moisture and age,, 
and, in my judgment, unfit to be used as a medicine. Being a little 
inquisitive as to what became of the large quantity which the partv 
represented to have on hand, I was surprised when informed that not 
only the house which he represented, but also another manufacturer 
were using it in the preparation of fluid extract, and, as the party 
remarked, " it makes a very elegant extract," there is no doubt but a 
considerable quantity of old, damaged drugs, instead of being submitted 
to the flames or thrown away as worthless, are consumed in the 
manufacture of various galenical preparations. 

Only a short time ago, I was informed by two reliable apothecaries 
that a neighboring druggist was dispensing sulphate of quinia, but 
which subsequently turned out to be cinchonidia, at the rate of about 
40 cents per drachm. The price of sulphate of quinia at the time 
was $5.00 per ounce, and that of cinchonidia, 80 cents. For fifty 



Chemical Notes. 



Am. lour. Pharnr. 

Mar., 1879. 



cents he would dispense a prescription calling for quinia sulphate 3i 
and ferri chlor. 3i ; and for 25 cents he would sell a dozen of two- 
grain quinia pills. In both cases the price charged for the medicine 
was lower than the principal ingredient could be purchased at whole- 
sale. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. S. P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry. — F. Jones, in a paper read before the Eng- 
lish Chemical Society, Nov. 21st, announces the preparation of a 
hydrogen compound of boron. By heating a mixture of boric oxide with 
magnesium dust, and after treatment of the magnesium boride, Mg 3 B 2 , 
formed with hydrochloric and nitric acids, is obtained a colorless 
inflammable gas, which burns with a green flame, and is undoubtedly 
hydrogen boride. In preparing magnesium boride, 2 equivalents of 
magnesium must be taken for every 1 equivalent of oxygen in the 
boric oxide. — London corresp. in Benchte, XI, p. 229. 

C. Councler has prepared a number of the organic derivations of 
boron, with a view of throwing light upon the question whether boron 
■may be quinquivalent as well as trivalent. All of the organic compounds 
seemed to indicate only the trivalent character of the element. He 
succeeded, however, in preparing boric oxy chloride, BOCl 3 , a compound 
-exactly analogous to POCl 3 , and he therefore considers the probability 
as very great that boron is to be classed in the nitrogen group of ele- 
ments, possessing both trivalent and quinquivalent character. — Journal 
fur pr. Cb. y 1878, p. 371. 

The existence of the hydrogen boride mentioned above was not 
known to Councler at the time of his writing. A careful study of its 
formation would undoubtedly throw much light upon the question. 

Th. Salzer calls attention to the explosive character of a mixture of 
sal ammoniac and ble aching-powder. One grm. each of bleaching-pow- 
<ier and sal ammoniac, air-dried, when shaken together, are sufficient 
to liberate copious fumes of a spontaneously inflammable gas. This 
appears to be owing to the formation of ammonium hypochlorite, and 
not to any possible production of chloride of nitrogen. 

He therefore cautions dealers and others against allowing bleaching- 



Am lour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879 



Chemical Notes. 



125 



powder to become mixed with ammonium salts in store-rooms or other 
receptacles for chemicals. 

Organic Chemistry. — W. Kelbe has prepared a new hydrocarbon^ 
by heating rosin oil (the high-boiling portions of the product of the dry 
distillation of colophony-resin) with sulphur, to 200°C. and higher. 
The same compound is obtained by treating the rosin oil with phos- 
phorus pentachloride. The hydrocarbon is obtained in white pearly 
scales, fusing at 94 to 95°C. It is decomposed on distillation, yielding 
another hydrocarbon, fusing at 86°C. This latter yields on analysis- 
91*5 per cent. C. and 8*5 per cent. H. 

Kelbe does not propose any formulas for these hydrocarbons. — 
.Berichte, XI, p. 2174. 

Merz and Tibiriga have endeavored to make the reaction of carbon- 
ous oxide upon soda-lime, giving rise to sodium formate, a commercial 
one. They pass CO over the soda-lime heated to 200 to 250°C, 
and obtain as product the sodium formate. If the high temperature 
does not act injuriously upon the production of the formate, and if the 
sodium salt can be produced cheaply, the question of manufacturing 
cyanogen compounds from ammonium formate can be again taken up. 
Chem. Industrie, I, p. 391. 

Among the rapid strides that are constantly making in organic syn- 
thesis may especially be noted several that have been taken within the 
past year. 

Baeyer has made a complete synthesis of indigo-blue. It is true, the 
process is too involved and costly for practical use as yet, but its steps 
may be shortened and made simpler at no distant day. The starting- 
point is benzyl-chloride, and it involves the formation successively of 
phenyl-acetic acid, amido-phenyl-acetic acid, oxindol, isatin and, lastly, 
indigo-blue. 

Fischer, similarly, has made the synthesis of rosanilin. Taking tri- 
phenyl-methan CH(C 6 H 5 ) 3 , from this is prepared trinitro-triphenyl- 
methan, and, on oxydation, trinitro-triphenyl-carbinol, and, from this, 
rosanilin. 

Hofmann has shown that the blue dye-color, cedriret, is the 
dimethyl ether of pyrogallic acid. He has also shown that the eupittonic 
acid of coal-tar is a hexa-methyl derivative of rosolic acid, the well- 
known phenol dye-color. — Chem. Industrie, I, p. 394. 

Analytical Chemistry. — F. Bei stein gives a method for the sepa- 



I 2 6 Chemical Notes. { Am M J a °rTi? 9 arm * 

ration of zinc and nickel that is said to exceed in exactness all other 
methods. The quite dilute solution of the nitrates or sulphates is 
made ammoniacal, and then acidified with pure citric acid. After the 
solution has become perfectly cold, hydrogen sulphide gas is passed in 
until the solution smells distinctly of it. The precipitated sulphide of 
zinc will contain all the zinc. After standing 24 hours, the sulphide 
of zinc is filtered off and weighed as such. The filtrate, concentrated 
down to a small bulk, is saturated with ammonia, and the nickel precipi- 
tated by electrolysis. For this latter reason, the liquid should be in 
nitric acid solution, as ammonium chloride hinders the electrolytic pre- 
cipitation. — Berichte, XI, p. 17 15. 

Applied Chemistry. — Within the last year or two, several improve- 
ments have been introduced by the French in the working of the 
molasses residues from the beet-root sugar manufacture. These residues, 
after treatment for the extraction of the potash salts, are now sub- 
mitted to dry distillation, and several most valuable products are 
obtained. 

In the distillation gases and tar are formed, together with much con- 
densed water. The latter alone is important. From it is obtained 
ammonium sulphate, methyl alcohol and large amounts of crude tri- 
methylamin salts. The methyl alcohol is all sold for use in the 
manufacture of anilin colors, while the tri-methylamin salts, by a new 
process of Vincent, the chief promoter of this industry, are decom- 
posed with the production of methyl chloride, an extremely volatile 
liquid, boiling at 23°C. This is used in the formation of artificial ice, 
and also in the manufacture of anilin colors containing methyl. This 
fine utilization of what was long regarded as purely a waste product 
was considered as one of the most striking improvements in applied 
chemistry shown at the late Paris exhibition. — Dingler's 'Journal, 230, 
p. 263. 

Petroleum Soaps. — These soaps, lately brought on the market, are 
formed by adding petroleum, with which has been mixed a definite quan- 
tity of Carnauba wax, to the soap-making materials. If these products are 
submitted to distillation, the petroleum distills off unchanged, and the 
soap remains behind, also unchanged. The soaps dissolve entirely in 
water, neither the petroleum nor carnauba wax separating out even as 
an emulsion. A. Livache has examined the question of the effect of 
the admixture of carnauba wax upon the petroleum. This wax is 



Am Mar ur 'i8 7 h 9 a [ m '} Gleanings from the German Journals. 127 

composed of a fatty acid combined with myricyl alcohol. When the 
fatty acid is saponified, the myricyl alcohol must dissolve in the soap 
formed. This appears to be the case, and not only so, but the alcohol 
causes petroleum to go into solution also in the soap. Livache found 
that other substances besides the myricyl alcohol would act thus — 
methyl and amyl alcohol were able to render petroleum soluble in soap. 
— Comptes Rendus, 87, p. 249. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
Recovering Ether in Preparing Etherial Extracts. — Instead of 
recovering the ether by expressing the exhausted drug, E. Rohn mixes 
the drug with sufficient water to form a thin paste, and then heats the 
latter in a still over an open fire to about 6o°C, when the ether 
evaporates and passes into the condenser. In this manner the author 
recovered more than 3 kilos of ether from 8 or 10 kilos of extracted 
male fern. — Schw. Wochenschr. Dec. 6, 1878, p. 425. 

Wooden Suppository Moulds.— Bernbeck prefers wooden sup- 
pository-moulds to metal ones, claiming that they are not only consid- 
erably cheaper and easier to handle, but can be used in many cases 
where metal moulds would be objectionable, f. i. for nitrate of silver 
suppositories. The principal disadvantage of wooden moulds is the 
difficulty experienced in removing the suppositories, when the moulds 
are coated with almond oil or talcum, as usually directed ; in the 
place of these Bernbeck uses glycerin with success. — Pbar. Zeitung, 
Jan. 11, 1879. 

The Purgative Effect of Hypodermic Injections of Aloin 

has been investigated by Dr. Fronmaeller, who states that a solution 
of one part of aloin in 25 parts of very warm water will have the same 
purgative effect, when injected hypodermically as when taken intern- 
ally. Two injections are usually necessary to produce the desired effect 
in from 6 to 14, very rarely in 2 to 3 hours, there being scarcely any 
irritation and never an abscess caused, where injected. Hypodermic 
injections with extract of aloes (1 part in 10 parts of water) also proved 
efficacious, but produced a stronger inflammation, where injected, than 
aloin. — Pbarm. Post, Jan. 1, 1879, p. 5. 



128 Gleanings from the German Journals. 

Vieirin or Vieiric Acid. — Vieirin is a bitter principle, isolated from 
the bark of the root of Remigia ferruginea, D. C, (Cinchona ferru- 
ginea., St. Hil.) and was first introduced and recommended by Dr. 
Vieira in the treatment of scrofula and rhachitis. It is made by mixing 
the powdered bark with half its weight of hydrate of lime, extracting 
with boiling water, treating the filtrate with hydrochloric acid and the 
resulting precipitate with animal charcoal. When fresh it is white and 
possesses the pleasant odor of ®)uina de campo ; on exposure to the air 
it turns yellow, and when dry possesses scarcely any odor. It is 
heavier than water, insoluble in ether, water and the volatile oils> 
scarcely soluble in fatty oils, but soluble in alcohol and chloroform. 

Tinctura Vieirinse is a solution of I part vieirin in 10 of 
alcohol. Syrupus Vieiritue, or Syr. calcli vieirinatis consists of 3*0 hydrate 
of calcium, 3*0 vierin, water and sugar, of each sufficient to make 
300*0 of strained syrup. — Pharm. Centralh. Jan. 9, 1879, p. 12. 

Ferrum sub-benzoicum, 2(Fe 2 3 )3(C 14 H 5 3 )+i5HO, used success- 
fully in the treatment of scrofula in the dose of o*i to 0*2, three or 
four times daily, is made as follows: Mix 100 parts of ammonia water, 
sp. gr. 0*96, with 1500 parts of distilled water, and dissolve in the 
mixture, with constant agitation, 37 parts of crystallized benzoic acid, 
add 60 parts of acetic acid or sufficient to render the mixture neutral, 
and precipitate it with a mixture prepared of 72 parts of solution of 
ferric chloride (sp. gr. 1*48) and 100 parts of distilled water. After 
standing for one day, collect the precipitate on a strainer, wash with 
cold water, and, having removed the greater portion of the latter by 
expressing, dry the precipitate in a warm place. — Ibid., p. 11. 

Chrysophanic acid has been recommended in England as a remedy 
for psoriasis and parasitic skin diseases, and was recently used success- 
fully in several of the largest hospitals of Berlin. It appears in com- 
merce as a yellow amorphous powder, possessing a peculiar strong odor, 
and is not soluble in water, scarcely soluble in alcohol, but more so in 
ether; it does not answer the description of the pure acid, nor does it 
yield exactly the same reactions, and must therefore be considered an 
impure preparation. — Pharm. Ztg., Dec. 18, 1878, p. 872. 

Quinia Arsenite. — Commercial quinia arsenite was analyzed by 
Oscar Adler, who found it to be a not uniform mixture of arsenious 



Am Mar U %8 7 h 9 ara, '| Gleanings from the German Journals, 129 

acid and quinia instead of a chemical compound ; 2 grams of the mixture 
contained 0*142, As 2 O s , 0746 quinia and 0'ii2 gram water. The 
author prepares pure quinia arsenite by boiling for some time hydro- 
chlorate of quinia with silver arsenite, both suspended in diluted alcohol, 
when very delicate needles appear in the filtrate, which are soluble in 
15 parts of cold and 6 parts of boiling alcohol, in 8 parts of chloroform, in 
25 parts of ether, in 20 parts of benzol, and scarcely soluble in cold, 
but soluble in about 150 parts hot water; the constitution of quinia 
arsenite is ( r C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 ) 3 H 3 AsO3-l-4H 2 O. — Arch. d. Pharm., Jan., 
1879, p. 43. 

Poisonous Effects of the Seeds of Agrostemma Githago. — 
These seeds are said to be frequently used in France as an adulteration 
of cheap flour, being ground with the grain. Two 500 grams lots of 
wheat flour containing, respectively, 30 and 45 per cent, of these seeds, 
administered to two calves, caused severe cramps in the stomach in the 
course of an hour, followed by diarrhoea and finally death. The seeds, 
offered to poultry, were not touched by chickens but eaten by ducks 
and geese, and had the same poisonous effect. All had severe inflam- 
mation of the bowels. — Arch. d. Pharm , Jan. 1879, p. 87. 

Poisoning by Aconite Root.— Seven persons who had taken bitters, 
prepared by mistake from whiskey and fresh aconite root in the place 
of rhubarb, immediately complained of severe pain in the stomach and 
head. Three died almost instantly, while the others were removed to 
a hospital and were restored to health in a few days. — Pharm. Ztg. 
Jan. nth, 1879, p 27. 

Poisoning with Salicylate of Sodium.— Dr. Feltz reports the poi- 
soning of a man who took 200 grams of salicylate of sodium in one 
month. He took 4 grams three times daily for seven days, then 
increased the dose to 6 grams, and, in the last 17 days to 8 grams three 
times daily. The intoxication symptoms were principally frequent 
vomiting and repeated attacks of very painful headache, preceded by 
reddening of the neck, face and head. His pupils were very much 
contracted and the symptoms continued for 17 days after the last dose 
of medicine had been taken, while the acid could be detected in the 
urine for 16 days.— Ap. Ztg., Dec. 14th, 1878, p. 205. 

Salicylic Acid against Taenia.— After trying almost all other reme- 
dies in vain, Marynowski administered to a lady who had suffered with 

9 



l£0 Cinchona Alkaloids. { 

taenia solium for nine years, 0*5 salicylic acid four times at intervals of 
one hour and then gave a tablespoonful of castor oil. This treat- 
ment proved painless and perfectly successful. — Apoth. Ztg. f Jan. nth, 
1879, p. 6. 

New Disinfectant. — An Australian physician, Dr. Day, recom- 
mends a mixture of 1 part of rectified oil turpentine, 7 parts of benzin, 
and, to every ounce of the mixture, 3 drops of oil verbena for disinfect- 
ing clothes, furniture, carpets, wall-papers, books, papers, etc., claim- 
ing that it does not injure the latter, while the oxidizing power is suffi- 
ciently great to cause the articles to retain the disinfecting properttes for 
some time — Ap. Ztg., Jan. 4th, 1879, p. 2. 



THE ACTION of SULPHOCYANIDE of POTASSIUM on 
SEVERAL CINCHONA ALKALOIDS. 

By O. Hesse. 

{Translated by P. H. Di/g, Ph. G., from "Archiv der Pharmacies Dec, 1878.) 

Several years ago, Schrage described a method for distinguishing 
several of the cinchona alkaloids based on the reaction of sulphocyanide 
of potassium on their salts. Strange to say, cinchonidia was entirely 
omitted, contrary to the fact that it constituted at the time a more 
important article of commerce and manufacture (though under the 
name of quinidia) than any of the other alkaloids examined by him, with 
the exception of quinia. But as cinchonidia is chemically closely 
allied to the latter, it was obvious that the omission of it made the 
utility of the method doubtful. This induced me, on a former occa- 
sion, to repeat the respective examinations, including cinchonidia, by 
which I came to the conclusion that the microscopic test in question is 
not sufficiently characteristic to make it reliable, especially regarding 
the distinction of cinchonidia and quinidia in quinia. I still uphold this 
claim, but am willing to admit now that the presence of cinchonidia in 
quinia may be detected to a certain degree by the quality and quantity 
of the sulphocyanide formed, but not by the quality alone, as both 
Schrage and GodefFroy observed. The conditions to obtain reliable 
results are : 

1. The sulphocyanide of potassium must be in aqueous solution of 
invariable concentration. The strength employed in the following is 
that recommended by Schrage (equal parts). 



Am. lour. Pharm. > 
Mar., 1879. / 



Cinchona Alkaloids. 



2. The relative strength of the sulphocyanide of potassium solution 
and the alkaloidal solution, as far as practicable, must not vary after 
it has been once decided upon. 

3. The alkaloidal solutions must be saturated solutions of the respec- 
tive sulphates in water at ordinary temperature. They may be obtained 
by digesting 1 part of the sulphate with 10 parts of water, at 
50 to 6o°C. for a few minutes, and when the mass has acquired the 
ordinary temperature filtering the solution ; the filtrate must not have 
the property of crystallizing independently when the microscopic test is 
applied. 

4. Observations of the reactions must be repeated until no change 
is apparent. The time usually required for each reaction is only a 
few minutes, with a few exceptions, where an hour and more is needed. 

My observations, described in the following, will embrace only the 
sulphates of quinia, cinchonidia, quinidia, cinchonia and homo-cincho- 
nidia; the latter is included on account of its frequent presence in 
cinchonidia, and sometimes even in sulphate of quinia. Of Drygin's new 
alkaloid cinchonichia, asserted to be present in sulphate of quinia to the 
extent of 6 per cent., no further notice was taken, as I consider it 
insufficiently examined cinchonidia. 

Sulphate of Quinia.— Only absolute pure sulphate was employed. 
Special mention is made of this as the commercial article prepared 
according to the various pharmacopoeias cannot be always depended on. 
For instance, the British Pharmacopoeia allows sulphate of quinia to pass 
as pure, though it is liable to contain about 20 per cent, cinchonidia 
sulphate. The absence of other cinchona alkaloids from sulphate of 
quinia may be determined by digesting 2 grams of the latter for a short 
time with 10 times its weight of water at 50 to 6o°C, shaking the 
cooled and filtered solution, after precipitation, with ether, and slowly 
evaporating the latter. If the sulphate was pure, the residue is entirely 
amorphous. Pure and unefHoresced sulphate of quinia (with 8H 2 0) is 
soluble at 20°C. in about 600 parts, and sulphocyanide of quinia in 
562 parts of water; the latter combination being more soluble than the 
former, it seems reasonable that the sulphate has not a tendency to be 
readily converted into sulphocyanide. Nevertheless, sulphocyanide of qui- 
nia is formed when the two solutions are brought in contact, and this is 
due to sulphocyanide of quinia being less soluble in solution of sulpho- 
cyanide of potassium than in pure water (contrary to Schrage's state- 



132 



Cinchona Alkaloids. 



J Am Jour. Pharm.. 
\ Mar., 18^9. 



ment). The separated quinia is increased in quantity with the excess 
of solution of sulphocyanide of potassium until no trace of quinia can 
be detected in the solution with ammonia. If, on the contrary, the 
solution of the sulphate is increased the precipitate diminishes, and at 
last the reaction ceases entirely. 

The microscopic test, where equal parts of the solutions of sulpho- 
cyanide of potassium and sulphate of quinia are used, exhibits at the 
point of contact a very slight separation of minute drops, which are 
replaced in a few minutes by needles arranged into many-rayed stellate 
groups. The number of these groups is scant. I was unable to 
obtain with really pure sulphate the reaction described by Godeffroy 
(see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1878, p. 179, Fig. 1). 

Sulphate of Cinchonidia. — If one drop of solution of sulphocy- 
anide of potassium is brought in contact with 1 cc. of the sulphate 
solution at ordinary temperature, it will become milky, due to the sepa- 
ration of sulphocyanide of cinchonidia in an amorphous condition ; this 
soon changes to concentrically grouped delicate needles. If the sul- 
phate solution was boiling hot, a faint turbidity will appear a few 
minutes after the addition of the sulphocyanide solution, which soon 
disappears as larger needles are formed. Sulphocyanide of cinchonidia 
is so completely precipitated from its aqueous solution by an excess of 
sulphocyanide of potassium, that ammonia will not produce a precipi- 
tate ; proving conclusively that, contrary to Schrage, sulphocyanide of 
cinchonidia is insoluble in an excess of sulphocyanide of potassium. 
Regarding the microscopic test it will be found that on using the cooled 
saturated sulphate solution, a large quantity of oil-like globules will 
instantly be formed, but these soon give way to the formation of con- 
centrically arranged needles. 

Sulphate of Homocinchonidia. — Its reaction with the test liquid 
is almost identical with that of sulphate of cinchonidia. Apparently 
the conversion of the sulphocyanide from its amorphous into its crys- 
talline state is somewhat more rapid than in the former alkaloid. 
Besides the stellate formations, isolated needles are discerned. 

Sulphate of Quinidia (Conchinia).'— Sulphocyanide of quinidia, as 
formerly stated, dissolves at 20°C. in 1477 parts of water, and conse- 

1 Schrage calls this alkaloid quinidia, because Kerner, in 1862, adopted this name, 
and because in consequence of the adoption of his well-known test by . the German 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Mar., 1879. J 



Cinchona Alkaloids. 



133 



quently is less soluble in it than any other sulphocyanide of the cinchona 
alkaloids. Besides this, it passed very rapidly from its amorphous into the 
crystalline condition, so that the characteristic forms are readily produced. 
The crystals, obtained from the dilute solution are flat, stellately grouped 
needles ; but if their development is interfered with, as in the micro- 
scopic test in question, where they are formed between two plates of 
glass, the groups frequently assume a dendritic appearance, and from 
moderately dilute solutions, flat needles in stellate groups are likewise 
produced, sometimes also isolated prisms, and occasionally elongated 
six-sided scales attached to the branches of the dendriform groups. 

Sulphate of Cinchonia. — If a cold saturated aqueous solution of 
this sulphate is treated at ordinary temperature with sulphocyanide of 
potassium a white curdy precipitate is produced, while with a moder- 
ately warm dilute solution, pretty prisms and scales are formed, the 
latter being generally six-sided, the former four-sided and either 
truncate or pointed. As in the previous cases, a small excess of sulpho- 
cyanide of potassium facilitates the entire precipitation of cinchonia 
from the neutral sulphate solutions. Under the lens it is demonstrated 
that the crystal-groups of the sulphocyanide of cinchonia go through 
the same process of formation as sulphocyanide of quinidia, and it is 
most likely due to its greater solubility that the crystals are better 
developed. Larger crystals are formed, and others are frequently 
attached in certain directions producing dendritic forms, sometimes fan- 
like groups and single prisms. The asserted resemblance to equisetum, 
grass, slate-like formations and antlers appears to be of little value. 

In regard to this microscopic test, GodeffVoy claims that it would 
indicate every sophistication or impurity of the sulphate of the cinchona 
alkaloids by the different forms of the crystals, while Schrage con- 
siders it merely an auxiliary and useful reaction, which he apparently 
had considerable trouble to comprehend. This is probably accounted 

Pharmacopoeia, Kernefs terminology has in a manner been legalized. But, for the same 
reason, Schrage's cinchonidia should be called quinidia. However, it should also be 
remembered that in i87oKerner not only discarded the name/? quinidia for this alka- 
loid in favor of concbinia, but also expressed the hope that the latter designation might be 
accepted in view of the simplification and greater accuracy of the nomenclature of 
the cinchona bases. I am well awaie that this name is not favored by some and that 
in France and England it is at once translated with quinidia 5 but I trust that gradu- 
ally a better understanding of the subject in question will be had. 



J 34 



Cinchona Alkaloids. 



1 Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1879. 



for by the fact that the above sulphates, when mixed, sometimes have 
different actions than when separated. 

The method in question does not indicate, according to my experi- 
ments when using solutions of 1 in 10, an admixture of to per cent, 
sulphate of cinchonia in sulphate of quinidia, or vice versa, as needles 
arranged in stellate groups are produced, which may belong to either 
alkaloid. More satisfactory, however, is the result if the presence of 
sulphate of cinchonidia or homo-cinchonidia is to be detected in the 
alkaloids deviating to the right. If, for instance, sulphate of cinchonia 
containing 10 per cent, of sulphate of cinchonidia or homo-cincho- 
nidia is used, it will be observed that first much sulphocyanide of cin- 
chonia is separated in single crystals and dendritic groups of prisms, 
and then delicate needles, concentrically grouped, representing cincho- 
nidia or homo-cinchonidia. If, however, either of the latter sulphates 
is present in cinchonia sulphate in smaller proportions than 5 per cent, 
it will not be indicated. The test also fails when quinia is present in 
cinchonia sulphate or quinia in quinidia sulphate. In the latter case 
the only indication of the presence of quinia might be that then the 
sulphocyanide of quinidia is partly separated in wart-like aggregations. 
But a small amount of cinchonidia or homo-cinchonidia produces a 
similar effect. If 3 per cent, of the latter sulphates are present in sul- 
phate of quinidia the wart-like and dendritic groups of sulphocyanide 
of quinidia will first separate, and afterwards dense stellate crystals- 
belonging to the sulphocyanides of the left rotating alkaloids. 

As for testing sulphate of quinia qualitatively by this method, its 
difficult solubility in cold water may be taken advantage of. The 
microscopic determination is especially sensitive in discerning ar* 
admixture of quinidia and cinchonia. If 1 per cent, sulphate of 
quinidia is present in quinia wart-like crystal clusters of sulphocyanide 
of quinidia, and later, several groups of the crystals of sulphocyanide 
of quinia will be formed. If 2 per cent, is present, the dendritic forms 
of sulphocyanide of quinidia will immediately be noticed. If sulphate 
of quinia contains 1 per cent, sulphate of cinchonia isolated prisms, 
some of them curved, will immediately be obtained, then a few stellate 
groups, and at last the characteristic groups of quinia are formed. 

Entirely different will be the result, however, if the sulphates of cincho- 
nidia and homo-cinchonidia are present in quinia. From the results with 
the pure sulphates, an abundant formation of crystals was anticipated if 



Am. Jour Pharm. ) 

Mar., 1879. / 



Quinia Test. 



the admixture should amount to 2 per cent. ; but the admixture not 
only retards the formation of crystals, but, within certain limits, pre- 
vents it entirely. With such an admixture, which may even be increased 
to 3 per cent., results were obtained agreeing exactly with Fig. 1 of 
Godeffroy, obtained from pure (?) sulphate of quinia. If the said 
admixture is increased to 5 per cent, a copious separation of minute 
drops is observed at the first moment, but above this percentage the 
sulphocyanides crystallize rapidly. 

From this it follows that the test in question will indicate in sulphate 
of quinia an admixture of at least 1 per cent, of the sulphates of 
cinchonia and quinidia, and 5 per cent, of the sulphates of cinchonidia 
and homo-cinchonidia, provided that the sulution of the latter is pre- 
pared in the manner indicated above. If the solution is prepared by a 
different mode, whether as directed by Schrage or by Kerner, the deli- 
cacy of the test, which I cannot regard as being of much practical 
value, is materially impaired. 



QUINIA TEST. 

By O. Hesse. 

Translated from Archiv der Pharmacie> December, 1878, by P. H. Dilg, Ph.G. 

During several months past, I have exclusively tested sulphate of 
quinia by the following method, which may also be applied, properly 
modified, to other salts of quinia. My test is based on the following 
facts : 

1st. That sulphate of quinia is sparingly soluble in water at 50 to 
6o°C, while the other sulphates are readily dissolved without decom- 
position. 

2d. That when the cooled solution, after being supersaturated with 
ammonia, is shaken with just sufficient ether for dissolving the quinia, 
this quantity will be insufficient for the other alkaloids if present to a 
certain extent. 

To exe:utethe test I employ a tube which, for convenience may be 
termed " Quininometer." The dimensions which- have proved satis- 
factory in practice are 10 to 1 1 mm. in diameter and 120 mm. in 
height. It is marked at B and C, the space A to B being of 5 cc, and 
B to C of 1 cc. capacity. 

0*5 gram sulphate of quinia is well shaken in a large test tube with 



i36 



ghiinia Test. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



VT7 



10 cc. hot water (50 to 6o°C). After setting aside for ten minutes 
and shaking to prevent the sudden expulsion of the mass, the liquid is 
passed through a small filter, about 60 mm. in diameter, into the 
quininometer up to i?, then 1 cc. of ether (to mark C) is 
added, and afterwards 5 drops of ammonia water. The 
qnininometer is then corked and slowly shaken; the am- 
monia liberates the alkaloids, and these are taken up by 
the ether, which rises to the surface. After setting aside 
for two hours, the layer of ether should be devoid of crys- 
tals when examined with a lens. The officinal ether and 
ammonia will answer for this test. Special skill in its 
application is not required ; at the same time the result is 
very reliable, and does not, like some tests, depend in a 
great measure on the skill of the operator. 

If the etherial solution is devoid of crystals the sul- 
phate of quinia is sufficiently pure, but it may still contain 
0*25 per cent, sulphate of cinchonia, 0*5 per cent, sul- 
phate of quinidia and about 1 per cent, sulphate of cin- 
chonidia and homo-cinchonidia, which cannot be recog- 
nized by this method. If, however, these salts are present 
in larger quantity, crystals will be separated in the layer 
of ether, and if of granular appearance will indicate the 
presence of homo-cinchonidia or cinchonidia, while 
concentrically-arranged needles show the presence of 
cinchonia or quinidia. If the cinchonidia or homo-cin- 
chonidia in sulphate of quinia amounts to or exceeds 3 
per cent., as sometimes occurs, the granular crystals will 
separate in the layer of ether immediately or within 3 
minutes after shaking. If this crystallization occurs 
only after about 10 minutes it may be concluded that the 
preparation contains about 2 per cent, of admixture. If 
1 per cent, is present, the etherial solution is still clear 
after 2 hours, but in 12 hours a few crystals of cincho- 
nidia or homo-cinchonidia are noticed. If even after 
that time no crystals appear, it is evident that less than 
1 per cent, is present. In order to ascertain whether the 
latter alkaloids are present at all, it is only necessary to loosen the cork 
of the quininometer, allowing the ether to evaporate slowly ; 0*5 per 
cent, of sulphate of cinchonidia or homo cinchonidia will leave a dis- 




A 

Quininometer. 



Am lour. Pharm 
Mar., 1879 



Quinia Test. 



137 



tinct crystalline residue, and a trace of either alkaloid will show only a 
few crystals imbedded in the amorphous mass of quinia. If no admix- 
ture is present the residue will be entirely amorphous. 

If 0'5 per cent, sulphate of cinchonia or 1 per cent, of quinidia is 
present in sulphate of quinia, they will separate from the ether imme- 
diately after shaking. Since the properties of sulphate of quinia are of 
such a character that an admixture of the sulphates of cinchonia or 
quinidia is not likely to occur in the course of manufacture, it follows 
that, if they nevertheless are present, it is safe to pronounce them 
intentional adulterations. It is different, however, if cinchonidia or 
homo-cinchonidia are present, for although they are both very soluble 
in water, they crystallize with or follow in some way the sulphate of 
of quinia, so that several recrystallizations of this salt are required to 
•obtain it free from them. In regard to this, I have shown on a former 
occasion (Liebig's Ann., vol. 166) that sulphate of quinia which stands 
Kerner's test, may be entirely purified by one recrystallization from 
boiling water. 

Although it is not expected that sulphate of quinia should be abso- 
lutely chemically pure, I have found that much of this preparation in 
the market may pass as chemically pure. The manufacturer, there- 
fore, is in a position to furnish a pure article, provided a suitable bark 
can be obtained; but my continued observations have convinced me 
that this is not always possible, and that the manufacturer is often com- 
pelled to employ cinchona bark containing cinchonidia in abundance, 
so that the salt, after careful purification, will contain 1 per cent, of 
cinchonidia or homo cinchonidia. For this reason, and to make my 
test applicable in every instance, I recommend observation of the layer 
of ether 2 hours after the shaking. 

The above test, though, is simple and readily applied, and exceeds in 
accuracy all other tests published; it is therefore well adapted to the 
wants of the druggist and of the apothecary. 

Muriate of Quinia. — This salt is more liable to be contaminated 
with hydrochlorate of quinidia and cinchonia than with hydrochlorate 
of cinchonidia and homo-cinchonidia. These admixtures are readily 
detected on operating as follows : 0*5 gram of hydrochlorate of quinia 
and 0*25 gram of crystallized sulphdte of sodium (Glauber's salt) are 
introduced into a test tube, together with 10 cc. of hot water (about 
6o°C); the mixture is well agitated, and then treated precisely in the 
same manner as described above for sulphate of quinia. The tem- 
perature is best kept at or a little above 6o°C, because the resulting 
sulphate of quinia will afterwards separate in long crystals, and filtra- 
tion will then proceed rapidly. 



Quinidia Test. 



\m. four. Ptiarm. 
Mar., 1879. 



QUINIDIA TEST. 

By O. Hesse. 

Sulphate of quinidia (conchinia, Hesse) is found chemically pure in 
commerce, particularly in Germany ; but in some places the quinidia 
sulphate is entirely different. In Liebig's " Annalen," vol. 176, I 
have published a method for testing this salt, whereby the presence of 
mere traces of other cinchona alkaloids may be shown. But this, 
excellent test does not seem to have met with the attention it. 
deserves ; at least this appears to be indicated by a recently-published 
communication on this subject (see " Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1878, p. 
304). It may therefore be of interest to communicate the directions- 
for applying the test, somewhat modified so as to correspond with my 
quinia test. They are as follows : 

0*5 gram of quinidia sulphate and 0*5 gram of pure potassium iodide 
are introduced into a test tube, together with 10 cc. of hot water 
(about 6o°C.) ; the mixture is repeatedly well agitated, and, after one 
hour, filtered. The filtrate, on being mixed with a drop of ammonia 
water, must not produce any turbidity. — Translated from Archiv der 
Pharmacie, 1 878, December, p. 495. 



THYMOL AND THYMOL-CAMPHOR. 

By Charles Symes, Ph D. 

The pharmacy of thymol has already been ably treated in this 
Journal by Mr. A. W. Gerrard (see "Am. Jour. Pilar.," 1878, p. 
255), but as the substance continues to be largely used, fresh experience 
will, as a matter of course, be gained concerning it, and it is from the 
record of such from time to time that our knowledge concerning it 
and its relations will be perfected. 

Some four or five weeks since an idea occurred to me (which has- 
probably occurred to others also) that if thymol and chloral hydrate 
were rubbed together in a mortar they would possibly produce a liquid 
similar to the well-known chloral-camphor. Experiment proved, how- 
ever, that such is not the case ; but if an equal quantity of camphor 
be added to the mixture, the whole at once liquefies and produces what 
should be a powerful antiseptic. An opportunity was at hand which 
enabled me to test this property, for at the moment I was examining a 
quantity of urine containing pus, which was already in an incipient 



Am M™%8 7 h 9 am '} Thymol and Thymol-Camphor, 139 

state of decomposition. A fluidounce was separated, and to it two- 
drops of the thymol compound were added : putrefaction was at once 
arrested, and at the present time the liquid has merely the odor of 
thymol, whilst the bulk of the urine from which it was separated 
became quite offensive in twenty- four hours. 

Further experiments showed thymol and camphor, when rubbed 
together in the absence of chloral hydrate, also became liquid, and that 
the proportions could be varied from two parts thymol and one of cam- 
phor to one part of the former and ten of the latter, the result being a 
colorless syrupy liquid ; equal parts of each give very satisfactory 
results. 

The solubility of thymol in water is not greatly increased by this 
combination, but it is a very convenient form from which to prepare 
the ointment. It was stated in the paper already referred to that when 
dissolved in warm vaseline, so as to form a five per cent, solution, and 
set aside for a few days, the thymol separated in small crystals, which 
were highly objectionable, whilst Dr. Balmanno Squire has pointed out 
(" Pharm. Journ.," vol. viii, p. 602) that an ointment of greater 
strength than this will be required in the treatment of certain skin dis- 
eases. Now, thymol-camphor can be mixed with vaseline, unguentum 
petrolei or ozokerine, in almost any proportion. 

An ointment prepared with twenty per cent., equal to ten per cent, 
thymol, has been kept for some weeks without any separation whatever. 

A saturated solution of thymol in water (1 in 1,000) is found to be 
sufficiently strong for the spray during surgical operations, but for the 
throat and various other purposes it is often required stronger, and in 
such cases I know of no better aqueous solvent than milk, which takes 
it up readily in almost any proportion up to nearly ten per cent, of its- 
weight ; but it will rarely be required of such strength. Solution of 
borax is not a good solvent, but glacial acetic acid dissolves it most 
readily ; a large proportion, however, separates on dilution. The 
acidum aceticum of the Pharmacopoeia dissolves two grains in the fluid- 
ounce. There appears to be some difference in the sp. g. of thymol,, 
arising probably from the source from whence derived ; that described 
by Mr. Gerrard had a sp. g. 1*028, hence was heavier than water, 
whilst the specimens I have met with have only a sp. g. of 0*980 tc* 
0*990, and float on or near the surface. 



140 Adulteration of Soft Soap. { Km Q^;S^ % 

Business engagements have prevented me from carrying my experi- 
ments further, but I trust sufficient will be found in these notes to 
render them suggestive to the medical practitioner and pharmacist. — 
Pharm. four, and Trans , Jan. 18, 1879. 



THE ADULTERATION OF SOFT SOAP. 

The "Manufacturers' Review" translates from the French of M. 
Emile Picard the following note on the adulteration of soft soap: 

"One hundred parts of fatty matter, combined with soda or potash, 
yield 230 to 235 parts of pure soft soap, containing 33*14 per cent, of 
water. When certain adulterants are added in quantities too small 
to affect the appearance of the soap, 100 parts of grease will yield 320 
to 340 parts of what would be a good commercial article, containing 
33 to 38 per cent, of water. The same quantity of grease can be 
made to produce 380 parts of soap containing as much as 52 per cent, 
of water. The adulterants generally used are clay, resin, fecula 
and silicate of soda. All are added to increase the yield of soap 
and the proportion of water it can contain. Clay is the most harm- 
less of these adulterants. It is partly dissolved by the alkali, but makes 
the soap opaque, and is easily detected by its insolubility in water. 
It increases the amount of water required to bring the soap to the 
proper consistence, but is not otherwise harmful. It is less and less 
employed every day. Resin combines with alkali, but the resulting 
compound 'possesses none of the emollient qualities of fats.' It 
retains large quantities of water, but alters the emollient and detergent 
power of the soap, and makes it more caustic and corrosive. Soaps 
adulterated with resin only are clear, brilliant and transparent; more 
soluble in water than pure soap. They nearly always retain a slight 
odor of resin, which is most noticeable when the soap is warmed. 
Their color is often redder than usual ; they attack the skin, and make 
linen yellow. Fecula is very harmful, especially when combined with 
silicate of soda. It is generally employed with 3 or 4 times its weight 
of lye, water or silicate of soda. Soap made with it contains an excess 
of alkali and a very large quantity of water. It is more or less opaque 
as the proportion of starch is large or small; it is easily soluble in 
water; it is much affected by changes of temperature, and its deter- 



A m Mar U , r 'i87 h 9 ! rm I Solution of Per chloride of Iron. 141 

gent power is much lessened by the large proportion of water it con- 
tains. The latter fault is partly concealed by making it excessively 
alkaline; it is then corrosive, and attacks and destroys the skin, color- 
ing matters and woolen and silken goods. Analysis reveals the pres- 
ence of the decomposition products of the latter in the water in which 
they have been washed. Silicate of soda with fecula is far the most 
injurious adulterant of soap, and it is also the one most usually employed. 
Almost all commercial soaps contain it. Silicate of soda in small 
quantities does not alter the appearance of the soap; but it is decom- 
posed when used, and silica is deposited in the fibre of the flax or 
cotton and cannot be removed, rapidly destroying the tissues. Silk 
and wool are also attacked, and made more liable to be destroyed by 
alkalies. Water in which silk and wool have been washed with this 
soap contains considerable quantities of sulphur and ammonia, result- 
ing from the decomposition of the material. According to Dr. Vohl, 
linen and cotton cloths thus treated look, under the microscope, like 
worn fabrics — the fibre destroyed and the surface covered with a nap. 
Franklin said good bargains are sometimes ruinous. This is particu- 
larly true of soaps. Low-priced samples are never cheap; a larger 
quantity must be used to cleanse an equal amount, and fabrics are far 
more rapidly destroyed." — Scient. Amer^ Jan. 18, 1879. 



NEW MODE OF PREPARING SOLUTION OF PER- 
CHLORIDE OF IRON. 

By E. B. S h u t t l e w o rt h . 

The preparation of solution of perchloride of iron is always a disa- 
greeable operation, and, on the large scale, especially so. The addition 
of nitric acid to the acid ferrous chloride requires to be made very 
carefully, and the operator must give it all his attention, else the rapid 
disengagement of nitric oxide may cause loss by foaming. The ordinary 
directions require the operation to be conducted at a temperature con- 
siderably above that of boiling water, and a vessel capable of bearing 
the heat of a sand-bath and of withstanding the most trying of acids is 
requsite. 

If the plan proposed some years ago by Mr. R. Rother (using chlo- 



142 Solution of Perchloride of Iron. { Am Ma^ u ^! 7 h 9 arIn • 

rate of potassium) be followed, the operation may be performed with 
comparative comfort, but the introduction of a salt of potassium or 
sodium is an insuperable bar to the general application of the method. 

The process may also be rendered much pleasanter, but at the sacri- 
fice of time, by following the suggestions I made some years ago (1873), 
and allowing the mixture of acidified iron solution and nitric acid to 
stand a day or two at ordinary temperatures, or at the heat of a water- 
bath. In this way the use of expensive vessels may be avoided, and 
the whole operation conducted in earthenware. I have, however, for 
the past four or five months, pursued another plan, which was sug- 
gested to me by Mr. S. Cox, a practical chemist working under my 
direction, and which is so great an improvement on former methods, 
and which answers the purpose so admirably, that I feel jastified in 
recommending it very strongly. 

It consists in reversing the ordinary operation — adding the iron solu- 
tion to the nitric acid instead of the acid to the iron. If the specified 
■quantity of nitric acid be placed in a dish or pan, and the iron solution, 
mixed with the proper quantity of hydrochloric acid, be allowed to 
trickle slowly into it, the oxidizement is instantaneous in the cold, and 
the frothing very slight. The change from blackish-green to reddish- 
brown is very marked, and any deficiency in the quantity of nitric acid 
can be at once seen. On the large scale the liquor may be best added 
with a syphon. With a bent glass tube of five-sixteenths of an inch 
an diameter, the liquor from ten pounds of iron may be run in safely in 
twenty-two minutes, and requires no attention whatever, save in getting 
the syphon in operation. With pharmacopoeial quantities of material, 
the process of oxidizement may be concluded in almost as many 
seconds. 

The final concentration may be performed in a water-bath, and in 
this case earthenware vessels may be used, but of course the evapora- 
tion is much more rapid with the naked flame or a sand-bath ; but a 
high degree of heat is not at all necessary in making this preparation. 

I think this plan of reversing the order of mixing may be applied to 
many similar preparations, and shall be glad to learn the experience of 
others on this point. — Can. Pbar. Jour., Feb., 1879. 



Am. Jour. Pharm \ 
Mar, 1879 J 



Bismuthi Subnitras. 



143 



THE INCOMPATIBILITY OF BISMUTHI SUBNITRAS 
WITH THE ALKALINE BICARBONATES. 

By Thomas Green. 

Although this subject has, both recently and on a former occasion, 
attracted much attention and comment, it can scarcely be said that it 
has been satisfactorily settled, inasmuch as opinion seems divided as to 
whether the evolution of C0 2 from the alkaline bicarbonates is due to 
free acid in the bismuth subnitrate, or to the chemical action which 
the latter has on the former; the preponderance of opinion inclining 
to the former theory. Mr. Yeats, who, I believe, first drew attention 
to the subject, tested the bismuth he had used and finding it to be 
slightly acid, thought that might account for the explosion, but, how- 
ever, added that the real cause was probably a decomposition between 
the two salts, and formed an equation representing such decomposition. 

The following rough experiments seem to bear out the latter 
assumption, which also accords with the opinion of Squire, who gives 
as incompatibles of bismuth subnitrate the alkalies and alkaline 
carbonates. 

Two drachms of bismuth subnitrate and the same of sodium bicar- 
bonate were mixed with a small quantity of distilled water, and the 
bottle containing them was corked and set aside. In a short time, 
perhaps ten minutes, effervescence commenced and in about an hour 
the cork was expelled from the bottle. The cork was replaced and 
the reaction allowed to go on until all effervescence had ceased. The 
mixture was then transferred to a small filter, and the filtrate tested 
for HNO3, which was found. The precipitate, after being very well 
washed, was also examined for HNO s , but without success. It, how- 
ever, effervesced briskly on the addition of dilute sulphuric acid, prov- 
ing the presence of C0 2 . Examined by a lens, the precipitate had 
'lost the crystalline structure of the subnitrate, corresponding now in 
appearance with the carbonate. This experiment was repeated, sub- 
stituting sodium carbonate for the bicarbonate, with the following 
result: No effervescence whatever took place, but at the end of forty- 
eight hours the bismuth was examined and found to be entirely con- 
verted into the carbonate. 

I need not add that the bismuth subnitrate was perfectly neutral in 
its action on litmus paper, as the latter experiment fully proves. 



144 



Artificial Fruit Essences. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



It would thus appear that, independently of any free acid that may- 
be present in subnitrate of bismuth, owing to insufficient washing (1) 
that an admixture of this bismuth salt with the alkaline carbonates or 
bicarbonates results in mutual decomposition; (2) that when the car- 
bonates are used, decomposition without effervescence ensues; and (3) 
that when the bicarbonates are used, decomposition with liberation of 
C0 2 takes place. 

The following equations will render these propositions intelligible: 
2BiON0 3 ^Na 2 C03=Bi 2 2 C03+2NaN0 3 . 
2BiON034-2NaHC0 3 =Bi 2 2 C03+2NaN03-^H 2 04-G0 2 . 

In dispensing such mixtures it is clearly the duty of the compounder 
to complete as far as possible the decomposition before sending out the 
mixture. This may be partially effected by rubbing the two salts in a 
mortar with a little hot distilled water until the liquid is cold. But, 
whenever practicable, the attention of the prescriber should be drawn 
to the incompatibility and the substitution of the carbonate suggested. 
— Phar. Jour, aud Trans., Dec. 21. 1878. 



ARTIFICIAL FRUIT ESSENCES. 

By the Editor. 

Fourteen years ago, Kletzinsky published formulas for fifteen different fruit 
essences which, in 1 867, were republished by several journals (see "Am. Jour. Pharm.," 
1867, p. 238). Several of these formulas were again produced in the last volume 
of the Confectioners' Journal without any alterations except that in the essence of 
apple the quantity of oxalic acid was reduced from 1 to 4 part, and glycerin from 
4 to 2 parts; in essence of raspberry, the succinic acid was entirely oxmitted, and 
essence of peach was directed to be made of 2 oz. of oil of bitter almonds, 1 oz. of 
acetic ether and 2 pints of alcohol, but the latter product has evidently the flavor of 
peach kernels accompanied by a slight fruit odor. The flavor of peach fruit may be 
imitated by using 5 parts each of acetic-butyric andamylacetic ethers, £ part (or 
less); of methyl-salicylic ether (oil of wintergreen), 2 or 3 parts of oil of bitter 
almonds, and 80 or 100 parts of alcohol. 

Kletzin sky's formulas for the extracts of strawberry and raspberry are much 
improved by adding from 10 to 20 per cent, of tincture of orris root. If desired 
the rather acrid taste of this tincture may be removed by precipitating the resin, and 
if solution of acetate of lead is used for this purpose, the filtrate should be carefully 
freed from any excess of lead by sulphuretted hydrogen or by agitation with solu- 
tion of sulphate of sodium, which salt being insoluble in the alcoholic liquid, will 
not impart to it its peculiar saline taste. The tincture of orris may probably be 



Am M J a°r U ''i8 > 7 9 arm } Artificial Fruit Essences, 145 

conveniently replaced by an alcoholic solution of the oil of orris, which has been 
an article of commerce for some years past. 

Since several very important errors had crept into the formulas of Kletzinsky as 
published in 1867, some of which are, however, readily corrected, it has been 
thought best to republish all the formulas from Wittstein's " Vierteljahresschrift," 
xvi, p. 268. These formulas are given in parts by measure for 100 parts of alcohol, 
and whenever acids are used, they are to be previously dissolved in alcohol. 

Essence of Apple. — Aldehyd, 2 parts ; chloroform, acetic ether, nitrous ether and 
oxalic acid, each 1 part ; glycerin, 4 parts 5 amyl-valerianic ether, 10 parts. 

Essence of Pear. — Acetic ether, 5 parts ; amyl-acetic ether and glycerin, each 2 parts. 

Essence of Cherry — Benzoic ether, acetic ether, each 5 parts ; glycerin, 3 parts ; 
cenanthic ether and benzoic acid, each 1 part. 

Essence oj Black Cherry. — Benzoic ether, 5 parts; acetic ether, 10 parts; oil ot 
persico (peach kernels) and benzoic acid, each 2 parts ; oxalic acid, 1 part. 

Essence of Peach. — Formic ether, valerianic ether, butyric ether, acetic ether, 
glycerin and oil of persico, each 5 parts ; aldehyd and amylic alcohol, each 2 parts ; 
sebacylic ether, 1 part. 

Essence of Apricot. — Butyric ether, 10 parts; valerianic ether, 5 parts; glycerin, 4 
parts ; amylic alcohol, 2 parts ; amyl-butyric ether, chloroform, cenanthic ether and 
tartaric acid, each 1 part. 

Essence of Plum. — Glycerin, 8 parts ; acetic ether and aldehyd, each 5 parts ; oil 
of persico, 4 parts ; butyric ether, 2 parts, and formic ether 1 part. 

Essence of Grape. — CEnantbic ether, glycerin, each 10 parts ; tartaric acid, 5 parts; 
succinic acid, 3 parts ; aldehyd, chloroform and formic ether, each 2 parts, and 
methyl-salicylic ether, 1 part. 

Essence of Currant. — Acetic ether, tartaric acid, each 5 parts ; benzoic acid, suc- 
cinic acid, benzoic ether, aldehyd and oenanthic acid, each 1 part. 

Essence of Strawberry. — Butyric ether and acetic ether each 5 parts ; amyl-acetic 
ether, 3 parts; amyl-butyric ether and glycerin, each 2 parts; formic ether, nitrous 
ether and methyl-salicylic ether, each one part. 

Essence of Raspberry. — Acetic ether and tartaric acid, each 5 parts ; glycerin, 4 
parts; aldehyd, formic ether, benzoic ether, butyric ether, amyl-butyric ether, acetic 
ether, cenanthic ether, methyl-salicylic ether, nitrous ether, sebacylic ether and 
succinic acid, each 1 part. 

Essence of Pineapple. — Amyl-butyric ether, 10 parts; butyric ether, 5 parts; 
glycerin, 3 parts; aldehyd and chloroform, each 1 part. 

Essence of Melon. — Sebacylic ether, 10 parts; valerianic ether, 5 parts; glycerin, 3 
parts ; butyric ether, 4 parts; aldehyd, 2 parts ; formic ether, 1 part. 

Essence of Orange — Oil of o ange and glycerin, each 10 parts; aldehyd and chlo- 
roform, each 2 parts; acetic ether, 5 parts; benzoic ether, formic ether, butyric 
ether, amyl-acetic ether, methyl-salicylic ether and tartaric acid, each 1 part. 

Essence of Lemon. — Oil of lemon, acetic ether and tartaric acid, each 10 parts ; 
glycerin, 5 parts; aldehyd, 2 parts; chloroform, nitrous ether and succinic acid, 
each 1 part. 

The different manufacturers of artificial fruit essences doubtless prepare them by 

10 



146 



Varieties. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



formulas of their own, and this explains the difference in the flavor, which is par- 
ticularly noticeable on largely diluting them with water. If the essences have been 
prepared with a dilute alcohol their odor is more prominent, and they are apparently 
stronger 5 but on mixing a small quantity with a large quantity of water in given 
proportions, the true flavoring strength may be better discerned. 

A fruit essence, which is much employed in the United States, is essence of banana ,• 
it consists usually of butyric ether and amyl-acetic ether, equal parts, dissolved in 
about 5 parts of alcohol. 

The red color of strawberry and raspberry essence is produced by anilin red 
(fuchsin), the blueish tint of which is conveniently neutralized by a little caramel. 
If caramel alone is used for coloring essences a yellow or brown color is obtained, 
according to the quantity used. 

The " Confectioners' Journal" gives formulas also for the following essences : 

Essence of Blackberry. — Tincture of orris-root (1 to 8), 1 pint; acetic ether, 30 
drops ; butyric ether, 60 drops. 

Essence of Nectarine. — Extract of vanilla, 2 parts ; essence of lemon, 2 parts ; essence 
of pineapple, 1 part. 



VARIETIES. 



Food Adulteration. — We had occasion, not long since, to criticise somewhat 
sharply the management of the Social Science Association, in allowing a member 
to secure a quasi-sanction for a tissue of sei.sational assertions with regard to food 
adulteration in this country — assertions which we had the best of reasons for believ- 
ing to be as groundless as they were sensational. 

Indirectly, however, Mr. Angell's extravagances have been beneficial in calling 
out from public analysts a summary denial — not only of his assertions, but all 
others like them. The Boston "Evening Transcript" prints a three-column report of 
an interview touching this matter, with Professor James F. Babcock, State Assayer 
of Liquors and Professor of Chemistry in the Boston University. 

While in hearty sympathy with the efforts making to prevent or diminish the 
adulteration of food, Professor Babcock is obliged to contradict emphatically Mr. 
Angell's sweeping statements. With regard to the use of poisonous adulterants, 
he said that in a large experience he had rarely found in foods or drinks substances 
which would be likely to be injurious to health. 

As State Assayer of Liquors, he has had to examine a large number of samples 
sent to him by selectmen and other public officers. About one-third of the samples 
were found to be " extended " by artificial colors and flavors ; but almost without 
exception these adulterants were not injurious to health. 

Those liquors most adulterated or likely to be adulterated with really injurious 
substances are ports and clarets, which are said sometimes to contain logwood or 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Mar, 1879. J 



V arieties. 



H7 



anilin colors, though he never met with any in the samples submitted to him as 
assayer. 

For several years Professor Babcock was the official analyst of Boston, and made 
analyses of milk for the milk inspector. About a quarter of the milk sold was 
found to be diluted with water and the color restored by the use of burnt sugar. 
He had never found any other adulterations in milk. He said: 

*' All the stories of sheep's brains, starch, flour, chalk, etc., as adulterants of milk 
are idle fancies. Records of the milk inspector of the city of Boston, Mi. Henry 
Faxon, whom I believe to be a faithful and efficient officer, contain sworn statements 
of the results of analyses of milk, the first in 1859 by Dr A. A. Hayes, and 
followed in succeeding years by others, from the late Charles T. Carney, Dr. Charles 
T. Jackson, Dr. J. C. White and Professor J. M. Merrick, including about one 
hundred by myself, a record of twenty years, and compribing nearlv five hundred 
analyses, and in no instance is anything other than water and caramel reported." 

The average amount of water found in Boston milk was about 10 per cent. ; but 
that amount is decreasing. He knew of no adulteration of butter, except possibly 
hy the addition of oleomargarin, which if properly prepared is worth even more 
than butter as a food. He never found granular or block sugar adulterated. In 
exceptional cases glucose has been worked up with cheap sugar ,• but glucose is not 
injurious. It is less sweet than cane sugar, but has almost the same food value. 

Glucose comprises about 80 per cent, of honey, about 60 per cent, of dried figs. 
It is the substance into which in the body all starchy or saccharine food must be 
first converted before it can be assimilated. Bread and cane sugar when taken into 
the body are very rapidly changed into glucose. 

In molasses the absence of foreign substances is almost the universal rule. The 
cheaper grades of syrups are sometimes mixed with glucose, but not in any of the 
refineries in the vicinity of Boston. Alum and tin are sometimes used in bleach- 
ing syrup, but their use is not countenanced by the better class of reefiners. 

When tin and alum are used, the object is the saving of time and labor. Their 
use is very limited. 

Candy, though a good deal mixed with glucose, is rarely adulterated with any- 
thing injurious to health. " There are some candy toys, not intended, but of 
course liable, to be eaten by children, which are sometimes painted or colored with 
poisons — metallic pigments — but I think the attention which has been called to this 
matter by the published reports of the State and city boards of health and the prose- 
cution of one or two manufacturers last year has had a very beneficial effect, and I 
think it would be difficult to find in Boston at the present time candy adulterated or 
colored with any substance likely to be injurious. Starch is used to a considerable 
extent in making lozenges, and gum arabic in some kinds of confectionery, also 
gelatin, but these can hardly be called adulterations, as they are well-known articles 
of food." 

The adulterations of ground mustard, pepper, spices, etc., are of a nature to 
affect the pocket rather than the health. The same may be said of teas and coffees. 
Of the general purity of drugs, Professor Babcock said : *i I think of all classes 
of merchants, retail druggists are less guilty of adulterating their goods than any 
other." — Scientific American, March 1, 1879. 



148 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharns 
t Mar., 1879. 



A Novel and Simple Method of Taking Specific Gravities. — M. Gannal has 
recently devised a means of determining exactly, and with the greatest facility, the 
specific gravity of all liquids. 

With his " densimeter hydrostatique " all calculation is obviated, and the specific 
gravity is ascertained by simply reading the weight on the balance. 

This useful and ingenious apparatus is made in the form of an oli<ve, so that 
bubbles of air shall not attach themselves to its sides. 

The olive (whether made of glass or metal) has a volume exactly equal to one 
decimal subdivision of a cubic meter. There are two different methods employed 
in the practical use of the apparatus : 

1st. We may suspend it on the platform of the balance, and, after having produced 
an equilibrium, we plunge it into the liquid ; the equilibrium is then destroyed by 
the loss of weight of the olive, and the number of grams which it is necessary to- 
add to the scale-pan to restore the equilibrium, is the exact specific gravity of the 
liquid. 

2d. Or we may equally well adopt the following plan : We put the liquid whose 
specific gravity we desire to ascertain in a glass vessel on one pan of the balance 5 
we balance the scale-pans, and then suspend the olive in the liquid by means of a fine 
thread. The equilibrium is destroyed, and the scale descends on the side on which 
the olive is suspended, and the weight — which it is necessary to place in the other 
pan to restore the equilibrium — is equal to the specific gravity of the liquid. 

This apparatus will determine the density of all liquids, whether they be heavier 
or lighter than water, whether they be acids, alcoholic, thick or syrupy. It advan- 
tageously supersedes the areometers ; it is not fragile, and it gives the indications 
with an exactitude depending on the sensibility of the balance employed. The work 
is reduced to a simple weighing and reading of the weights on the balance. 

M. A. Gannal has constructed instruments of 100 cubic centimeters and 10 cubic 
centimeters only. The larger apparatus is the one which will prove the most con- 
venient and the most needed in commercial and industrial determinations. With 
this instrument and a balance sensitive to 1 decigram, we may determine the density 
to the thousandth degree. — Jour, Frank. Inst., Dec, 1878, from Les Mondes, Sept. 
26, 1878. 



Pure Salicylic Acid as a Preservative of Drinking Water.— Hugo Schiff states 
that 0-3 parts salicylic acid, added to 1000 parts of drinking water containing much 
organic matter and kept in a stoppered bottle, which was opened from time to time,, 
entirely prevented its decomposition, it tasting perfectly fresh at the expiration of 
three years. Water can also be prevented from decomposing by adding a minute 
quantity of bisulphide of carbon to it, or of phenol in salt water, hut will then not 
be fit for drinking. — Ber. d. deutscb. Chem. Ges., XI, p. 1528. 



Preservation of Solutions of Gum, Glue and Gelatin.— M. Regensburg recom- 
mends adding to 1 liter of the solution, in hot rain- or distilled water, from 60 to 
80 drops of silicate of soda, and stirring the mixture well for five minutes. If the 



Am Jour Pharra 
Mar., 1879 



Varieties. 



149 



solution has already commenced to decompose, it is heated, and to every 1-10 liter 
14 drops of soluble glass are added. — Pharm. Ztg , Oct. 23, 1878, p. 735, fr. Polyt. 
Notizbl. 



Easy Method for Preparing Liquor Ferri Dialysati.— F. Schneider dissolves 300 
grams of commercial crystallized ferric chloride in ioo - o distilled water, and gradu- 
ally adds 350-0 of caustic potassa (offic. Pharm. Germ.), in small quantities, waiting 
after each addition until the oxide of iron, which separates, redissolves, and adding a 
few drops of liquor ferri sesquichlorati, if necessary. He then dialyses the clear 
liquid, changing the water until silver solution no longer produces a reaction in the 
diluted iron liquid and scarcely any cloudiness in the water, determines the specific 
gravity of the liquid and reduces it with water to the required strength (5 per cent., 
1 "046 spec. grav.). The yield is about 1,900 grams, and from 12 to 14 days are 
required for the completion of the preparation. — Schiu. Wochenschr., Nov. 22, 1878, 
j>. 409. 



The seeds of Phaseolus radiatus, var. subtrilobata, know as Azuki in China and 
Japan, and used as a prophylactic against the beri-beri disease peculiar to Eastern 
Asia, were analyzed by Devars, who reports that they contain no particular active 
principle, but a red coloring matter, 17 to 18 per cent, of albuminous substances, 
io-6o to 12-30 per cent, of sugar and gum, and 34*50 to 37-50 per cent, of starch. — 
Pharm. Ztg , Dec. 11, 1878, p. 854, from Nieuiv. Tid-cbr. <voor d. Pharm. 



Fructus algarobillae, the fruit of Balsamocarpum brevifolium, a tree indigenous 
to Chili, belonging to the nat. ord. Mimoseae, recommended in Gehe & Co.'s 
Handelsber. for manufacturing ink and for tanning purposes, contains 67*45 P er 
cent, of tannic acid ; another constituent however, a yellow- coloring matter, would 
be apt to impart an undesirable yellow color to leather, for which reason the fruit is 
rarely used alone, but usually in connection with oak bark or other materials in the 
proportion of about 25 per cent, algarobilla to 75 per cent, of oak bark. — Ztschr. d. 
Oest. Ap. Ver., Nov. 20, 1878, p. 531. 



Nitro-Benzol in Oil of Cherry Laurel and Bitter Almond. — The substitution 
of nitro-benzol for cherry laurel oil can be easily recognized by placing H. 2 S0 4 , a 
little bichromate of potassium and a few drops of the suspected liquid into a long 
test tube, and exposing the end of a glass rod, moistened with a solution of sulphate 
of brucia in H. 2 S0 4 , to the evolved vapors, when it will turn bright red in case the 
liquid is nitro-benzol, but will remain colorless in case it is cherry laurel oil. Refer- 
ring to the tests of Chevallier, Prof. Dragendorff, Prof. Maisch ("Amer. Jour. 
Pharm," Nov., 1857, p. 544) and of Hoffmann for determining the presence of 
nitro-benzol in bitter almond oil, Dr. E. Pegna proposes the following new method, 
•which he considers superior to the others: A small quantity of alcohol, of a solution 



Varieties. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



of hydrate of potassa, purified by alcohol (so-called alcoholic potassa) and a few- 
drops of solution of chloride of iron are added to the oil ; the mixture is allowed to 
stand for several hours, then shaken, distilled, the distilled oil separated from the 
water, poured into a test tube on alcoholic potassa, and heated. In case the oil im- 
pure there is no color reaction, while there is a dark coloration if adulterated ; a few 
drops of solution of chloride of lime added to the mixture after cooling, will 
color it violet. — Schnv. Wochenber., Nov. 15, 1878, p. 399, from L y Orosi f bollet. d^ 
chim. farm. 



Piney-Varnish, Piney-Tallow. — Piney-varnish is the fresh soft resin obtained by 
incisions into the bark of Vateria indica L. (Eleocarpus copaliferus y Reetz), a usefut 
tree indigenous to East India and particularly to Malabar. On exposure to the air 
it hardens into a glassy substance, appearing in commerce under the name of East 
India copal or anime resin, selected pieces of which are used for making ornaments. 
The seeds of Vateria ind'tca, used in East India as a sure cure of dysentery and pain 
in the stomach, yield, when boiled, a solid fat or vegetable tallow (piney-tallow)^ 
which contains about 70 per cent, of palmitin and 25 per cent, of olein, and which,, 
rendered colorless by bleaching, is used in the manufacture of candles. — Pharm. 
Centralb., Dec. 19, 1878. 



Strong and Durable Iron Cement. — Three parts of sodium chloride, 1 part of 
powdered sulphur and 30 parts of fine iron-filings (preferably powdered iron) are 
mixed and rubbed into a soft mass with sulphuric acid, diluted in the proportion of 
6 parts of the acid to 8 parts of water. This cement will get as hard as stone m 
one to two days. All grease and rust should be previously removed from the 
article to be rr ended. — Pharm. Handelsbl., Dec. 4, 1878, p. 258. 



Purification of Rancid Butter. — R. W. Barnard's patented process, which, he 
claims, will restore the most rancid butter, consists of working it up with a solution 
of sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and sugar, to which a solution of tartaric 
acid is added. — Pharm. Handelsbl., Dec. 4, 1878, p. 258. 



Clarifying of Wines, Liquors, Vinegar, etc.— A powder which renders animal 
charcoal entirely unnecessary, and which is recommended for clarifying turbid and 
at the same time bleaching colored liquids, is made by Dassori by mixing albumen 
30 kg., neutral potassium tartrate 300 grams, alum 500 grams, and ammonium 
chloride 70 kg. This powder is used in the proportion of 60 grams to 2 hectoliters, 
of the liquid, like albumen, being beaten up carefully with water, but not directly 
with the liquid to be clarified. When once clarified the latter will not become cloudy 
again. — Pharm. Ztschr.f. RussL, Oct. 15, p. 633, fr. Cbem. Ztg. 



*3S£2g"*} Varieties. 151 

So-called Platinum Amalgam, used by dentists quite extensively for filling 
teeth, was analyzed by Gustavus Janececk, who found the following constituents in 
100 parts of two different samples : 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Zinc, . . . 51-72 per cent. 852 percent. 

Silver, . . 34 35 " 75'^ " 

Mercury, . . . 13*93 " 16 22 " 

Total, . . 10000 " ioo-oo " 

Neither sample contained a trace of platinum. — Pharm, Ztschr.f. RussL, Nov. 15, 
1878, p. 687, fr. Allg. IVien. med. Ztg. 



Celloidin, an Unexplosive Substitute for Gun-cotton for making Collodion, 

is patented by Schering, who claims that, while making an excellent preparation, it 
being entirely soluble in the mixture of ether and alcohol, it has the advantages over 
gun-cotton of neither being capable of igniting spontaneously nor exploding when 
rubbed or pounded, thus being entirely safe for transportation. Its only objectiona_ 
ble feature is the length of time required for solution, which, especially when very 
dry, far exceeds that necessary for dissolving gun-cotton. It is probably made by 
partial evaporation of collodion. — Pharm. Handelsbl., Dec. 4, 1878, p. 257, fr. Phot. 
Not. 



Fire-Proof Paper and Ink. — The former is entirely fire-proof in an ordinary 
fire, but is not entirely incombustible if exposed to an exceedingly great heat, not 
being, however, reduced to ashes. It consists of 1 part of vegetable fibres, 2 parts 
asbestos, T ^ part borax and l part alum, all finely ground, mixed to a paste with 
water, and treated like other paper masses. It is made into writing and wrapping 
paper. The ink is fire proof, insoluble in water, and is made by boiling in water a 
mixture of 90 grams finely ground graphite, about 0-75 gram copal or other resin, 
8 # o— 10 grams iron sulphate; 30*0 — 32*0 grams tincture of nut-galls and indigo- 
carmin. For colored ink any other mineral color can be substituted for graphite. — 
Pharm. Centralh., Nov. 7, 1878. 



On Gummy Degeneration of Almonds. By G. Vulpius — On certain sweet 
almonds which had been washed and dried, a separation of bassorin was remarked, 
so that one half of the almond consisted of this substance, whereas the other half 
was of a hard cartilaginous consistency, and had a brilliant resinous surface. 
Although gum is often formed in the amygdalin, the above phenomenon does 
not appear to have been observed hitherto. — Jour, of Chem. Soc, Nov., 1878., from 
Arch. Pharm. 3, xiii, 38. 



The Furruginous Coloring Matter of Red Wines. By A. Gautier. — The 
author re-affirms that the blue coloring matter which he obtained by incom- 



l S 2 



V arieties. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1879. 



pletely saturating wine and then adding sodium chloride, contains nearly 4. per 
cent, of iron. — Jour, of Chem. Soc, Nov., 1878 , from Compt. Rend. 



Examination of the "Gum" of the Quebracho Colorado [Loxopterigium Lo- 
rentiiy Grisebach). ByPEDRO N. Arata. — This tree, belonging to the Anacard- 
iaceous order, is indigenous in, and peculiar to, the northern part of the Argentine . 
Republic. The so-called gum, or rather thickened juice, collects in the cracks and 
hollows of the wood, in ruby-red concretions somewhat resembling colophony, but 
more brittle ; it is easily pulverized, and yields a brick-red powder. It is scentless, 
but has a slightly astringent taste. Sp. gr. 1*3756 at 15 . It is easily soluble in 
alcohol, acetone, and acetic ether,- dissolves also in amyl alcohol and acetic acid, 
but is insoluble in benzin, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and turpentine oil ; nearly 
insoluble in cold water and in ether 5 nevertheless, an etherial solution, having an 
emerald-green color, may be obtained by agitating the gum with ether and water. 
Boiling water dissolves it completely, and deposits part of it on cooling. It dis- 
solves also in strong sulphuric acid, and is precipitated therefrom by water. 
Heated in a platinum capsule, it swells up and burns, leaving a shining porous 
cinder, which burns away slowly on continuing the heat. If the combustion be 
completed in a stream of oxygen, the unburnt residue is scarcely appreciable. 

A 1 per cent, solution of the gum in absolute alcohol, in a layer 7 mm. thick, 
exhibits an absorption-spectrum having a dark band commencing between the solar 
lines A and B, and terminating at C ; another extending for a short distance on 
each side of D; and a third, beginning half way between D and E and extending 
to all the more refrangible part of the spectrum. The same solution in a layer 25 
mm. thick absorbs the whole of the spectrum, excepting a narrow space from C 
half-way to D. A solution of dragon's blood, which in some respects resembles 
quebracho gum, exhibits a very different spectrum, containing a dark band extend- 
ing for a short distance on each side of C, and a second beginning just beyond D 
and occupying all the rest of the spectrum. 

Reactions. — Quebracho gum, subjected to dry distillation, yields between ioo° and 
i2o°C. a distillate which remains liquid on cooling, and between 240 and 245°C. 
a distillate which solidifies to colorless prisms of pyrocatechin (m. p. 105 , nearly, b. 
p. 240 — 245 ). The gum is strongly attacked by concentrated nitric acid, and 
when heated with the same acid somewhat diluted with water, it is oxidized to oxalic 
acid and trinitrophenol or picric acid. Fused with potash it yields protocatechuic 
acid, C 7 H 6 O t or C 6 H 3 (OH) 2 .COOH, and phloroglucin, C 6 H 6 3 . 

The formation of these products renders it probable that quebracho gum contains 
one of the bodies called catechins 1 j but in consequence of the great tendency of 
these bodies to alteration, the author has not yet been able to obtain satisfactory 
evidence of their actual presence in the gum. The existence of a catechin in an 

1 Gautier has shown that the term "catechin " usually supposed to denote a definite proximate prin- 
ciple of plants, really includes several compounds forming a natural family of organic bodies (see 
"Journal Chemical Society," 1877, ii, 892. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar., 1879. J 



Varieties. 



153 



anacardiaceous plant would be a novelty, these bodies having hitherto been found 
only in the leguminous, rubiaceous and cedrulaceous orders. — Jour. Chem. Soc, 
Dec , 1878, from Anales de la Sociedad Cientijica Argentina,] uly, 1878. 



Substances Obtained from Strawberry Roots. By T. L\ Phipson — Strawberry 
Toot contains a kind of tannin called fragarianin, having a pale-yellow color, solu- 
ble in water, alcohol and slightly acidulated water, and giving a green color with 
salts. It forms an insoluble compound with hydrochloric acid, and is precipitated 
in purple flakes by alkalies. Fragarianin may be obtained pure by evaporating an 
aqueous solution in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide ; when boiled with dilute acids 
it yields fragarin, which may be obtained from the root by digesting 5 grams with 
a 5 per cent, hydrochloric acid solution for 48 hours, when the solution is filtered, 
strongly acidified and boiled. 

As the temperature rises, the color changes from yellow to orange, and, after 
boiling for some time, fragarin separates out as a reddish-brown amorphous powder, 
soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and dissolving in potash with a reddish-purple 
color. It forms a compound with sulphuric acid, and a yellow nitro-compound 
when treated with nitric acid. When heated with hydrochloric acid and potassium 
chlorate, it yields a yellow chlorine compound insoluble in water and decomposed 
by ammonia. It chars when heated, probably yielding protocatechuic acid, which 
is also formed when fragarin is fused with potash. Cinchona-red and fragarin may 
be distinguished by their action with caustic potash, the former giving a dirty-green 
color and the latter a reddish-browu solution. 

Strawberry root also contains a body similar to quinovin, which yields a substance 
resembling, but not identical with, quinovic acid. It also contains a small quantity 
of gallotannic acid. — Jour. Chem. Soc, Dec, 1878, from Chem. News, xxxviii, 185. 



Magnesia as an Antidote to Arsenic — On adding magnesia to water contain- 
ing arsenious sulphide in suspension, the liquid is rapidly decolorized, according to 
Ph. de Clermont and J. Frommel, with the formation of soluble sulpharsenite of 
magnesium and insoluble arsenite of magnesium The reaction takes place accord- 
ing to the equation, aAs 2 S 3 +5Mg04-H 2 0=Mg 3 (AsS 3 ) 2 4-2MgHAs0 3 . If the 
filtered liquid is heated to ebullition the sulpharsenite is decomposed, insoluble arse- 
nite being formed and sulphuretted hydrogen evolved, according to the equation, 
Mg 8 (AsS 3 ) 2 + 7 H 2 0==2MgH As0 3 +6H 2 S+Mg0. It follows from this, that while 
magnesia may be regarded as a good antidote for arsenic as long as it is present as 
arsenious acid, the reverse is the case if a portion of the poison has been converted 
into sulphide ; this would probably escape absorption on account of its insolubility, 
but is rendered soluble by magnesia. The transformation of arsenious acid into 
sulphide has been noticed, among others, by L. A. Buchner (" Neues Repert.," 1868, 
p. 386), who found in the intestinal membranes of a person poisoned by arsenious 
acid a quantity of sulphide of arsenic in the form of a yellow powder. — Rep. de 
Phar., Sept., p. 402. 



154 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { ^d™^™ 

Cinchona Alkaloids in their Natural Combination. — According to De Vrij r 
the alkaloids exist in cinchona barks in combination with cinchotannic acid, while 
kinic acid is present in the free state. It is owing to the latter acid that a portion 
of the cinchotannates are soluble in cold water. The cinchotannates of the dex- 
trogyre alkaloids are more freely soluble than those of the levogyre alkaloids — Jour, 
de Phar. et de Chim., Sept., 1878, p. 324. 



Quinia Test — C. Rump prefers the following modification of Hesse's test (see- 
page 135): 0*5 gram of quinia sulphate is put into an ordinary test tube; 10 grams 
of distilled water are added, the test tube immersed in hot water for some time, and 
after the contents have again cooled 5 grams of the liquid are filtered into another 
test tube, and to this is added 1 gram of ether and from 3 to 5 drops of ammonia 
water, after which the tube is corked and set aside. Measuring the ether is less 
accurate than weighing, and 1 cc. of ether is insufficient for the purpose. — Phar* 
Zeitung, 1879, No. 9. 

Villate's Mixture in the Treatment of Sinuses. — A report from the Charity 
Hospital, New York, in the New York " Medical Journal," states that several deep 
sinuses have recently been under treatment in the surgical service, in which no 
necrosed bone could be found, but which proved intractable to heal. Villate's mix- 
ture was tried, first of half strength. In some of the cases it proved of value, in 
others it failed partially or completely. The case in which it proved of most service 
was one of deep sinus in the neighborhood of the hip joint. The original composi- 
tion of the mixture was — 

R Liq. plumbi subacet , . . . ^i 30 I 

Zinci sulph. cryst , | 
Cupri sulph. cryst., . . ad 3 SS 2 

Aceti vini albi, . . fl. ^viss 26 | 

The mixture was injected once a day, and proved a more satisfactory application! 
than any other. Some patients complained of severe pain, others felt but slight 
inconvenience from it. — Ohio Med. Recorder. 



Formula for Paresi's Hemostatic Collodion. — 



Officinal collodion, .... 100 

Carbolic acid (pure), . . . .10 

Tannic acid, . . . . .5 

Benzoic acid, ..... 3 



M. secund. art. — Ibid., from IS Union Medicate. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMAC EUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, February 18th, 1879. 
The fifth of the present series of pharmaceutical meetings was called to order by 
Vice-President Chas. Bullock ; the minutes of the last meeting were read and 
approved. 



^ManVis^™ } Minutes of the PharmaceuticaiMeeting. 1 5 5 

The Registrar, on behalf of Prof. Bridges, presented for the library a copy of 
Bowman's " Medical Chemistry,"" and also one of his " Practical Chemistry," for 
which the Registrar was directed to return the thanks of the meeting. 

Mr. Gaillard read a paper upon the use of the microscope in pharmacy (see page 
1 16), which was referred to the publication committee. A member present asked 
whether there was any systematic treatise upon the microscope as applied to the uses 
of the pharmacist, and the response was that no such treatise existed. 

As a matter of passing interest, Mr. Bullock called the attention of the meeting 
to the coloring matter termed uranin, a derivative of coal tar. Only the tenth part 
of a grain was thrown into about half a pint of distilled water, and in a few moments 
a beautiful greenish-yellow coloration was developed, showing a fluorescence of great 
brilliancy. 

Mr. Bullock read a short paper upon Japanese filtering-paper, received by him 
from a correspondent in Yokohoma. The samples vary from a coarse uneven tex- 
ture to a fineness almost like tissue. The material from which it is manufactured 
seems to have undergone little, if any, bleaching. An inspection shows it to be 
hand-made, after the primitive Japanese method, on frames made of bamboo, in one 
direction the markings being fine, while in the transverse direction they are quite 
coarse, and evidently the marks of the supports of the sieves. Some of the paper 
was soaked in water and made into a pulp, which was stained lightly with a staining 
fluid made from logwood — much used by microscopists for this purpose — and then 
well washed. When examined under the microscope, it appears that one part of the 
fibre has become colored and another is not affected. By increased magnifying 
power we find the stained fibres are ducts, some of them showing annular or spiral 
markings, and occasionally we find in them cubical or rhomboidal crystals. That 
part which is not colored is the woody fibre. At intervals, links of closed cells are 
noticed, which contain granular matter, probably derived from the integuments or 
outer covering. This collection of debris has probably belonged to the pith, and all 
is evidently derived from the reed, which is the source of material of which the 
paper is fabricated. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited some specimens of artificial flowers from China, and of 
paintings on what is called " rice paper," but which is really the pith of a plant, said 
to be Aralia papyrifera, sliced very dexterously by a knife. 

A specimen of oil of spearmint was exhibited by a member, which, when pur- 
chased a few weeks since, appeared to be fresh, as was represented, but in this short 
time had become much resinified, and had even deposited a considerable percentage 
of crystalline matter. 

The risk of using plate glass shelves without having longitudinal suppoits beneath 
them to prevent their falling if they crack, was noticed. In an instance occurring 
lately, the glass seemed to have first split into a great many small portions with some- 
thing like an explosion j this occurred when the amount of weight was not nearly as 
great as had formerly been sustained by the shelf. 

Prof. Sadtler exhibited and explained the Glaciere Italienne y a little apparatus 
designed for the quick production of small quantities of ice. The apparatus con- 



156 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Xm d™ 

•sists of a cylinder of metal, into which a conical metal chamber fits, leaving an 
■empty space between the two ; into this space two pints of water and half the bulk 
of carbonate of sodium are placed ; the conical tube is placed in the solution and 
agitated for several minutes, when the soda solution is changed for water and chloride 
of ammonium, and a rolling motion is kept up for 10 or 12 minutes, when the inner 
vessel in which was placed the water will be found rilled with ice, from which it can 
be readily removed, owing to the conical form. 

A communication from Samuel F. Troth was read, giving the amount sold and 
and price paid for sulphate of quinia by the firm of Henry Troth & Co. during a 
period of 31 years, commencing with 1823, when quinia was first manufactured in 
Philadelphia. The following table will show the fluctuation in the price of quinine 
-during the period named. 



Average for 



Year. 


Amount sold. 








Price 


per oz. 






the year. 


1823 


52 


oz. 


$20 


00 % 


;i6 


OO $ 


15 


OO 






$17 OO 


1824 


63 


oz. 


14 


00 


12 


OO 










13 OO 


1825 


50 


oz. 


8 


00 


8 


OO 










8 00 


1826 


145 


oz. 


5 


2 5 


5 


50 


6 


OO 


7 00 




5 95 


1827 


200 


oz. 


7 


5° 


6 


OO 










6 75 


1828 


560 


oz. 


6 


00 


3 


25 










4 62^ 


1829 


700 

/ 


oz. 


2 


90 


2 


7 1 


2 


62 


2 43 


2 25 


2 59 


1830 


2IO 


oz. 


2 


5° 


1 


75 










2 12^ 


I831 


500 


oz. 


1 


35 


1 


40 


1 


50 






1 42 


1832 


300 


oz. 


1 


75 


1 


90 


2 


OO 






1 89 


J833 


250 


oz. 




70 


1 


87 










1 79 


1834 


700 


oz. 


1 


25 


1 


40 


j 


55 


1 80 




1 50 


1835 


300 


oz. 




60 


1 


62 




65 






1 62 


1836 


650 


oz. 


1 


45 


1 


5° 




58 






1 5i 


1837 


3^5 


oz. 


1 


40 




40 










1 40 


1838 


3 2 5 


oz. 




65 




60 




90 






1 69 


1839 


279 


oz. 


2 


75 


3 


30 


2 


85 


2 90 




2 94 


1840 


100 


oz. 


3 


«i 


2 


8?| 


3 


00 






3 00 


J841 


362 


oz. 


2 


62^ 


2 


55 


2 


5° 






2 54 


1842 


125 


oz. 


2 


00 


1 


75 


l 


60 






1 78 


1843 


275 


oz. 




55 


1 


60 


1 


70 


1 75 


1 80 


1 68 


1844 


260 


oz. 


2 


00 


3 


00 










2 50 


1845 


300 


oz. 


2 


35 


2 


40 










2 372- 


1846 


350 


oz. 


2 


40 


2 


20 










2 30 


1847 


420 


oz. 


2 


30 


2 


35 


2 


40 






2 35 


1848 


300 


oz. 


2 


60 


2 


65 


2 


70 






2 65 


1849 


800 


oz. 


3 


00 


2 


95 


3 


25 


3 65 




3 14 


1850 


200 


oz. 


3 


70 


3 


70 










3 70 


1851 


200 


oz. 


3 


25 


3 


25 










3 25 


1852 


150 


oz. 


3 


00 


2 


80 










2 90 


*8 5 3 


400 


oz. 


2 


70 


3 


00 


3 


20 






2 97 



During the first 20 years the average price was $4.15, and during the last 11 
years $2.70 per oz. The highest price paid for the article was $20 00, in 1823, and 
the lowest $1.25, in 1834. 

A specimen of bicarbonate of ammonia was presented to the meeting as now often 
found mixed with the common carbonate in the casks in which it is imported. For 



Am M°Z'rt79* rm ' } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 157 

many purposes it must be quite as valuable as the sesqui-carbonate, but when* 
designed to be employed as smelling salts it would be worthless, as it is almost desti- 
tute of odor. 

There being no further business, the meeting, on motion, adjourned. 

Thos. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Alumni Association Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The fifth social meet- 
ing of the season was held at the College Thursday, February 6, Mr. Krewson in 
the chair. The minutes of the former meeting were read, corrected and approved.. 

Mr. Mattison read an exhaustive paper on Dialyzed Iron, which was referred to 
the Publishing Committee, and the thanks of the meeting tendered the author. A 
general expression of the views of different members on dialyzed iron followed.. 
Some mentioned instances where the remedy had apparently produced very good 
results, but the general opinion seemed to coincide with Mr. Mattison's — that 
dialyzed iron has little or no value, except as an antidote in cases of poisoning by 
arsenious acid. 

Dr. Murray read an article from " New Remedies," entitled The Duties of an 
Apothecary. 

Mr. Sayre, Dr. Murray and Mr. Mattison each gave some practical advice to the 
students as to answering questions at the coming examination. 

Mr. Kennedy read a paper on Adulterated Gum Arabic, which was referred to 
the Publishing Committee. Mr. Ellis spoke of the mixing of powders fraudently,. 
being an old custom, but thought it was practised less now than formerly. He 
thought, with Mr. Kennedy, that every case detected should be published, in order 
to deter others from so doing. 

Then adjourned. 

Pittsburg College of Pharmacy.— In this institution there have been 45 matricu- 
lants, of which number 35 were full course students. 



Alumni Association St. Louis College of Pharmacy The fourth annual meet- 
ing was held Tuesday evening, February 18. Reports of the various committees 
were read, which proved the Association to be in a prosperous condition. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Chas. Gietner ; First Vice President, Jas. A. Watkins ; Second Vice 
President, O. E. Treutler 5 Recording Secretary, Fred. F. Reichenbach 5 Corres- 
ponding Secretary, Chas. E. Smith 5 Treasurer, Ad. Pfeiffer ; Registrar, Thos F. 
White ; Members of the Executive Board — J. W. Tomfohrde, R. H. Hunstock,, 
Martin Goehring, Paul Nacke and Peter Hoffmann. 



158 Reviews y etc. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der Pharmacognosies Pharmacie und Toxicologie. 

Herausgegeben von Dr. G. Dragendorff, Professor in Dorpat. Neue Folge, 12. 

Jahrgang, 1877. Gottingen, 1878: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 8vo, pp. 598. 
Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy and Toxicology. 

The well-deserved reputation which this annual publication has earned is sustained 
by the volume now before us, which contains concise and critical reports on all 
essays possessing pharmaceutical interest which have appeared during the year 1877. 
The convenient arrangement of the vast material, as adopted in former volumes, has 
been retained, and the abstracts have been made with the accustomed care and com- 
pleteness. On page 483, last line, the work " Kinotinctur " should be " Catechu- 
tinctur.'" 

The entire series being of permanent value as a reliable work of reference, it will 
doubtless be of interest to many of our readers that the first ten volumes of this 
series may be now obtained at 45 marcs, which is rather less than half of the origi- 
nal publication price. 



Pharmaceutiscbe Chemie. Von F. A. Fluckiger. Berlin, 1879 : Rudolph Gartner. 

i2mo, pp. 910. 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 

A work like this has to overcome certain difficulties, which are discussed by the 
author in the preface. Not bemg intended for the student of general chemistry, but 
merely for the cultivation of chemistry in its application to pharmacy, a knowledge 
of the general chemical laws is requisite in order to fully appreciate the merits of 
the book. In regard to its scope, the author has confined himself chiefly to those 
chemical compounds which are at the present time medicinally employed in Europe. 
In each case the process is given by which the preparation maybe obtained, omitting 
such particulars which would be mainly useful to the tyro, but giving many practical 
hints which will be welcome to the more experienced operator. The reactions 
occurring in the process, the properties of the compound and the tests for purity are 
concisely and fully given, always keeping in view that the work is not intended for 
the beginner. Each article is accompanied by valuable historical notes. 

The systematic arrangement may be seen from the following synopsis of the dif- 
ferent chapters : Non-metallic elements, metals, binary non-metallic compounds, 
group of cyanogen, derivatives of marsh gas, alcohol group, non-aromatic organic 
acids, fats and soaps, carbohydrates, resins, benzol group, volatile oils and alkaloids. 
This comprises the first half of the work, the second half being devoted to the 
metallic oxides and salts. 

The work will be duly appreciated by the intelligent student who has mastered 
•the rudiments of the science, and by the practical apothecary and druggist engaged 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1879. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Mar., 1879. J 



Reviews, etc. 



*59 



m preparing some or many of the numerous definite compounds employed in medi- 
cine. It may be obtained from E. Steiger, New York. 



Gmelin-Kraufs Handbuch der Chemie. Anorganische Chemie in drei Banden. 
Heidelberg. 1878: Carl Winter's Universitats-Buchhandlung. 

Gmelin-Kraut's Hand-book of Chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry, in three vols. 

Parts 9, 10 and 11 of the first division of the second volume contain the follow- 
ing metals : cerium, lanthanium, didymium, yttrium, erbium, beryllium, aluminium, 
gallium and thorium. Parts 5 and 6 of the second division of the second volume 
treat of the metals vanadium and chromium. 



Lehrbuch der Gdhrungschemie, in dreizehn Vorlesungen, Von. Dr. Adolf Mayer, 

Professor, etc., zu Wageninen, Holland. Dritte umgearbdtete Ausgabe. Heidel. 

berg, 1876: Carl Winter's Universitats-Buchhandlung. Large 8vo, pp. 220. 
Chemistry of Fermentation, in thirteen lectures. Third edition. 

The first lecture is devoted to a historical introduction and to the definition of 
fermentation. The following nine lectures treat of alcoholic fermentation, and give a 
complete review of the various theories advanced and experiments made since the 
time of Lavoisier, particular attention being paid to the patient labors of Pasteur and 
others in this direction, and to the controversies which, even at the present time, 
have not been finally settled. 

The last three lectures treat of the other processes of fermentation, such as acetic, 
lactic, etc., fermentation, the fermentation of fatty acids, alcohols, urea and othei 
bodies. 

The work is an excellent exposition of the gradual progress of our knowledge 
concerning the causes and changes produced in those processes which are known as 
fermentations, and will be read with profit by those interested. 



Universal International Exhibition, Paris, 1878. Report on the Exhibits connected 
with Materia Medica, Pharmacy, Chemical Industry, etc. By B. H. Paul, Ph.D., 
E. M. Holmes, F.L.S., and F. Passmore. London, 1878. i6mo, pp. 198. 

This interesting and valuable report is a reprint of a series of communications to 
the London "Pharmaceutical Journal," and gives a full account, embracing much 
information of lasting value, of the exhibits as designated in the title. 



Index to Original Communications in the Medical Jeurnals of the United States and 
Canada for 1877. Compiled by Wm. D. Chapin, New York. 8vo, pp. 100. 
Price, $1.00 

The object of this work is explained by the title. It is somewhat similar to the 
Index Medicus noticed in our last issue, but its scope is more confined and its arrange- 
ment different. As far as we have examined it, its references are correct. The 
journals consulted embrace nearly, but not quite all, those published in North 
America. The Index for 1878, which will soon be published, will be more com- 
plete than this one. We believe, however, that few, if any, papers of importance 
have escaped the compiler's vigilance. 



i6o 



Reviews, etc. 



f Am. Tour. Pharm 
\ Mar., 1879. 



Physiology: Preliminary-course Lectures, by Jas. T. Whittaker, M.D., Professor of 
Physiology and Clinical Medicine in the Medical College of Ohio, etc. Illus- 
trated. Cincinnati : Chaney R. Murry, 1879. Robert Clarke & Co. Pp. 288 j 
price, $1.75. 

The lectures are twelve in nnmber, and comprise the influence of physiology upon 
practice j the conservation of force ; the origin of life ; the evolution of its forms $ 
protoplasm, bone, muscle, nerve and food. The work has been written to meet the 
wants of the medical student, and it appears to well fulfill this object. 



Diphtheria: Its Causes, Prevention and Proper Treatment. By J. H. Kellogg,. 
M.D., etc. Battle Creek, Mich. : Good Health Publishing Go. i2mo, pp. 64. 

The praiseworthy aim of this little volume is to supply popular information in 
regard to the nature, causes and symptoms of this dreaded disease and the best 
means for its prevention. We doubt, however, the utility of the book, or at least 
that part of it — about one-third — which is devoted to the treatment of diphtheria. 
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing, and this seems to be particularly applicable 
to the treatment, by laymen, of this and other diseases. 



The Popular Science Monthly. Conducted by E. L. and W. J. Youmans. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

Among the many valuable papers contained in the March number of this journal,, 
we desire to call the special attention of cur readers to the essay by J N. Lockyer, 
F.R.S., entitled " The Chemcal Elements," in which reasons are given for regarding 
the so-called elementary bodies as being compound ones ; also, to an interesting 
sketch of that celebrated scientist, Chr. G. Ehrenberg, from the pen of Dr. Fred, 
Hoffmann. 



The reception of the following pamphlets is hereby acknowledged: 

Proceedings of the Nevo Hampshire Pharmaceutical Association, at the Fifth Annual 
Meeting, held in the City of Concord, October 8th, 1878, and Reports on the Pro- 
gress of Pharmacy for 1 877 and 1878; with the Address of Prof. W. P. Bollesj also,, 
the Roll of Members and Pharmacy Law. Concord, N. H , 1879. 8vo > PP« 64. 

First Annual Report of the State Board oj Health of Illinois. Made to the Governor, 
1878. Springfield, 111 , 1879. 8vo, pp. 56. 

History oj the Yellovo Fever Epidemic in the Fourth District. Excerpted from the 
Annual Report of the Board of Health for 1878. By Jos. Holt, M.D , Sanitary 
Inspector. New Orleans, 1879. 

Beitrdge zur Chemie der voichtigeren Gummiharze, Harze und Balsame. II. Von 
Mag. Pharm. Ed. Hirschsohn. 8vo, pp. 70. 

Contributions to the Chemistry of the More Important Gum-resins, Resins and 
Balsams. Reprinted from " Archiv der Pharmacie," 1878, Vol. X. 

Report of the Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures, on the Adoption of the 
Metric System of Weights and Measures. Forty- fifth Congress, Third Session, 
House of Representatives. Report No. 53. 8vo, pp. 234. 

Address of W. O* Daniel, M.D , President of the Medical Association of Georgia, 
delivered at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



APRIL, 1879. 



NOTE ON MINIM PIPETTES. 

By Edward R. Squibb, M.D., of Brooklyn. 

The last number of this journal contains a paper by Mr. Chas. W. 
Drew upon this subject. These pipettes and the arrangement figured by 
Mr. Drew are by no means new or original with him, as he seems to 
suppose, but were in constant use in the laboratory of the writer when 
Mr. Drew was an assistant there, as well as in many other laboratories 
and by many dispensing pharmacists. As a very simple device, likely 
to occur to anyone in practice, they may have been long used by many, 
but, so far as the writer knows and believes, the simple and convenient 
syringe-like device for suction was adopted and recommended publicly 
by this writer two or three years ago. Although never figured nor 
published as the subject of a paper before Mr. Drew's article, it has 
often been shown at medical and pharmaceutical meetings, and was 
noticed by Prof. Jos. P. Remington at a pharmaceutical meeting of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in May, 1878 (see this journal 
for 1878, p. 314). 

Neither in the 15-minim pipette figured by Mr. Drew nor in the 
20-minim pipette (the next size), is the arrangement of an external 
tube necessary. In both these sizes the common rubber tip used with 
dropping-tubes generally is all that is required. This is slipped onto 
the top of the minim pipette, and pushed down as far as possible, or 
until the end of the pipette is against the bottom of the tip. Then, 
at the moment when the point of the pipette is to be introduced into 
the liquid to be measured, the rubber tip is compressed to force out 
as much air as possible. When this pressure is removed and the tip 
springs out again, the liquid will rise in the pipette to 5 — 8 minims. 
Then, by sliding the tip upward on the pipette by pushing it from 
below, the syringe-like suction is accomplished, whereby the pipette 
may be filled to any desired mark not greater than 20 or 25 minims, 

1 1 



162 



Note on Minim Pipettes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1879. 



according to the capacity of the tip. In the 30 and 60-minim gradu- 
ated pipettes the tip is not large enough, and hence the necessity of 
resorting to the external tube and its section of rubber tubing, as figured 
by Mr. Drew. For still larger graduated pipettes, say up to four 
fluidrachms, a common glass penis syringe with a ring piston rod to 
admit the end of the forefinger, and the point armed permanently with 
a short section of rubber tubing, wired securely onto the syringe, but 
slipping on and off the upper end of the pipette rather easily, answers 
an excellent purpose in dispensing. With such an arrangement small 
quantities of liquid up to the full capacity of the pipette can be con- 
veniently measured out of a dispensing bottle without disturbing the 
sediment or wetting the neck or lip of the bottle. 

If suction by the mouth be used with graduated pipettes the mouth 
should never be applied directly to the pipette, but indirectly by a piece 
of glass tubing 5 or 6 inches =12*5 or 1 5 centimeters long, armed 
with a piece of rubber tubing wired onto it 2 to 3 inches =5 to 7*5 
centimeters long. The free end of this rubber tubing is slipped on 
and off of the pipette when used. The pipette, with the auxiliary tube 
attached, is introduced into the liquid to be measured and held with 
the left hand, the free end of the auxiliary glass tube is held by the 
teeth, and the graduations being brought up to near the level of the 
eyes by the bending of the rubber part of the tube, suction is made 
gently till the liquid rises in the pipette a little above the required mark 
on the graduated scale. Then the rubber tube is pinched by the thumb 
and finger of the right hand close above the end of the pipette ; the 
glass tube is dropped from the mouth, and the level of the liquid is 
adjusted to the desired graduation by allowing the excess drawn in, to 
escape back into the bottle. When the exact quantity is contained, 
the whole is transferred by the right hand to the bottle or vessel which 
is to receive the measured quantity, and the pinching of the rubber 
part of the tube being then relaxed, the liquid flows out. 

Brooklyn, March nth, 1879. 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
April, 1879. J 



Present to Our Youngsters. 



163 



A SENSIBLE PRESENT TO OUR YOUNGSTERS. 

By Hans M. Wilder. 

The Orange Judd Co. ("American Agriculturist"), 245 Broad- 
way, New York, have just got out a ten dollar microscope, and a 
splendid instrument it is for the price. This has only been made pos- 
sible by manufacturing it by the thousands. 

Like most of the optical instruments of the Bausch & Lomb Co., 
Rochester, N. Y., it has hard rubber substituted for brass wherever 
possible ; the few parts that have to be made of brass are nickel plated, 
and it thus forms — black relieved by white, and of gracious design — a 
beautiful little instrument. Its magnifying power is about up to one 
hundred diameters ; it has a divided objective, which — although not 
claimed to be achromatic — shows no more color than the ordinary run 
of so-called "achromatic" French objectives. Its concave mirror, 
besides the ordinary double motion, can be turned up over the stage 
and serve as condenser. This little microscope has one feature hith- 
erto only found in fifty dollar (and higher) instruments, viz., a camera 
lucida of very simple construction. It is very easy to draw by means 
of it. It has a draw-tube, and is moved by rack (two large milled 
heads). Considering its low price and low magnifying power, it will 
probably be questioned whether it is good enough for anything but a 
scientific toy. 

Little as it magnifies, and although its objectives are not professedly 
achromatic, it enables us to follow nearly all the descriptions and expla- 
nations found in our text-books. It serves to familiarize our appren- 
tices with the handling a,nd working of a microscope, not to mention 
that much time otherwise thrown away in frivolous pursuit will be 
spent profitably. 

I think that such an instrument would be a sensible present to make 
to our deserving apprentices ; the money cannot well be spent better. 

Since beginners in microscopy are generally inclined to use too large 
amplifications, it will not be out of place to mention that the diameter 
of the field seen with a magnifying power of 25 diameters is about a 
quarter of an inch ; with 50 diameters about one-eighth of an inch ; 
with 100 diameters about one-sixteenth of an inch, and so on. The 
head of a fly, for instance, is about one-eighth of an inch broad, and 
will about cover the whole field of an amplification of 50 diameters. 



164 



Some California Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharar. 

April, 1879. 



ON SOME CALIFORNIA DRUGS. 

Colusa, March 10th, 1879. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

We send you by mail samples of Rhamnus purshiana, Berberis aqui- 
folium and Eriodictyon c aliform cum, all of which are natives of Califor- 
nia, or more properly speaking the Pacific Slope. There has been con- 
siderable stir in the last year or two about the above-named drugs, as- 
there usually is about new remedies. The rhamnus, I believe, was 
first brought to the notice of the medical profession by Dr. J. H. Bundy y 
an eclectic physician, under the name of "Cascara Sagrada," which was 
given it by the early Mexican settlers of California, and means literally 
translated " holy bark it also bears the name of chittam bark, and 
by the latter name it is universally known through the Coast Range 
Mountains of the Pacific Slope. It has been used for years in domes- 
tic practice, and is considered an infallible remedy by the Mexicans for 
almost every complaint. 

Berberis aqui folium or grape root, is a hardy plant with fruit resem- 
bling the wild grape, and flourishes extensively throughout the Coast 
Range and Sierra Nevada Mountains ; it also is -ised extensively in 
domestic practice, especially by the American residents, for tonic and 
anti-malarial purposes. It has certainly proved to be excellent and 
without doubt it contains other properties that will render it a valuable 
remedy. 

Eriodictyon californicum, or yerba santa, is a hardy evergreen, flourish- 
ing best in the mountains, but it is to be found in sheltered glades and 
ravines near the valley of the Sacramento. It grows from two to five 
and six feet in height and is covered with a resinous exudation that per- 
vades every part of the stem and leaf, but more especially the leaf. It 
is used more extensively perhaps than any other of our domestic drugs, 
and has been proved to be an excellent expectorant and diaphoretic. 
The bush, when green, presents a striking and pleasing appearance y 
the leaves are of a rich dark green and have the appearance of being 
covered with varnish. 

Grindelia robusta and Grindelia squarrosa also deserve mention, as they 
are rapidly growing in demand in the medical profession. 

Grindelia robusta, or tar weed, as it is vulgarly termed, is found in 
abundance covering the high mountain ridges and valleys ; it blooms 



%&8 7 h 9 arn '} Analysis of Rhamnus Purshiana. 165 

from July to September, either earlier or later according to the season, 
and is possessed of its best properties about the latter part of August. 

Grindelia squarrosa differs but slightly in appearance with the Grindelia 
lobusta j it prefers the lowlands and prairies, and grows very abundantly 
from July to September. 

W. C. Atherden. 



CHEMICAL and MICROSCOPICAL ANALYSIS of the BARK 
of RHAMNUS PURSHIANA (CASCARA SAGRADA). 1 

By Albert B. Prescott, M. D.- 

The examination embraced (1) The Structure of the Bark ; and (2) 
The Chemical Constituents of the Bark, 
(i) The Structure of the Bark. 

I. The corky layer (a). This consists of the outer epidermis of dark 
brown weathered cells, then several rows of cells filled with a dark red 
coloring matter and in the more recent bark, a row or two of cells 
containing chlorophyll. The red color (e) is soluble in ether, alcohol, 
potassium hydrate solution (with a dark brown color), insoluble in acetic 
acid. 

II. The ?niddle bark (b) is made up of parenchymatous cells which 
are filled with small starch grains. There are visible, also, in the 
transverse section, several groups of cubical crystals (f), and, in the 
longitudinal section, groups of very thick- walled yellow cells (k). These 
cells (£) are not noticeably affected by the ordinary re-agents. 

III. The inner bark (c) consists principally of vellow medullary rays 
(d), separated by bast parenchyma (g), through which are scattered 
numerous yellow bast fibres (h). As seen in longitudinal section, these 
fibres (h) are frequently surrounded by small cubical crystals (f): The 
crystals (f) appear not to be affected by hydrochloric acid. 

Almost the entire inner bark (III), and parts of the middle bark (II) 
are turned cherry-red color by contact with potassium hydrate solution. 

] The sample of the bark examined was furnished me by Messrs. Park, Davis Sc 
Co. I have given no attention to its identity, as bark of the Rhamnus purshiana. 
However, its structure closely resembles that of rhamnus fYangula bark, while having 
-distinct differences from the latter (see Cortex Frangula?, in Hager's "Pharmaceutische 
Praxis," also " Pharmacopcea Germanica " ). 

' Reprint from "New Preparations,' 1 communicated by the author. 



i66 



Analysis of Rhamnus Purskiana. 



(Am Jour. Pharm. 

( April, 1879. 



(2) The Chemical Constituents of the Bark. 

I. A Brown Resin, of strong bitter taste, colored vivid purple-red 
by potassium hydrate solution. This resin is contained mostly in the 
middle and inner layers of the bark. It is sparingly soluble in water, freely 
soluble in alcohol and dilute alcohol, and scarcely at all soluble in abso- 
lute ether, soluble in chloroform, in benzol (of coal tar), and in car- 
bon disulphide ; soluble in caustic alkali solution, with splendid color 
above mentioned, and precipitated from this solution by acids. Con- 
centrated sulphuric acid colors it blood-red. It is removed from alco- 
hol solution by animal charcoal. 




sill 



ill IP 

mm 

•I 



Transverse Section, 




c b 
Longitudinal Section. 



II. A Red Resin, nearly tasteless, colored rich brown by potassium 
hydrate solution. It is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and dilute 
alcohol, not freely soluble in ether, or chloroform, or carbon disulphide; 
soluble in caustic alkali solution, with the brown color above mentioned^ 



^A$\iS% m '} Analysis of Rhamnus Purshiana. 167 

this solution being precipitated by acids. Concentrated sulphuric acid 
deepens its color brownish-red. It is not removed from alcohol solu- 
tion by animal charcoal. In the bark, it resides in the corky layer (a). 

III. A Light Yellow Resin or Neutral Body, tasteless, colored 
bright red-brown by sulphuric acid, not colored by potassium hydrate 
solution. It is insoluble in water, soluble in hot alcohol, sparingly solu- 
ble in cold alcohol of seventy per cent., soluble in chloroform, in car- 
bon disulphide, and to some extent in benzol (of coal tar). In the 
concentration of its alcohol solution, it deposits in pale orange-yellow 
granules. Its alcohol solution gives negative results with the general 
tests for alkaloids. 

IV. A Crystallizable Body, obtained from absolute alcohol solu- 
tion, in white double pyramids and some other forms of the dimetric 
system. The crystals melt and then sublime, at a temperature a little 
above the water-bath, the sublimate being partly crystalline. This 
substance is not appreciably soluble in ether, chloroform or petroleum 
ether ; is slowly soluble in absolute alcohol, slightly soluble in seventy 
per cent, alcohol, soluble in benzol (of coal tar). It is neutral to test 
papers, and is not dissolved by potassium hydrate solution, by acetic 
acid, or dilute sulphuric acid. It is not colored by potassium hydrate 
solution, concentrated sulphuric acid, nitric acid, Froehde's reagent, or 
sulphuric acid followed by dichromate. The alcohol solution gives 
negative results with the general tests for alkaloids. 1 

V. A Tannic Acid, giving brownish-green color, with ferric salts. 

VI. Oxalic Acid. 

VII. Malic Acid. 

VIII. A Fat Oil, of yellow color. 

IX. A Volatile Oil, not abundant, bearing the characteristic odor 
of the bark. 

X. Wax. 

XI. Starch, in abundant quantity. 

1 The crystals of this substance were repeatedly obtained as follows : The alco- 
hol extract of the bark (previously exhausted with ether), was dissolved by water, 
this solution precipitated by lead acetate, the washed and drained precipitate sus- 
pended in absolute alcohol and. the lead removed by hydrogen sulphide, and the 
nitrate then evaporated. A distinct alliaceous odor is developed after the hydrogen 
disappears, and the crystals in question then appear. The crystalline body may 
prove to be a product rather than an educt, and its production may be related to that 
of the allyl compound, indicated by the odor. 



s 6 8 Analysis of Rhamnus Purshiana. { ^a^sS™* 

The proportional quantity of the resins I., II. and III., is indicated 
pretty nearly by the quantity of resin extract obtained as follows : An 
acidulated alcohol solution of the bark was neutralized (with ammonia), 
and evaporated, the residue dissolved in dilute potassium hydrate solu- 
tion, this solution precipitated by dilute hydrochloric acid, and the pre- 
cipitate drained and dried at gentle heat, (The filtrate contained some 
resin, L, and the precipitate retained, of course, the dissolved substances 
not washed out.) This crude resin extract (chiefly bodies I., II. and 
III. ) was about ten per cent of the weight of the bark. 

The substances numberered III. and IV. appear particularly to de- 
serve farther chemical investigation, which I hope to be able to give 
them. The chemistry of the rhamnacetz is of decided interest, espe- 
cially within a few years past. Rhamnus frangula, the European buck- 
thorn, or black alder, has been reported by Liebermann and Waldstein 
(1876) to contain emodin, a well-determined constituent of rhubarb, 
allied to chrysophane, and chemically a derivative of anthracene. 
Farther, the investigators just named find it nearly or quite certain that 
frangulin is capable of ready change' to emodin, by glucosic fermenta- 
tion. This may be associated with the well-known fact that the bark 
of Rhamnus frangula changes in therapeutic properties by storing. It 
has both emetic and purgative action in the first year after gathering, but 
when two year's old, retains only the purgative power — one much like 
rhubarb — so that some authorities positively direct that it be not used 
until two years after gathering. The glucosic fermentation of frangu- 
lin into frangulic acid has been known for some time, but the like for- 
mation of emodin, a constituent of rhubarb, seems a step nearer some 
chemical explanation of the change of medicinal power characteristic of 
the bark. The material worked by Liebermann and Waldstein was a 
large quantity of residual extract of a large quantity of frangula bark 
worked by the manufacturer, Merck. 

The chemical constituents of Rhamnus purshiana, though not deter- 
mined in this analysis to be, in any compound, identical with constitu- 
ents of the rhamnus frangula, yet show several similar reactions,, 
especially in the case of " Brown Resin, I." The rhamnaceae very prob- 
ably contain, in different species, allied bodies, some of them related to 
others as parent and product, but having practically distinct medicinal 
powers. These powers, of course, are known only by physiological 
and therapeutic trial. 

University of Michigan, Feb. 5, 1879. 



Ave. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1879. j 



The Saw Palmetto. 



169 



THE SAW PALMETTO (Sabal serrulata 1 ). 

-v^ By Dr. J. B. Read, Savannah, Georgia. 

Botanical Description — Stem creeping, branching ; leaves circular in 
outline, fan-shaped, bright green, shorter than the slender plano-convex, 
more or less spiney-edged, petiole. The numerous (15 to 30) erect 
divisions slightly cleft at the apex, and without thread-like filaments in 
the sinuses ; spadix densely tomentose, much shorter than the leaves •, 
petals scarcely united ; style slender ; drupe ovoid, oblong (S. minima, 
Nuttall, Chamarops, Pursh.). Sandy soil in the lower districts of 
Florida and South Carolina. June. Stem 4 to 8° long; leaves 2° to 
4 high , drupe black, 8" to 9" long. — Chapman. 

History. — This plant grows abundantly in the sandy soils of the sea 
coast and sea islands of South Carolina, Georgia and Floiida, and may, 
perhaps, extend into Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. The belt of 
territory inhabited by it stretches inland from the coast eight or ten 
miles. The nearer the sea, the more vigorous the luxuriance of its 
growth. Like most crops, its fruit is more abundant in alternate years. 
It is the common plant of the section of the country in which it grows, 
forming palmetto scrubs which extend in unbroken range for hundreds 
•of miles, and are, from their density and the saw like edges of the 
leaves, almost impassable to human beings. The beach, extending 
from Mosquito Inlet in Florida to Jupiter Inlet, is one vast scrub, over 
100 miles long and from one to three mil^s w ? ide, broken only by live 
oak hammocks along the creeks and inlets. The cutting of roads 
through these palmetto scrubs is not one of the least of the labors new 
settlers have to undergo. 

In addition to the description of the plant above given, we may add 
that it has large fibrous roots extending for several feet from the stem, 
which, being half exposed above the sand, render traveling in spring 
vehicles almost an impossibility. 

The saw palmetto is of great use to the inhabitants. With the 
leaves they form a substantial thatch for their houses, and hunters can 
readily make from it convenient huts that last for years. The leaves 
are also collected, dried, put up in bales and sold for paper stock. The 
fough, fibrous roots, resembling in texture the husk of the cocoanut, 
are easily formed into scrubbing brushes. These roots contain a large 



1 Sabal levistona ? Feay. 



170 



The Saw Palmetto. 



{' Am. Jour. Phann>> 
April, 1879. 



amount of potash salts, and may be in time a source of that valuable 
alkali. 

The saw palmetto berries, or more properly drupes, ripen in Octo- 
ber and November, and may be found until the middle of December. 
They are about the size of the olive, dark purple in color, and con- 
tain a large quantity of juice and a pit, shaped like that of the olive. 
The berries are at first exceedingly sweet to the taste, but in a few 
seconds this is followed by an acrid, pungent sensation that spreads to 
the fauces, nasal mucous membrane and larynx. This is in turn suc- 
ceeded by a feeling of smoothness in all those parts, as if they had 
been coated with oil. The general impression is that of a sweet and 
decidedly strong, though not unpleasant butyraceous taste, which 
increases with the age of the fruit. The seeds are enveloped in a 
tough, fibrous membrane, are very hard, and, when cut open, present 
a white, oily, glistening substance, which burns readily with a blue 
flame, and gives off the odor of roasted coffee. 

The oil, or rather oils — for there are two — a volatile oil, soluble in 
alcohol, and a fixed oil, are obtained from the expressed juice by allow- 
ing it to stand for some time. In a few days the oils rise to the surface,, 
and the liquid is resolved into three layers ; first, a yellow volatile oil,, 
next a thicker, grayish-brown fixed oil, and then a yellowish watery 
fluid containing a large percentage of saccharine matter, richer in fact 
than cane juice itself. By evaporation this fluid yields a rich golden 
syrup, which neither ferments nor candies, slightly retaining the pecu- 
liar taste of the fruit. When the berries are boiled in water, the vol- 
atile oil is dissipated, filling the atmosphere for a great distance with its 
pungent vapor, and producing dizziness and headache in those in the 
immediate neighborhood. 

The residue of seeds and husks, when ground up, forms an oil cake 
which is greedily eaten by many animals, and fattens more speedily 
than that of rape or flaxseed. 

Medical Uses. — From the above account of some of the properties 
of this plant, its application as a remedial agent seems warranted. In 
all cases where a highly nutritive agent is needed, it seems to apply 
well and to fulfill the indications. By its peculiar soothing power on 
the mucous membrane it induces sleep, relieves the most troublesome 
coughs, promotes expectoration, improves digestion, and increases fat, 
flesh and strength. Its sedative and diuretic properties are remarkable. 



Am Ai rii?i879 arm "} Constituents of Sanguinaria. 171 

It has been used with benefit in cardiac asthma, phthisis (especially 
laryngeal phthisis), chronic bronchitis and dilation of the bronchial 
tubes. Its action in catarrhal affections is rapid and permanent. A 
cold in the head may be abated by two or three doses. Mixed in boil- 
ing water, and used by inhalation, it has been found very beneficial in 
chronic ozena. 

Considering the great and diversified power of the saw palmetto as 
a therapeutic agent, it seems strange that it should have so long escaped 
the notice of the medical profession. Several years ago, while on a 
hunting trip in the wilds of Florida, my attention was drawn to the 
great fattening properties of the berries, and the peculiar quality of the 
fat of the animals that feed on them. Most animals in the palmetto 
region are very fond of the fruit. During the summer months in these 
parts the supply of food is scanty for such animals as bears, racoons^ 
opossums and hogs, and they have to work hard to eke out a living 
from roots and such animal food as they can find on the sea coast — as 
turtle eggs and dead fish — and they consequenrly become very thin. 
As soon, however, as the palmetto berries begin to ripen, they improve 
rapidly, and in a few weeks have acquired an enormous quantity of fat,, 
so as to become so unwieldly that they are an easy prey to the hunter. 
This fat, like that of mast eating animals, consists principally of olein,. 
and will not make lard. The berries, when dropped into water, are 
seized and eaten with avidity by the fishes. Even the natives fre- 
quently acquire a taste for the berries and eat them freely. 



ON SOME CONSTITUENTS OF THE RHIZOME OF 
SANGUINARIA. 

By Fred. W. Carpenter, Ph.G. 
[From a thesis presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. ) 

The rhizome, in moderately fine powder, was exhausted in a perco- 
lator with water acidulated with acetic acid. The percolate was evap- 
orated to a convenient bulk, and ammonia added until a precipitate 
ceased to form. This precipitate, of a purple color, was separated 
from the mother-liquor by a filter, and thoroughly washed with water. 
The filtrate (a) was of a dark brown color, having lost the deep red 
color of the infusion. The precipitate (b) was then dried, and mace- 
rated with successive portions of ether, until no residue was left op. 



1 7 2 Constituents of Sanguinaria. { kMm jg3g'3g m ' 

evaporation of a small quantity of the solution. The solution thus 
obtained was a light yellowish-red color, exhibiting a very handsome 
fluorescence. Concentrated muriatic acid was then heated, and the 
gas thus given off was passed into the etherial solution by means of a 
glass tube, until it was saturated, when a voluminous scarlet precipitate of 
muriate of sanguinarina was formed. By this means all of the alkaloid 
was precipitated, its salts being wholly insoluble in ether, leaving the ether 
almost colorless, the slight color present being due to a small quantity 
of resin held in solution. The muriate of sanguinarina was purified by 
dissolving in hot water, filtering, precipitating by ammonia, drying the 
precipitate, and dissolving in ether. This solution, treated with animal 
charcoal, and then with hydrochloric acid gas, as before, gave the 
muriate pure. The precipitate (b) after having been exhausted with 
ether was dried and treated with the alcohol ; a deep red tincture was 
obtained. This diluted with water, a resinous matter was thrown 
down ; the mother-liquor, containing a small quantity of sanguinarina 
not removed bv the ether of first treatment, was precipitated by Mayer's 
test. The filtrate (a) was then neutralized by acetic acid, and a strong 
solution of tannic acid added as long as any precipitate was formed ; 
this was separated by a filter, and washed until the washings were taste- 
less, then thoroughly dried, and digested with an alcoholic solution of 
hydrate of potassium as long as anything was dissolved. The tannate 
of potash thus formed separated as a dark brown mass, it being insol- 
uble in alcohol, which held the alkaloid in solution, together with an 
excess of hydrate of potash. This excess was removed by passing 
carbon dioxide into the solution, forming carbonate of potash, insol- 
uble in alcohol. The solution was then decanted from any insoluble 
matter, and the spirit removed by distillation. The residue was then 
dissolved in ether, from which the so-called u Porphyroxin" separated, 
on evaporation, as a dirty, white, crystalline mass. By solution in 
alcohol, and treatment with animal charcoal, it was obtained on con- 
centrating the solution, in minute, nearly colorless, tabular crystals, of 
a bitter taste, and very sparingly soluble in water, more readily so in 
alcohol. It is wholly dissipated by heat, giving off* a peculiar odor 
when burning, and possessing an alkaline reaction. It neutralizes acids, 
forming with them salts, the hydrochlorate being in the form of cauli- 
fiower-like masses, owing to the arrangement of the crystals. But a 
few grains of this alkaloid were obtained from a pound of root. It 



Am Ap°nVi879. rm I Constituents of Sanguinaria. 173. 

seems to differ decidedly from the porphyroxin of Merck, from opium,, 
and is not colored by nitric acid ; is dissolved by dilute acids, but does 
not become red on boiling. Both the supposed alkaloid and its salts 
give a deep blue or purple color with concentrated sulphuric acid, very 
much intensified by the addition of a small piece of bichromate of 
potassium. 

In a second experiment the root was percolated and the sanguinarina 
precipitated as before ; the alkaloid separated and the filtrate neutralized 
by hydrochloric acid until a slight acid reaction was obtained. A solu- 
tion of iodo-hydrargyrate of potassium was added as long as a precipi- 
tate was formed ; this was separated from the dark brown filtrate (x) r 
washed and dried. It was then digested in a strong solution of carbon- 
ate of sodium, to decompose, and evaporated to dryness. The resi- 
due was treated with hot stronger alcohol as long as it removed any- 
thing. This gave a deep red tincture, which was acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid and an equal bulk of water added ; this threw down 
a yellow precipitate, which was separated from the liquid (a). The 
precipitate was insoluble in water and petroleum benzin, partly soluble 
in ether, chloroform and the caustic alkalies. It fused at a gentle heat j. 
at a higher temperature it burned, leaving no residue, and giving off the 
peculiar odor noticed in burning the so-called porphyroxin. It was 
wholly uncrystallizable, decomposed by concentrated nitric, and not 
changed by muriatic acid. With sulphuric acid, concentrated, it gave 
the same beautiful deep purple color noticed above ; and, like it, deep- 
ened by chromic acid, gradually fading, and finally disappearing. It 
was separated into two portions by ether, the insoluble portion of a 
grey brown color, the etherial solution of a light yellow color in trans- 
mitted light and red in reflected light. This solution evaporated left a 
yellow colored residue, of a resinous nature, which gave the purple 
color reaction, as did also the insoluble portion, the two differing 
slightly in the shades of color produced. On treating the original 
resin with chloroform, the results were almost identical with those 
obtained by ether in regard to solubility and reactions. The portion 
insoluble in chloroform was dissolved in a small quantity of alcohol,, 
and hydrate of potassium added ; this produced the separation of a 
yellowish-white precipitate. A crystal of bicarbonate of potassium 
was added to convert the hydrate into carbonate, insoluble in alcohol. 
The whole was then shaken with ether, the ether removed and evapo- 



Resin and Gum of Gamboge. 



{Am. Jour Phann. 
April, 1879. 



rated, leaving a white crystalline residue corresponding to the supposed 
porphyroxin of the former experiment, and was probably carried down 
with the resin. 

The filtrate (?) contained a small quantity of the supposed alkaloid, 
which was precipitated by Mayer's test. The filtrate was found to be 
free from tartaric acid, but to contain both citric and malic acids. A 
portion of the powder, previously exhausted with water, acidulated with 
acetic acid, was then percolated with alcohol, a deep red tincture being 
obtained. This produced a bright red precipitate with solution of 
protochloride of tin. A portion evaporated to dryness and treated with 
water gave a red solution, precipitated by ammonia and Mayer's test, 
the precipitate being sanguinarina. The residue was a reddish-brown 
resin, soluble in chloroform and ether, giving no characteristic reaction 
with the mineral acids. 



THE RESIN AND GUM OF GAMBOGE. 

By David Costelo, Ph.G. 
{From a thesis presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.) 
Gamboge consists of resin and giim, in variable proportions. The 
amount of resin represents its value both medicinally and as a pigment. 
Thinking it would be of interest to ascertain the value of the present 
commercial varieties, specimens of pipe, lump and powdered gamboge 
were procured. 

Ten grams of each were treated with alcohol until the color was 
entirely removed. The gum, which is insoluble in alcohol, was dis- 
solved in cold water and the solution filtered, to remove insoluble 
matter. The results are given in the following : 

In 10 grams of Resin. Gum. Impurities. Total. 

Lump, 6 76 grams. 2 74 grams. -38 gram. 9*88 grams. 

Pipe, 7-93 1-945 '015 9-89 

Powder, 7*66 2*25 -07 998 

As there is a small quantity of water contained in gamboge, the dis- 
crepancy, in the above total, is attributed to this cause. 

The resin was found to be of a bright reddish-brown color, translu- 
cent, very brittle, and easily rubbed into a bright yellow powder. This 
is the so-called gambogic acid, C 20 H 23 O 4 . Its solution in alcohol or 
ether has an acid reaction to test paper, and it unites with bases to form 
salts. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, ) 
April, 1879. / 



Resin and Gum of Gamboge. 



It is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, bisulphide of carbon, 
solutions of ammonia and potassa, and partially soluble in petroleum 
benzin. To form the salts of this acid the experiments of Johnston 
and Buchner were followed, with slight modifications. 

The resin dissolves very readily in warm ammonia water, forming a 
•dark red solution of gambogiate of ammonium. The potassium salt is 
made bv dissolving the resin in solution of potassa, the solution being 
also dark reddish-brown. On standing for some time, a gelatinous 
deposit is formed in each of the above solutions. The ammonia 
doposit was exposed until dry; the residue left was hard and brittle, 
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and ether, and in appearance 
resembles the resin. 

To form the sodium salt, a portion of the ammonia solution was 
treated with a solution of chloride of sodium, when a yellow precipi- 
tate was thrown down. When the solutions are heated before mixing, 
the precipitate is much more dense. 

Another portion of the ammonia solution was treated with a solution 
of chloride of barium, when a dark brick-red precipitate of gambogiate 
of barium was thrown down. The calcium salt is formed by using a 
solution of chloride of calcium as the precipitant ; the precipitate is of 
a brownish-yellow color. Both these salts are soluble in alcohol and 
ether ; on the evaporation of the solutions the salts are left in the form 
of a fine powder. 

The lead salt was made in a like manner by precipitating with solu- 
tions of neutral and basic acetate of lead ; with the former the precip- 
itate is yellow, while with the latter it is of an orange-yellow color. 
These are also soluble in alcohol and ether, and are likewise left in the 
form of fine powder on evaporation of the solution. 

When to an alcoholic solution of the resin an alcoholic solution of 
nitrate of silver is added, no precipitate is formed until after the addi- 
tion of a small amount of ammonia, when the gambogiate of silver is 
thrown down as a yellow precipitate ; on exposure to the air this pre- 
cipitate changes very rapidly, becoming of a dark blackish-green color. 

The gambogic acid also forms salts with copper, iron, strontium, 
etc., by precipitating its solution with a solution of a salt of these 
metals. 

The resin was boiled with strong nitric acid until red fumes ceased 
to be given off", and the solution became of a thick syrupy consistence 



176 Abietene, a New Hydrocarbon. { km :J™;^™™- 

on cooling it solidified. This mass was washed with water to remove 
any free nitric acid ; portions of it were then dissolved in alcohol, 
ether and chloroform, and on the evaporation of the solutions it was 
left as a light yellow colored powder. 

The aqueous solution of the gum was boiled with nitric acid, evapo- 
rated to dryness, redissolved in distilled water and concentrated. On 
standing for some time small crystals were deposited, together with an 
amorphous reddish-brown coloring matter. The mother-liquor was- 
drained off and the coloring matter dissolved out with alcohol, leaving 
the crystals colorless and transparent. As the number obtained was 
quite smail, no satisfactory results could be obtained, other than that 
they were very soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, were not entirely 
volatilized when heated on platinum foil, and had an acid reaction to 
test paper. The coloring matter, on the evaporation of the alcohol, 
was of a drab color, quite bitter, sparingly soluble in water, but quite 
soluble in alcohol and ether. 



ABIETENE, A NEW HYDROCARBON, AS TYPE OF A 
NEW GROUP OF TERPENES. 

By Samuel P. Sadtler, Ph.D. 

In the number of this journal for March, 1872, Prof. William 
Wenzell, of the California College of Pharmacy, described a new 
variety of oil of turpentine, under the name of abietene. The material 
which formed the subject of his investigation was obtained from the 
Pinus sabiniana, Dougl., a tree inhabiting the dry sides of the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Coast Range, known 
more familiarly, however, by the name of the nut pine or Digger pine. 
Several months ago, I was handed by a friend a small quantity (less 
than a pint) of an oil of turpentine obtained in San Francisco, and said 
to be derived from the Pinus ponderosa, or heavy pine. This species 
belongs to the class of yellow or pitch-pines, in which is found the 
familiar Pinus australis of the Southern States, the source of our com- 
mon English oil of turpentine, containing as its distinctive constituent 
the hydrocarbon australene. 

A few tests sufficed to show, however, that the oil I had in hand 
answered more nearly to the characters of Wenzell's abietene than to 
the ordinary oil of turpentine, so that, if really obtained from the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
April, 1879. i 



Abietene , a New Hydrocarbon. 



177 



Pinus ponderosa, it argued a uniformity in the chemical characters of the 
products of the Sierra Nevada pines. 

The physical and chemical characters of abietene, as described by 
Wenzell (Joe. c/7.), which are especially at variance with those of com- 
mon oil of turpentine, are the following : a strong penetrating odor, 
bearing some resemblance to oil of oranges ; a specific gravity of 
0*694 at a temperature of i6*5°C. ; a boiling-point of ioi°C. ; its 
very volatile and inflammable character, burning with a brilliant white 
smokeless flame ; the inability of hydrochloric acid gas to combine 
with it to form a hydrochlorate ; and, lastly, the slight effect of nitric 
acid upon the oil. 

Although the quantity of oil at my disposal was very small, I was 
enabled to repeat with the specimen I had most of the tests regarded 
by Wenzell as characteristic of abietene, besides making some others 
with a view of a more detailed chemical comparison with ordinary oil 
of turpentine. 

The odor was very pleasant and refreshing, suggesting, as said, oil 
of oranges. The boiling point of the whole sample examined did not 
vary from 101 to I03°C, while, as is known, the several common 
varieties of turpentine boil uniformly at 156 to i6i°C, and other 
members of the terpene group at 174 to 176 . The specific gravity 
was found, as the mean of two very careful determinations, to be 
•6974 at i6'5°C., while the specific gravity of all naturally occurring 
terpenes is '84 to *86. 

On examination in a Wild's polaristrobometer, it was found to be 
optically active, rotating the plane of polarization slightly to the left. 
It was to be expected that, in this respect, it would differ as the several 
ordinary varieties of turpentine differ from each other in this particular. 
Thus the optical rotatory power of English oil of turpentine (austra- 
lene) is -f- I 8 , 6°, of French oil (terebenthene) — 35*40, of Venetian 
oil — 5*2, of templin oil — 76*9°. The sample of abietene examined 
showed — 1*58°. 

Action of Hydrochloric Acid. — A portion of the oil was chilled by 
surrounding it with a freezing mixture, while a current of HC1 was 
passed through it for some hours. A small quantity of a dark oil 
separated out in the bottom of the flask. Having removed this by 
means of a separatory funnel, the turpentine oil was submitted to dis- 
tillation. Most of it came over under I05°C, and was, apparently, 

12 



178 Abietene, a New Hydrocarbon. {^Afcl^""' 

unaltered abietene, showing only a trifling opalescence when tested with 
silver nitrate, after previous addition of a little nitric acid, while a small 
quantity of a brownish oil remained which did not distill over at 160 . 
While this was probably the same as the oil which separated out at 
first, it was put to one side, and the latter was examined for itself. 
After standing it in contact with precipitated calcium carbonate for a 
short time, to free it from any adhering HC1, it was filtered and pre- 
pared for analysis. A combustion was first made : '2495 gram 
substance gave -2261 gram H 2 0, corresponding to 10*07 P er cent « H., 
and *6n8 gram C0 2 , corresponding to 66*88 per cent. C. 

A chlorine determination was next made, decomposing the oil by 
heating with nitric acid, diluting, and, after filtration, adding silver 
nitrate. It was found, however, that, unfortunately, the nitric acid 
had not effected a complete decomposition, and so the determination 
was lost. Too little then remained for a chlorine determination by a 
combustion with quick-lime or soda-lime, which would certainly have 
been effectual in decomposing the chlorhydrate. 

The carbon and hydrogen percentages only remained for comparison. 
Now the formula C 10 H 16 .HC1 requires C = 69*56 and H = 9*85, 
and the formula C 10 H 16 .2(HC1) requires C = 57*41 and H =8*6i. 
The found results, C = 66*88 and H = 10*07, ren d er it probable, 
therefore, that the oil in hand was a mono-chlorhydrate of the abietene. 
Still, a careful analysis of larger amounts of this oil is needed before 
its composition can be asserted with certainty. 

Formation of a Hydrate. — Common turpentine oil left in contact with 
water forms a crystallized hydrate, C 10 H 16 .3H 2 O. It is best obtained by 
mixing 8 parts turpentine oil, 2 parts nitric acid of specific gravity 1*25, 
and 1 part alcohol, and, after thorough agitation for some hours, 
allowing the mixture to stand exposed to the air in shallow vessels. 
This procedure was carried out with abietene, but with purely negative 
results. It does not form any crystallized or well-defined hydrate. 
After a week's standing, all that remained was a few drops of a dark- 
brown resinous substance, which was too small in amount to investigate. 

Action of Sulphuric Acid upon Abietene. — Wenzell had stated that con- 
centrated sulphuric acid was absolutely without action upon abietene. 
However, turpentine oil, when repeatedly distilled with a small amount 
of strong sulphuric acid, is converted into two distinct varieties, tere- 
bene, C 10 H 16 , and a polymer, colophene, C 20 H 32 , both optically inactive. 



Am A J P °rii! i8 7 h 9 arm } Abietene, a New Hydrocarbon. 179 

1 stood a small quantity of the abietene in contact with 217th of its 
bulk of strong sulphuric acid, and after 24 hours, pouring it off from 
the dark brown resinous sediment which had formed, distilled the oil. 
It boiled as before at '101 . It was again placed in contact with sul- 
phuric acid, when a slight shade of brown only appeared to settle out, 
and then re-distilled. It came over at 101 . The quantities thus 
■obtained, both of the oil distilling at 101 and of the brown resinous 
substance, were too small to examine in detail. It seems probable, 
however, that they would be found to correspond to the terebene and 
colophene obtained from ordinary oil of turpentine. 

Jetton of Nitrosyl Chloride (NOC1). — This reageant has only recently 
been applied to the study of organic compounds. Tilden, who has 
given most study to the subject ( u Berichte der Chem. Ges.," vii, pp. 
597, 1025, ana< x ? P* 9°8), finds that the compounds produced by its 
action upon the different terpenes are especially characteristic and 
stable compounds. Indeed, they seem to be so distinctive that Tilden, 
as quoted by Attfield ("Attfield's Chem.,' , 8th edition, p. 461), classi- 
fies the terpenes in part on the basis of the nitroso-compounds 
obtained from them. I therefore tried the action of nitrosyl-chloride, 
prepared by the action of common salt, upon nitrosyl -sulphate (lead- 
chamber crystals), upon abietene. The oil was cooled by a freezing 
mixture, and the gas allowed to bubble through it for several hours. 
A small amount of a flocculent precipitate formed, from which the oil 
was decanted, and the precipitate was then washed with alcohol and 
cheated with alcoholic solution of caustic soda, in order to convert the 
nitrosyl-chloride compound of the terpene, which is unstable, into the 
more stable nitroso-terpene. A white substance was thus obtained, 
which should have been the sought-for nitroso-compound. It was on 
examination, however, found to be largely chloride of sodium, which 
formed on the treatment with alcoholic soda solution, and which was, 
of course, insoluble. How much of the desired nitroso-compound 
was present in it could not be readily ascertained with the small 
amount in hand. So the question of the nitroso-compounds I will 
have to leave unsettled until larger amounts of the abietene can be 
examined. 

Tilden's classification of the terpenes (all essential oils of the com- 
position C 10 H 16 or isomeric with them) is the following : 

"A turpentine group of true terpenes (C 10 H 16 ) whose members boil 



180 Sulphocarbonate of Potassium.- { Am A&'i8 7 h 9 a . rin ' 

at I56°C. to i6o°C. yield a nitroso-derivative melting at I20, C., and 
form a solid crystalline hydrous terpene (C 10 H 20 O 2 H 2 0) ; and an orange 
group (C 15 H 24 ), polymerides of the true terpenes, whose members boil 
at I74°C. to I76°C, yield a nitroso-derivative melting at 7i°C, and 
form no solid hydrous compound. " 

Abietene certainly cannot be ranked in either of these classes. Its 
boiling point and its specific gravity alone show it to be distinct and 
probably in the two additional particulars regarded by Tilden as char- 
acteristic it will be found to differ. I hope to obtain shortly larger 
amounts of this interesting compound, when I will endeavor to settle 
these points definitely. At present it appears to be a type of a new 
group of terpenes. 

In conclusion, it gives me pleasure to acknowledge my obligations 
to Miss Anna L. Flanigen, who carried out in the laboratory of the 
University of Pennsylvania the analytical work, and assisted in several 
of the tests made in this short investigation. 



ON SULPHOCARBONATE OF POTASSIUM. 

By John M. Maisch. 

Several years ago a solution of sulphocarbonate of potassium was rec- 
ommended in France for the destruction of the phylloxera, which com- 
mitted serious ravages among the grape vines of Southern France and other 
European countries. (See "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1875, p. 327.) Since then 
the same compound has also been used for destroying the insects which 
infest ornamental plants and flowers, and even a certain value as a fer- 
tilizer has been claimed for it. It seems to be attracting some atten- 
tion now in North America, and it will doubtless be of interest to the 
readers of the " Journal " to become acquainted with the mode of 
preparation and the properties of this and allied compounds, particu- 
larly since they appear to be adapted as remedies for certain skin 
diseases. 

The sulphocarbonates were discovered by Berzelius more than fifty 
years ago, and the results of his investigations remain undisturbed even 
at the present time. The name sulphocarbonate indicates that these 
compounds have the same chemical composition as the corresponding 
carbonates, except that the oxygen of the latter is completely replaced 



A %i°rir;i87 h 9 arm '} Sulphocarbonate of Potassium. 1 8 1 

by an equal number of atoms of sulphur ; the formula for sulphocar- 
bonate of potassium is therefore K 2 CS 3 . 

On passing carbonic acid gas into an aqueous or alcoholic solution of 
potassa, carbonate and finally bicarbonate of potassium is formed. A pre- 
cisely analogous reaction is obtained if an aqueous solution of monosul- 
phide of potassium isacted upon by carbon bisulphide ; K 2 S + CS 2 Welds 
K 2 CS 3 . Carbon bisulphide is insoluble in water, and its solubility in this 
menstruum is not materially increased by the presence of a polysulphuret 
or of the officinal sulphuret of potassium. The preparation of sulpho- 
carbonate involves, therefore, the previous formation of potassium mono- 
sulphide, and this is most conveniently obtained by passing sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas into a solution of caustic potassa as long as the gas is 
absorbed, and afterwards adding an equal bulk of the same alkaline 
solution. In its purest state it yields on evaporation colorless prisms 
of the hydrated sulphide, which are deliquescent on exposure, dissolve 
readily in alcohol and water, and in contact with the air become oxid- 
ized. The solution in water obtained in the manner indicated is, there- 
fore, best preserved in well filled bottles, or it is at once agitated with 
carbon bisulphide, as long as the latter is dissolved. The combination 
is effected in a stoppered bottle at a temperature of 30°C. (86°F.) ; as 
the carbon bisulphide dissolves, the liquid acquires a yellow, brown- 
veliow or red-brown color, according to the concentration and purity 
of the solution. On careful evaporation at the temperature indicated 
and subsequent cooling, yellow crystals of the hydrate are obtained, 
which at a somewhat higher temperature part with their water and 
leave the anhydrous compound. Potassium sulphocarbonate is very deli- 
quescent, freely soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol, and has 
a cooling, afterwards pungent and peppery, and finally somewhat sul- 
phurous taste. 

The sparing solubility in alcohol of potassium sulphocarbonate, and 
the free solubility in the same liquid of potassium monosulphide, sug- 
gests the preparation of the former from an alcoholic solution of the 
latter. On adding to such a concentrated solution carbon bisulphide as 
long as this is taken up, the liquid will gradually separate into two or 
three layers, the lowest of which is a syrupy solution of the compound 
desired. But for the purposes for which potassium sulphocarbonate is 
employed, it is obtained sufficiently pure by the process described 
before. 



1 8 2 Sulphocarbonate of Potassium . { ^Xxs^™ " 

If a watery solution of caustic potassa is agitated with carbon bisul- 
phide, the latter is gradually dissolved, yielding a brown liquid, which, 
contains both carbonate and sulphocarbonate of potassium in solution \. 
6KHO+3QS 2 yields K 2 C0 3 +2K 2 CS 3 +3H 2 0. Both newly formed 
compounds have a similar behavior to water and alcohol, and therefore 
cannot be separated either by crystallization or bv precipitation with, 
alcohol, and since the application of strong solutions of alkaline car- 
bonates is inadmissable, the process described cannot be advantageously 
used for the preparation of potassium sulphocarbonate. Such a solu- 
tion will effervesce briskly on the addition of diluted hydrochloric or 
sulphuric acid, and after the neutralization of the liquid the further 
addition of acid will render the mixture milky from the separation of 
sulphocarbonic acid, H 2 CS 3 , which gradually forms a heavy red-brown> 
oil, capable of decomposing the carbonates with the evolution of car- 
bonic acid gas. 

On treating an alcoholic solution of caustic potassa with carbon bisul- 
phide, the reaction is very different from the preceding, and results in 
the production of sulphcarbovinate of potassium ; KHO + C 2 H 6 -f-CS 2 , 
yields KC 2 H 5 OCS 2 4-H 2 0. This salt gives with a solution of sulphate 
of copper a yellow precipitate, and the acid contained in it has also- 
been known as xanthome, xanthic and xanthogenic acid; it was discovered 
by Zeise in 1822. 

By substituting in the above processes caustic soda or lime for the 
potassa, corresponding sodium and calcium compounds are obtained. 
The soluble sulphocarbonates yield brown precipitates with salts oi. 
copper, red ones with salts of lead, and yellow ones with mercuric,, 
cadmium and silver salts. Many of these compounds with the heavy 
metals are gradually turned black. 

According to Delachanal (1877) the solutions of potassium sulpho- 
carbonates of 



Degrees Baume 




10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


have the the density 




1:075 


11 61 


1-262 


1383 


1-530; 


and contain per cent. 


K 2 CS 3 


107 


22' 


35* 


4-8-9 


63-7 


H «( (t 


cs 2 


4*37 


8-98 


14-28 


!9'95 


25-99, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1879. J 



Tully's Powder. 



SALICYLIC ACID.— A CORRECTION. 

By J. U. Lloyd. 

Sometime ago, an article in this journal (1875, p. 343) mentioned 
that in preparing salicylic acid from wintergreen oil on oily liquid sep- 
arated, and must be eliminated. This oily substance is wanting in cases 
where the wintergreen oil is pure ; therefore, it is with pleasure I offer 
this criticism of a formula otherwise effective. The article alluded to 
was written by myself, and for some two years I have been expecting 
to note the above-mentioned correction from the pen of another. It 
is time that some one should speak, therefore I will state that the 
remarks alluded to were based upon insufficient data. I will also say 
that at present pure wintergreen oil can easily be obtained. 

Note. — Oil of wintergreen is a mixture of two oils, one of which, 
a hydrocarbon, boiling near 200°C, is present in small quantity only. 
About 90 per cent, of the oil consists of methyl-salicylic acid, which, 
with potassa, yields salicylate of potassium and methylic alcohol. Oil of 
wintergreen is not unfrequently adulterated with oil of sassafras, which 
admixture is readily detected by cold nitric acid. — Ed. Am. Jour. Phar. 



TULLY'S POWDER. 

Elmira, N. Y., March 19, 1879- 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir — I enclose formulae of " Tully's Powder," with the 
authority for each. Your readers may already be familiar with the 
several recipes. It shows how uncertain a prescription is if ordered by 
its popular name. 

Formula of Dr. H. M. Field, Prof of Therapeutics, Dartmouth Medical College. 

(1) $ Pulv. camphorae, . • .'12 

" glycyrrhizae, . . . '50 

Morphia; sulphatis, . . . -015 — 007 

M. 

Formula of Dr. C, P. Frost, Prof of Theory and Practice of Medicine, Dartmouth 

Medical College} 

(2) R Cretae preparatae (Eng ), 

Pulv. camphorae, 

" glycyrrhizae, . . da '32 

Morphiae sulphatis, . . . 015 

M. 

The above is also as prepared by T. Metcalf & Co., Boston. 
1 This is nearly identical with the formula of the Mass. Med. Society.— Editor. 



1 8 4 New Method of Making Suppositories. { ^XxI^T* 

From Ne<w Remedies, April i, 1875, /><2§\? 192. 1 

(3) R Pulv.opii, . . . . -06 

" glycyrrhizas rad., 
" camphoras, 

" cretas preparatae, . da 'zo 

M. 

From Mann's Prescription Writing, P. Putnam's Sons. 

(4) R Morphias sulphatis, . . . -06 

Camphoras, 

Pulv. glycyrrhizae, 

Cretas preparatae, . . .da '65 

M. 

The Pharmacist, pp. 156, for 1873.' 2 

(5) R Morphias sulphatis, . . . .01 

Camphoras, . . . -28 

Calcis carbonatis precip., . . '21 

Pulv. glycyrrhizae rad., . . to 

M. 

We have five different recipes, each claiming to be Tully's Powder, 
and each emanating from a reliable source. 

C. W. M. Brown, M.D. 



A NEW METHOD OF MAKING SUPPOSITORIES. 

By E. T. Ellis. 

In this progressive age, when the requirements of the medical pro- 
fession demand the greatest amount of exactness, nicety and expedition 
on the part of the dispensing chemist, we notice that Mr. H. C. 
Archibald, pharmacist, No. 4099 Lancaster avenue, Philadelphia, has 
come to the relief of the latter by the invention of a machine which 
will (and ought to) revolutionize the present tedious, and to some extent 
inaccurate way of preparing suppositories, and be hailed with delight by 
those who are required to furnish them almost daily. The following 
cut represents his Patent Compressed Suppository Mould for making 
the various sizes without heat. 

Figure 1 represents the machine complete, reduced to one-fourth the 
size ; letter A the hopper, in which is thrown the mixture of cacao 
butter with active ingredient ; B the plunger, used for compressing the 

1 Dr. L. Barlow writes to " New Remedies" that Tully's formula, as published in 
his Materia Medica, directs powdered opium, 1 part 5 powdered camphor, powdered 
liquorice root and precipitated carbonate of calcium, of each 3 parts Morphia 
may be substituted for the opium if preferred. — Editor Amer. Jour. Phar. 

2 The u Pharmacist" gives the formula in parts, thus : Sulphate of morphia, 1 part ; 
powdered camphor, 28 parts ; precipitated carbonate of calcium, 21 parts, and pow- 
dered liquorice root, 10 parts. — Editor 



Am A J P °H! r ;x P 879. rm '} New Method of Making Suppositories. 185 

suppositories ; C the hand-lever ; D the swing-bed, for holding the 
mould ; E the mould, split longitudinally ; G the suppository in one- 
half of mould after compression ; H the manner of discharging the 
moulded suppository ; / the cut-off. 




Mould, cut longitudinally. Manner of discharging suppository. 

By the above simple apparatus an expert hand can readily make 8 to 
10 suppositories per minute, and of a finish that cannot be obtained by 
moulding. The above machine has different sets of moulds for differ- 
ent sizes of suppositories, and the method of working it is as follows : 
First. Keep your cacao butter in a grated condition in a cool place, 
which can be accomplished readily by using the ordinary lemon grater 



i 86 New Method of Making Suppositories. { ^^S^ 

(the writer has grated one pound in three or four minutes). When that 
is accomplished, and the grated cacao is safely on the shelf, the phar- 
macist need have no horror of making suppositories. If twelve 15- 
grain suppositories were ordered, containing 1 grain of pulv.opii each,, 
all the pharmacist has to do is to weigh about 168 grains of grated cacao 
butter and 12 grains of powdered opium. Mix with a spatula on a piece 
of paper or pill tile, so that the whole will be thoroughly incorporated,, 
and throw the mixture in the hopper (letter A\ and by simply operat- 
ing the lever to compress the mixture, a perfect moulded suppository is 
made, which is cut off when the mould is swung around, so that no 
variation in the size of the suppository can result. The same process 
can be observed in the making of almost all suppositories, such as 
morphia, tannin, carb. lead, quinia, ext. krameria, etc. When aqueous 
extract of opium is ordered, it will be necessaey to keep on hand the 
extract in a dry state, so as to admit of its ready pulverization, which 
can readily be done without detriment to the extract ; besides, it is 
not hygroscopic. The same will apply, also, to the other alcoholic 
extracts, hyoscyamus, belladonna, stramonium, aconite, aloes and rhu- 
barb, all of which can be dried and kept in stock by the pharmacist. 

The advantages this machine has over the common way of pre- 
paring suppositories by fusion of the cacao butter and incorpora- 
tion of the medicinal agents, are many ; but when calomel, prepara- 
tions of lead and articles of very different specific gravities are ordered,, 
in the old way it is impracticable to keep them equally diffused 
throughout, and defeating the object in view — slow elimination and 1 
absorption of the active ingredients. They can be summed up: Firsts 
Accuracy, the most important ; perfect and uniform results are obtain- 
able. Second. Attractive appearance of the suppository, presenting an. 
elegant finish. Third. Facility of preparation and dispensing ; a pre- 
scription of a dozen can be ready in less time than as many pills or 
powders. Fourth. Cleanliness ; the mould requires no cleaning. 

It is believed that the machine can be furnished as low as six dollars,, 
thus placing it in the reach of all. 



Am, Jour Phann. ) 
April, 1879. J 



Chemical Notes', 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. S. P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry.— The beautiful experiments of Messrs. Cail- 
letet and Pictet on the liquefaction of the so-called permanent gases- 
(this journal, p. 185, 1878) are already bearing fruits in inciting others 
to, similar work. M. Ogier has just accomplished the liquefaction of 
hydrogen silicide (H 4 Si). This was done with the Cailletet apparatus. 
At ordinary temperatures (about io°C.) hydrogen silicide is not lique- 
fied, even under a pressure of 200 to 300 atmospheres, but if cooled a 
much smaller pressure suffices. Thus, at — 11 it is liquefied under a. 
pressure of 50 atmospheres ; at — 5 under a pressure of 70 atmos- 
pheres.; at — 1° under a pressure of 100 atmospheres, while at o° it 
remains gaseous, even under 150 to 200 atmospheres. What may be 
called the critical point, therefore, seems to be just under zero. In 
these conditions of liquefaction it resembles marsh gas (CH 4 ) with 
which it has great chemical analogy. — Comptes Rendus, pp. 88, 236. 

O. Emmerling has made some experiments on the preparation of 
metallic phosphides, working with great pressure obtained by the use of 
sealed tubes. He considers that in this way only can the metal be 
made to take up the maximum amount of phosphorus and yield a 
compound of definite chemical composition. The metal was placed 
in a glass tube, having been previously drawn out to wire, and covered 
with an excess of phosphorus. The tube was then completely 
exhausted and fused shut while in this state, the phosphorus having, in 
the mean time, melted. The tubes were always opened in an atmos- 
phere of carbonic acid gas so as to avoid oxidation of the products or 
of the excess of phosphorus. The results with different metals were 
as follows : 

Phosphorus and copper yielded a brittle, crumbling mass of dull 
silvery lustre, containing 66*5 per cent. Cu. This would appear to be 
CuP, which demands 66 4 per cent. Cu. Sp. gr. 5'i4. 

Phosphorus and magnesium yielded a blueish-gray infusible mass, 
which rapidly oxidized to magnesium phosphate so that it could not be 
analyzed. 

Phosphorus and aluminium yielded no compound. 
Phosphorus and mercury yielded no compound. 

Phosphorus and silver yielded a black, very brittle mass of the 



f 88 



Chemical Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharra, 
\ April, 1879. 



formula AgP, containing 77*5 per cent. Ag. Theoretical, 77*7 per 
cent. Ag. 

Phosphorus and cadmium, after several trials, yielded a gray, 
partially fused mass of the composition Cd 2 P, containing 87*4 per 
cent. Cd. 

Phosphorus and zinc yielded a fused crystalline substance of the 
composition Zn 3 P 2 , containing 75*25 per cent. Zu. 
Phosphorus and iron yielded no compound. 

Phosphorus and tin yielded two compounds, according to the amount 
of phosphorus used, whether in excess or not. One possessed the 
formula SnP, containing 79*01 per cent. Sn, and the other SnP 2 , con- 
taining 64*97 P er cent - Sn. The former was tin-white in color, while 
the latter was black and very lustrous. — Bericbte, xii, p. 152. 

J. W. Brtihl describes a method of cleansing mercury that has 
become impure through amalgamation with other metals, etc. It con- 
sists very simply in the use of " chromic acid " mixture, that is bichro- 
mate of potassium and dilute sulphuric acid ; 5 grams bichromate and 
several cubic centimeters of strong sulphuric acid are dissolved in 1 
liter of water, and then shaken up with an equal volume of the impure 
mercury. A small amount of red mercurio-chromate forms at first, 
which disappears as the impurities are oxidized, and finally the solu- 
tion remains pure green. The only solid residue left besides the puri- 
fied mercury is a gray powder, consisting of the oxides of the metals 
which had been amalgamated, which is removed by washing with dis- 
tilled water. Mercury, so impure as to be almost solid, can be purified 
rapidly in this way with a loss of h per cent, or less. — Berichte^ 
xii, p. 204. 

Organic Chemistry. — N. Franchimont has submitted sandal wood 
and caliatur wood again to an investigation, with a view of ascertaining 
the character of their coloring'matter and whether its constitution was 
in any way related to known aromatic compounds. The coloring 
matter extracted and purified gave on analysis figures corresponding to 
C 17 H 16 6 . Fused with potassium hydrate it gave, along with traces of 
a volatile compound having the odor of rose wood, acetic acid, resorcin, 
and, most probably, protocatechuic acid and pyrocatechin. 

While his results do not give him any certain conclusions as to the 
constitution of the coloring matter, yet they establish the relations of 



Am Ap°rn r ;x879 rm *} Gleanings from the German Journals. 189 

this substance to the aromatic compounds, and especially to proto- 
catechuic acid. — Berichte, xii, p. 14. 

E. H. Letts has obtained two new hydrocarbons from turpentine oil. 
On adding metallic sodium to fused turpentine hydrochlorate a violent 
reaction ensues, and, on distilling the product of the action, there is 
obtained a substance which, on cooling, solidifies to a white compound, 
while at higher temperatures an oil comes over. The first solid com- 
pound fuses at 94 and boils at 157 to 158 , and has the compositions 
O 10 ff ir , To this the name of " Turpenyl" was given. The second 
compound boils at 32 1°, and possesses the formula C 20 H 34 , and is- 
called " Diturpenyl. — Eng. Corresp. Berichte, xii, p. 135. 

H. Kohler has investigated the cil of the Gaultheria punctata and 
Gaultheria leucocarpa, fine specimens of which were obtained from Dr. 
de Vrij. It was of interest to know whether these oils contained 
methyl-saiicylate as in the case of Gaultheria procumbens, or whether 
they might not contain the ethyl salicylate possibly. The oleum gaul- 
theria punctata; purified was optically inactive and distilled almost con- 
stant at 223 , forming a colorless liquid of strong refracting power and 
pleasant aromatic odor. It was analyzed and was saponified, and 
showed itself to be under all these tests methyl salicylate. Thus, the- 
amount of salicylic acid obtained from it corresponded to the methyl 
ether and not to the ethyl ether ; the oxidation yielded formic acid and 
no trace of aldehyd. Its composition is, therefore, essentially identi- 
cal with the oil of the Gaultheria procumbens. 

The oleum gaultheria leucocarpa was, when rectified, a clear, almost 
colorless oily fluid of the same odor as the preceding oil. It is, also,, 
optically inactive, and distills over at 221 to 223 , and is thus obtained 
perfectly colorless and with strong refracting power. Elementary 
analysis and saponification both gave the same result as before, showing 
it to be the methyl ether of salicylic acid. — Berichte, xii, p. 264. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
Emplastrum Plumbi Simplex. — Jul. Mueller recommends the 
following formula, which he claims yields an excellent plaster with very 
little trouble : Melt 7,500 grams lard with 7,500 grams olive oil in a 
large copper-kettle, and add immediately 3 liters hot water ; then add 



190 Gleanings from the German Journals. } km ^™;™" m ' 

through a sieve, stirring constantly, 7,500 grams litharge, previously 
heated until entirely free from carbonic acid (/. e. until a little, mixed 
with nitric acid, causes no effervescence). Allow the mixture to stand 
over night and boil the plaster in the morning for 2 to i\ hours with a 
moderate heat, without adding any water. The author has used this 
formula for some time past, and always successfully. — Pharm. Ztg., 
Feb. 1, 1879, P- 7°- 

Analysis of Sapo-Viridis. — Bernbeck ascertained an excellent 
sample of green soap to consist of 14*17 parts of caustic potassa and 
soda, 44*92 parts of oil (calculated from the oleic acid found) and 40*91 
parts of water. An alcoholic solution left a small residue consisting 
•of alkaline carbonates. — Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 1, 1879, p. 70. 

Estimation of Sulphate in Carbonate of Sodium.— Dr. H. 

Klencke powders the salt, adds acetic acid to it until effervescence 
ceases, pours off the liquid and washes the residue with fresh acetic 
acid ; all undissolved salt is Glauber salt ; by drying and weighing this 
the percentage of the adulteration is ascertained. — Pharm. Ztg.* Dec. 
25, 1878, p. 889. 

Constitution of Sulphide of Copper Made by the Wet Process. 

— Julius Thomsen made an analysis of the precipitate obtained from 
solutions of oxide of copper by sulphuretted hydrogen, which proved 
that it is not cupric sulphide (CuS), but a compound having the for- 
mula Cu 4 S 3 . — Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 2043. 

The Unpleasant and Offensive Odor of Iodoform in mixtures 
with lard (1 : 10), collodium elasticum (1 : 10 or 1 : 7), olive oil or cacao 
butter (1 : 50) is easily overcome, according to the statement of Dr. Vul- 
pius, by adding 1 to 2 drops of peppermint oil to every 10 grams of the 
mixture, which covers the iodoform odor entirely. — Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 
12, 1879, p. 95. 

Presence of Iodide of Potassium in Iodoform. — Iodoform dis- 
solves readily in collodion, yielding a clear, thick solution. On pre- 
paring such a solution with iodoform, apparently pure and answering 
all tests of the German Pharmacopoeia, Jul. Muller observed it to 
become as thin as ether ; further investigations proved that this was 
caused by the presence of potassium iodide and iodate in the iodoform. 
— Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 1, 1879, p. 70. 



Am Vp rn r ,'i879. rm } Gleaings from the German Journals. 



iqi 



Presence of Iron in Commercial Sodium Bicarbonate — F. 
Schneider states that liquor sodae chlorinatae prepared with commer- 
cial sodium bicarbonate was of a blueish-red color, caused undoubtedly 
by the presence of iron in the bicarbonate ; the color is not destroyed 
by boiling. — Schweiz. Wochenschr., 1879, p. 19. 

Presence of Copper in Ergotin.— On treating a warm aqueous 
solution of ergotin with bright iron, W. StefFen proved it to contain a 
dangerous quantity of copper. The contamination was probably 
caused by evaporating the ergotin in a copper dish. — Schw. Wochenschr., 
1879, p. 19. 

A New Hydrocarbon from Resin-Oil. — If resin-oii is heated 
with sulphur to about 200°C, sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic 
oxysulphide are liberated in large quantities. If the temperature is 
afterwards raised until the residue boils, a substance distills over which 
crystallizes in the receiver, and may be purified by pressing between 
bibulous paper and recrystallization from alcohol. It forms handsome, 
white, brilliant crystalline plates, resembling mother of pearl in appear- 
ance, and melting at 94 to 95°C. The same compound is also formed 
by the action of pentachloride of phosphorus on resin-oil, phosphoric 
oxychloride being formed. It cannot be distilled without undergoing 
decomposition, but yields a hydrocarbon melting at 86°C, like the 
former, soluble in ether and alcohol. The latter crystallizes in needles, 
and consists of 91*5 per cent. C and 8*2 to 8*5 per cent. H. — Ber. d. 
deutsch. Chem. Ges n 1878, p. 2174. 

Lupinin, a New Glucoside found in Lupinus luteus.— E. Schulze 
and J. Barbieri extracted the dry plants with 50 per cent, alcohol, pre- 
cipitated the tincture with solution of subacetate of lead, decomposed 
the voluminous piecipitate with sulphuretted hydrogen, and afterwards 
treated it with much warm water. On cooling, the nitrate deposited 
lupinin as a yellowish-white, fine, crystalline mass. It is scarcely solu- 
ble in cold and hot water and alcohol, but very soluble in ammonia, soda 
and potassa, yielding dark yellow solutions, from which acids separate 
it again in very fine yellowish needles. It has the formula C^H^O^, 
and when heated with diluted mineral acids it splits into sugar, proba- 
bly dextrose, and an insoluble yellow product, lupigenin; formula, 
C 17 H w 6 . — Ber. d. deutsch, Chem. Ges. y xi, p. 2200. 



192 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am A p?n, r i8 7 h 9* ttn " 

Aspidospermia, an Alkaloid of Quebracho-Bark. — The bark of 

Aspidosperma quebracho (Schlechtendahl), nat. ord. Apocynecs, a tree indi- 
genous to the province of Santiago and the vicinity of Catarmarca t 
used for many years as a fever medicine, and considered by the physi- 
cians at Tucuman almost as efficacious as cinchona-bark, is described 
by Dingier as being about 1 to 2 cm. in thickness, covered with a thin 
corky layer of a brownish-yellow color. A fresh transverse section is 
more or less red, has dark yellowish-brown irregular concentric and 
somewhat confluent lines (suberous lamella) and whitish spots [scleren- 
chyma cells). The inner bark is pale yellow and coarsely fibrous, the 
bast bundles being oblique and irregular, running in different directions, 
Aspidospermia, the alkaloid, was obtained by Fraude by extracting 1-5 
kg. of finely-contused bark in a percolator with a mixture of 5 liters of 
water and 100 g. concentrated H 2 S0 4 , precipitating the dark brown 
percolate with concentrated solution of lead acetate in slight excess, in 
order to remove tannic acid and most of the coloring matter, filterings 
and, after removing lead by sulphuretted hydrogen, treating with sodium 
carbonate until alkaline. The precipitate was collected, dried, extracted 
with strong alcohol, boiled with animal charcoal, again filtered, the greater 
portion of the alcohol removed by distillation, and an equal bulk of water 
added to the remainder, when, on slow evaporation, the alkaloid separated 
in brown crystals, which were purified by treatment with animal charcoal 
and recrystallization. The alkaloid crystallizes in small white glossy 
prisms, is readily soluble in alcohol and ether, scarcely in water, and 
melts at 205 to 2c6°C. Its composition is either C 22 H 3u N 2 2 or 
C 22 H 28 N 2 2 .— Ber. d. deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 2189. 

The Wax of Ficus Gummiflua is used for illuminating purposes 
by the natives of several districts of Java, where the plant is indigenous, 
and consists of a brittle, scaly, chocolate-colored mass, softening when 
heated, becoming adhesive and melting between 60 to jo°C.- ) boiling 
water extracts from the wax a large quantity of brown coloring matter, 
which is entirely precipitated by solution of subacetate of lead. Boiling 
alcohol dissolves considerable of the wax, which deposits again on 
cooling. Fr. Kessel separated the wax previously decolorized into two 
constituents by dissolving in ether and adding alcohol until the precip- 
itate ceased to be redissolved ; one constituent is readily and the other 
sparingly soluble in ether; the latter amounts to about 1-20 of the 



Am A J S'i879- rm J Gleanings from the German Journals. 193 

crude wax, melts at 62°C, and has the composition C 27 H 56 0, while 
the former crystallizes from a mixture of alcohol and ether in small 
warty crystals, melting at 73°C, and having the composition C 15 H 30 O. 
— Ber. d. deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 21 12. 

Jelly-like Silicic Acid, an Inorganic Membrane for Dialysis. 
— If a diluted solution of soluble glass is poured into hydrochloric acid 
in a certain proportion, a clear h'quid is obtained, which gradually 
congeals into an almost entirely transparent jelly ; by treating this with 
water until the washings no longer caused an opalescence with silver 
solution, F. Ullik removed all sodium chloride and HC1, and silicic 
acid was obtained as a transparent gelatinous mass, retaining the former 
shape, drying in the air to a transparent substance, decreasing to about 
one fifth of the original hulk ; the approximate constitution of this silicic 
acid is SiO s H 2 ; if quickly heated to redness the pieces disintegrate into 
a brilliant sand, while if gradually and carefully heated they retain their 
glass-like transparent appearance ; the specific gravity is 2*322 to 
2 '324. The author prepared both thin and thick sheets of this jelly- 
like mass, which answered comparatively well as a membrane for 
dialysis. — Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, p. 2124. 

Reaction between Chloral Hydrate and Ammonium Sulpho- 
cyanate. — M. Nencki and H. SchafTer heated chloral hydrate in a flask 
until entirely liquid, and added an equivalent quantity of dry, powdered 
ammonium sulphocyanate ; the liquid turned brown and possessed the 
odor of chloral and of sulphocyanic acid j after removing the flask 
from the sand bath, and allowing the reaction to be completed at an 
ordinary room temperature, the cooled mass was mixed with much 
water, when a copious precipitate fell, which was collected on a filter 
and dissolved in hot 90 per cent, alcohol. The filtered solution 
deposited on cooling long, brilliant needles, at first yellow, but rendered 
snow-white by recrystallizing. The alcoholic mother-liquor still 
contained considerable of this substance, mixed with a brown resinous 
mass. The white needles dried over sulphuric acid were analyzed, 
and found to have the composition C 5 H 5 C1 6 N 3 S ; they are insoluble in 
water, aqueous mineral acids and alkalies, scarcely soluble in cold 
alcohol and ether, but readily in hot alcohol. — Journ. f. Pract. Chem., 
1878, p. 43. 

Honey Purified with Bolus alba. — The following process is said 

*3 



1 94 Gleanings from the German Journals. { ^ipXis^""' 

to yield an excellent preparation in a vtry short time : 20 pounds of 
honey are diluted with 30 or 40 pounds of water, heated to the boiling 
point and 1 or 1 \ pound of bolus alba added, previously rubbed into a 
thin, uniform paste with water. The mixture is then boiled and the 
scum frequently removed, until a little in a test tube separates in a few 
minutes into a clear liquid and a precipitate. The mixture is then 
allowed to settle for \ hour, filtered while hot through wet filters and 
the filttate evaporated quickly to the proper consistence, stirring con- 
stantly. — Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 15, 1879, p. 103. 

Paracotoin, a Specific for Cholera. — Prof. Baelz, at Tokio, 
(Japan), reports that he cured 5 cases of cholera last summer by 
injecting 0.2 gram (at a time) of paracotoin hypodermically. In one 
case the patient became even constipated, necessitating a dose of castor 
oil. The principal disadvantage connected with using paracotoin 
(especially hypodermically) is its insolubility in suitable liquids. Equal 
parts of glycerin and water seem to make the most suitable solvent. — 
Pharm. Ztg., Feb. I, 1879, p. 71. 

Glycerin, a Dressing for Burns and Scalds. — Dr. Th. Koller 
applies syrupy pure glycerin to fresh burns and scalds, and claims that 
it is an excellent remedy, removing all pain, and preventing blisters, 
inflammation and gathering. — Pharm. Ztg., Nov. 6, 1878, p. 769. 

Codliver Oil with Iron is prepared by A. du Bell by mixing in 
a porcelain mortar 1 gram crystallized ferric chloride (Fe 2 Cl-(-6H 2 0) 
with 200 grams codliver oil and 2 grams concentrated lactic acid, when 
a clear solution is obtained, having the odor of codliver oil and a mild, 
pleasant taste. — Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 15, 1879, p. 103. 

Production of Codliver Oil in Norway in 1878. — Monrad 
Throhn states that 50,000,000 codfish were caught in 1878 ; the total 
quantity of oil exported was 66,000 casks^ each containing 100 kilos ; 
4,000 casks (=400,000 kilos) of this were white oil prepared by steam, 
12,000 casks (=1,200,000 kilos) yellow medicinal oil, 12,000 casks 
common oil for technical purposes, 8,000 casks brownish-yellow oil, 
and 30,000 casks brown oil for tanning ; considerable of the latter is 
still used for medicinal purposes in Belgium, Holland and France. — 
Pharm. Handelsbl., Feb. 12, 1879, p, 7. 



^i°Hi r ;x P 879 rir "} Sodium Ethylate, or Caustic AlcohoL 195 

SODIUM ETHYLATE, OR CAUSTIC ALCOHOL. 

By Benj. W. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 

The interest taken in my introduction of ethylate of sodium into 
medical and surgical practice leads me to think that the following brief 
essay on three points — historical, therapeutical, pharmaceutical — relat- 
ing to that introduction may prove acceptable to the numerous readers 
■of the " Pharmaceutical Journal " 

I. Historical. — I brought the ethylates of sodium and potassium, 
with some other of the ethylate series, originally into notice for prac- 
tical use so far back as 1870. I first reported on them to the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 1870, and in the same 
year I made them the subject of one of my lectures on " Experi- 
mental and Practical Medicine," upon which occasion I demonstrated 
the mode of making the ethylates of sodium and potassium and per- 
formed several experiments on blood, serum and living tissues, with the 
•sodium ethylate. In the same year, I also tested the practical applica- 
tion of what had been suggested to me by experiment. I removed by 
the use of sodium ethylate a large naevus from a child, who was under 
the care of my friend, Mr. Gay, at the Great Northern Hospital. The 
naevus had previously been subjected to treatment by the ligature and 
by other methods, including the free use of nitric acid, without success. 
I supplied in this year, 1870, to the Great Northern Hospital the 
specimen of the ethylate which came (fortunately) into the hands of 
Dr. Brunton, who in the next year used it for naevus with equal success. 
Dr. Brunton stated at the Medical Society of London that a house 
surgeon of the Great Northern Hospital gave him the specimen of the 
ethylate as a remedy for naevus without telling him of what it was com- 
posed. Dr. Brunton, who had missed seeing my report, had therefore 
to get the specimen examined by a chemical friend before he knew to 
what agent he was indebted for his success. Afterwards, through the 
same friend, he learned that the ethylate had been introduced by myself, 
and he was so kind as to inform me of the circumstances. If the 
ethylates should come into use in medicine and pharmacy these facts 
from me will fix the date of their introduction definitely, viz., as Sep- 
tember 1870, at the meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, held at Liverpool under the presidency of Professor 
Huxley. 



196 Sodium Ethylate, or Caustic Alcohol. { A "^'rtSST 

2. Therapeutical. — In applying the ethylates, I had before me a defi- 
nite object derived purely from experimental research. I found by 
experiment that I possessed in the ethylates of sodium and potassium 
bodies which, on being brought into contact with the moist living 
tissues, were decomposed, caustic alkali being produced and ethylic 
alcohol being reproduced by the extraction and decomposition of the 
water of the tissues. If, therefore, I inferred, I applied an ethylate to a 
vascular living tissue, I ought to get four results on application, viz. 
(#), a removal or absorption of water from the tissue into the ethylate ; 
(b) the destructive action of a caustic from the caustic soda that would 
be formed; (c) coagulation from the alcohol that would be reproduced; 
(a) prevention of decomposition of the dead organic substance that 
would be formed. The first instance in which the ethylate of sodium 
was used gave all these results, and future experience has confirmed 
the principle. At this moment I have a case in hand in which a large 
vascular growth is reduced by the ethylate to a mere dry mass of scale 
or scab by four applications. 

It is not, however, by every degree of dilution or of concentration 
of the ethylate that the results can be arrived at. If the ethylate be 
too concentrated the caustic or destructive action is over severe and 
haemorrhage may follow, like as from an incised wound. This is 
specially the fact with ethylate of potassium, and for that reason I 
prefer to recommend the ethylate of sodium of a strength I shall name 
at the close of this paper. 

Therapeutically, the ethylates admit of a wide range of action. I 
have already used the sodium ethylate with success in a case of a wound 
from the bite of a dog, and I should infer that as an application to 
wounds from snake bite it would be of signal service. I need not 
enter into these subjects here, but whatever may be the future of the 
ethylates as remedies the first use of them was based on pure experi- 
mental research and the observations derived from it, a research which 
was a repetition to the letter, varied only in respect to details, of 
the mode with which I inquired into the action of nitrite of amyl, and 
determined its true place as a remedial agent. 

3. Pharmaceutical. — In order that the intention of the ethylates, as I 
have proposed them for use, may be properly fulfilled, they must be 
sent out by the pharmacist as absolute alcohols, and for that reason 
absolute ethylic alcohol must be used it their manufacture. 



A Vp rn"'x879 arm '} Sodium Ethylate, or Caustic Alcohol. i v 7 

If sodium ethylate is to be sent out for use by pharmacists in the 
solid form, I agree with Mr. Williams that the solution for medical 
use had better be dispensed by the process of dissolving the solid 
ethylate in absolute alcohol. The proportion, however, which he sug- 
gests, I part of the solid ethylate to 2 of alcohol, is under the mark. 
One part to ij would be the better proportion. By the formula I gave 
in the "Lancet," I aimed to save the time of the busy dispenser who 
-might only have absolute alcohol and metallic sodium in his laboratory. 
By experiments I found that a solution made in the way I described, 
without actually crystallizing out the ethylate, answered so perfectly 
that I proposed the plan for convenience sake, and specimens since 
made in that way, and which. have been submitted to me, have proved 
perfectly satisfactory. At the same time I have no prejudices, and I 
bow willingly to Mr. Williams' far greater pharmaceutical knowledge 
and skill — a knowledge and skill which is, certainly, second to none. 1 

I have one word more to add, and that relates to the mode of send- 
ing out the ethylate to the profession of medicine ready for use. It is 
best dispensed in a bottle furnished with a glass stopper ending in a 
pointed glass rod, which descends into the fluid. The fluid is best 
applied from the glass point. It may, however, be applied very neatly 
by means of a clean quill, cut like a pen, and prepared fresh, that is to 
say newly nibbed each time. When the glass rod stopper is not at 
hand the pen is a simple, effective and inexpensive method. I am try- 
ing to have a platinum pen or pencil made, by which the fluid may, in 
some cases, be inoculated into a part. On one or two occasions I 
have applied the solution from a small glass syringe; but, on the whole, 
the glass rod and quill pen are, I think, the best. The glass brush is 
very inadvisable; the small fibres break off, and, in one instance, a 
portion of fibre left on a surface touched with the ethylate caused great 
pain and trouble. — Condensed from Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 14, 

1878, P . 485. 

1 The formula which I ordinarily prescribe is as follows : Put | a fluidounce of 
absolute alcohol (sp. gr. 0795) into a 2-ounce test tube. Set the test tube up in a 
bath of water at 5o°F., and add, in small pieces at a time, cuttings of pure metallic 
sodium. A gas, hydrogen, will at once escape. Add the sodium until the gas 
ceases to escape, then raise the temperature of the water in the bath to ioo°F., and 
add a little more sodium. When the gas again ceases to escape stop adding sodium, 
or, if the fluid, which by this time will be of gelatinous consistency, should crystal- 
lize, then stop. Afterwards cool down to 50°F., and add \ a fluidounce more of 
absolute alcohol. With specimens of the ethylates made in this manner I have had 
the most excellent results. — B.W. R. 



198 Ash and Soluble Matter in Buchu. {^ffiSg* 

THE AMOUNT OF ASH AND SOLUBLE MATTER IN 
THE THREE SORTS OF BUCHU, 

By Henry Williams Jones, F.C.S. 

The following results were obtained during an examination of a 
number of samples of buchu intended for commercial purposes, and, in 
the absence of any exact information respecting the composition of the 
three sorts, yielded, respectively, by Barosma betulina, Bartling, B.cren- 
ulata, Hooker, and B. serratifolia, Willd., it is thought such results,, 
though necessarily imperfect so far as showing the actual composition 
of the species is concerned, might prove interesting. 

It has been previously shown by Mr. P. W. Bedford 1 that of the 
three species the short-leaved yield on an average 1*21 per cent, of 
volatile oil, whilst the long-leaved, B. serratifolia, gives only *66 per 
cent. 

The drug was successively treated by dry ether, alcohol and water 
until exhausted. The resulting solutions were evaporated to dryness 
on the water-bath, and the extracts so obtained dried in an air-bath at 
240°F. until they ceased to lose weight. 

The ether extract when so dried was quite free from the character- 
istic smell of buchu, and therefore contained no essential oil, and rep- 
resented the chlorophyll, fixed oily matter, and such other substances- 
soluble in ether. 

In the case of the aqueous extract the amount of mineral matter 
present was deducted. 

Ash and Soluble Matter in the Three Kinds of Buchu. 

( Three different samples of each species.) 

Percentage Results. 
Ash. Soluble in ether. Soluble in alcohol. Soluble in water. £ 



Barosma betulina, 


4 69 


4*62 


I 2' I I 


13-91 


<« « 


4"47 


4-29 


1396 


14-25 


«« << 


4-40 


3-8 S 


8-79 


17-91 


Barosma crenulata, 


4*3^ 


5"7o 


1 1*26 


1399 


it a 


4*01 


586 


'573 


2072 


it ti 


5-39 


4-01 


IO'IO 


1775 


Barosma serratifolia, 


5 03 


478 


11-57 


17-92 


« << 


5*55 


4-3 1 


9 87 


17-05 


<t n 


5'22 


3-91 


771 


2238 



The ash was remarkable for containing a large amount of manga- 
nese, and the aqueous extract for a large quantity of mucilaginous 

1 " Proceed. Amer. Pharm. Assoc.," 1863, p. 211. 
2 The mucilage is diffusible rather than soluble. 



Am A P °X rsfo rm } The Chemical Elements. 1 9 9 

matter. One hundred grains of B. serratifolia, when powdered and 
boiled with water, yielded ten fluidounces of thick mucilage. To 
separate the fragments of exhausted leaves the thick liquid so obtained 
was filtered through a plug of cotton wool, by atmospheric pressure, 
into a flask exhausted of air. A bright liquor was thus obtained, which 
under the microscope showed no leaf fragments. — Phar. Jour, and 
Trans., Feb. 15, 1879, p. 673. 



THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. 

By J. Norman Lockyer, F.R S. 
I have recently announced to the Royal Society that, reasoning from the phenom- 
ena presented to us in the spectroscope when known compounds are decomposed, 
I have obtained evidence that the so called elementary bodies are in reality compound 
ones. 

Although the announcement took this form, the interest taken in science nowa- 
days by the general public is so great that it is apt to travel beyond the record ; and, 
as able editors are not content to wait for what the experimentalist himself has to 
say, they are often at the mercy of those who, perhaps more from misapprehension than 
anything else, are prepared to provide columns filled with statements wide of the 
mark. Nor is this all. Tf there be a practical side to the work, some " application 
of science" is brought to the front, and the worker's own view of the labor is twisted 
out of all truth. . 

This has happened in my case. The idea of simplifying the elements is connected 
with the philosopher's stone. The use of the philosopher's stone was to transmute 
metals ; therefore I have been supposed to be " transmuting " metals ; and imagina- 
tions have been so active in this direction that I am not sure that, when my paper 
was eventually read at the Royal Society, many were not disappointed that I did not 
incontinently then and there " transmute " a ton of lead into a ton of gold. 

It is in consequence of this general misapprehension of the nature of my work, 
that I the more willingly meet the wishes of the editor that I should say something 
about it. The paper itself I need not reproduce, as it has appeared in extenso else- 
where j 1 but there are many points touching both the origin of the views I have 
advanced and the work which has led up to them, on which I am glad of the oppor- 
tunity of addressing a wider public. 

It is now upward of ten years since I began a series of observations having for 
their object the determination of the chemical constitution of the atmosphere of the 
sun. The work done, so far as the number of elementary substances found to exist 
in it, I summed up in a former article j 2 but the ten years' work had opened up a 
great number of problems above and beyond the question of the number of elements 
which exist in the solar atmosphere, because we were dealing with elements under 
conditions which it is impossible to represent and experiment on here. 
J " American Journal of Science and Arts." 

* Printed in the "Popular Science Monthly Supplement" for August, 1878. 



200 



The Chemical Elements. 



{Am. Jour. Pharnu 
April, 1879. 



In the first place, the temperature of the sun is beyond all definition ; secondly, 
the vapors are not confined ; and, thirdly, there is an enormous number of them all 
mixed together, and tree, as it were, to find their own level. Nor is this all. Astron- 
omers have not only determined that the sun is a star, and have approximately fixed 
his place in nature as regaids size and brilliancy, but they have compared the spec- 
trum of this star, this sun of ours, with those of the other bodies which people space, 
and have thus begun to lay the foundations of a science which we may christen 
Comparative Stellar Chemistry. Dealing with the knowledge already acquired along 
this line, we may say roughly that there are four kinds of stars recognizable by their 
spectra. 

We have first the brightest and presumably hottest stars, and of these the spectrum 
is marvelously simple — so simple, in fact, that we say their atmospheres consist in the 
main of only two substances — a statement founded on the observation that the lines 
in the spectra are matched by lines which we see in the spectra of hydrogen and cal- 
cium ; theie are traces of magnesium, and perhaps of sodium too, but the faintness 
of the indication of these two latter substances only intensifies the unmistakable 
development of the phenomena by which the existence of the former is indicated. 

So much, then, for the first class ; now for the second. In this we find our sun. 
In the spectra of stars of this class, the indications of hydrogen are enfeebled, the 
the evidences by which the existence of calcium has been traced in stars of the first 
class are increased in intensity, and, accompanying these changes we find all sim- 
plicity vanished from the spectrum. The sodium and magnesium indications have 
increased, and a spectrum in which the lines obviously visible may be counted on 
the fingers is replaced by one of terrific complexity. 

The complexity which we meet with in passing from the first class to the second 
is one brought about by the addition of the lines produced by bodies of chemical 
substances of moderate atomic weight. The additional complexity observed when 
we pass from the second stage to the third is brought about by the addition of lines due 
in the main to bodies of higher atomic weight. And — this is a point of the highest 
importance — at the third stage the hydrogen, which existed in such abundance in 
stars of the first class, has now entirely disappeared. 

In the last class of stars to which I have referred, the fourth, the lines have given 
place to fluted bands, at the same time that the light and color of the star indicate 
that we have almost reached the stage of extinction. These facts have long been 
familiar to students of solar and stellar physics. Indeed, in a letter written to M. 
Dumas, December 3, 1873, ana " printed in the " Comptes Rendus," I thus summa- 
rized a memoir which has since appeared in the "Philosophical Transactions": 

II semble que plus une etoile est chaude, plus son spectre est simple, et que les 
elements metalliques se font voir dans l'ordre de leurs poids atomiques. 1 

Ainsi nous avons : 

1. Des etoiles tres-brillantes ou nous ne voyons que Thydrogene en qantite enorme y 
et le magnesium ,• 

2. Des etoiles plus froides, comme notre soleil, oil nous trouvons : 

IHydrogene -f- Magnesium -j- Sodium 
Hydrcgene -j- Magnesium -\- Sodium -j- Calcium -j- Fer, . . . ; 
dans ces etoiles, pas de metalfoides ; 

1 The old system of atomic weights was the one referred to. 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
April, 1879. / 



The Chemical Elements. 



201 



3. Des etoiles plus froides encore, dans lesquelles tous les elements metalliques sont 
associes, ou leurs Jignes ne sont plus visibles, et cii nous n'avons que les spectres des 
metalloids et des composes. 

4. Plus une etoile est agee, plus Vhydrogene libre disparait ; sur la terre, nous ne 
trouvons plus d'hydrogene en liberte. 

II me semble que ces faits sont les preuves de plusieurs idees emises par vous. J'ai 
pense que nous pouvions imaginer une "dissociation celeste,'' qui continue le travail 
de nos fourneaux, et que le metalloides sont des composes qui sont dissocies par la 
temperature solaire, pendant que les elements metalliques mor.atomiques, dont les 
poids atomiques sont les moindres, sont precisement ceux qui resistent meme a la 
•temperature des etoiles les plus chaudes. 

Before I proceed further I should state that, while observations of the sun have 
since shown that calcium should be introduced between hydrogen and magnesium 
for that luminary, Dr. Huggins 1 photographs have demonstrated the same fact for 
the sta~s, so that in the present state of our knowledge, independent of all hypoth- 
eses, the facts may be represented as follows : 
Hottest Stars . ) (HjCa r Mg' 
Sun . . V Lines 2 of-) H4-Ca + Mg4 Na+Fe 

Cooler Stars .J [ — — Mg Na Fe B= Hg 

{Fluted Spectra of 
Metals and Met- 
alloids. 

I have no hesitation in stating my opinion that in this line of facts we have the 
most important outcome of solar work during the last ten years ; and if there were 
none others in support of them, the conclusion would still stare us in the face that 
the running down of temperature in a mass of matter ^uhich is e-ventually to form a 
star is accompanied by a gradually increasing complexity of chemical forms. 

This, then, is the result of one branch of the inquiry, which has consisted in a 
careful chronicling of the spectroscopic phenomena presented to our study by the 
various stars. 

Experimentalists have observed the spectrum of hydrogen, of calcium, etc., in 
their laboratories, and have compared the bright lines visible in the spectra with the 
dark ones in the stars, and on this ground they have announced the discovery of 
calcium in the sun or of hydrogen in Sirius. 

In all this work they have taken for granted that in the spectrum thus produced 
in their laboratories, they have been dealing with the vibration of one unique thing, 
call it atom, molecule or what you will ; that one unique thing has by its vibrations 
produced all the lines visible, which they have persistently seen and mapped in each 
instance. 

It is at this point that my recent work comes in, and raises the question whether 
what has been thus taken for granted is really true. And now that the question is 
raised, the striking thing about it is that it was not asked long ago. 

One reason is this : Time out of mind — or, rather, ever since Nicolas Le Fcvre, 
who wes sent over here by the French King at the request of our English one at the 
time the Royal Society was established, pointed out that chemistry was the art of sep- 
arations as well as of transmutations — it has been recognized that, with every increase 

2 Symbols are used here to save space. H — Hydrogen, Ca — Calcium, Mg = Magnesium, Na — 
Sodium, Fe = Iron, Bi — Bismuth, Hg = Mercury. 



202 



The Chemical Elements. 



Km. Jour. Pharm^ 

April, 1879. 



of temperature, or dissociating power, bodies were separated from each other. In 
this way Priestly, from his "plomb rouge," separated oxygen, and Davy separated 
potassium ; and as a final result of the labor of generations of chemists, the million- 
fold chemical complexity of natural bodies in the three kingdoms of nature has been 
reduced by separations till only some seventy so called elements are left. 

Now this magnificent simplification has been brought about by the employment 
of moderate temperatures — moderate, that is to say, in comparison with the trans- 
cendental dissociating energies of electricity as employed in our modern voltaic arc* 
and electric sparks. 

But, in the observations made during the last thirty years on the spectra of bodies 
rendered incandescent by electricity, -zve have actually, though yet scarcely consciously 
been employing these transcendental temperatures, and, if it be that this higher grade of 
heat does what all other lower grades have done, then the spectrum we have observed 
in each case is not the record of the vibrations of the particular substance with which 
we have imagined ourselves to be working only, but of all the simpler substances 
produced by the series, whether short or long, of the " separations " effected. 

The question then, it will be seen, is an appeal to the law of continuity^ 
nothing more and nothing less. Is a temperature higher than any yet applied to 
act in the same way as each higher temperature, which has been applied, has done r 
Or is there to be some unexplained break in the uniformity of nature's processes 1 ' 

The definite reason for my asking the question at the present time has been this ; 
The final reduction of four years' work at a special branch of the subject to which I 
will refer presently, on the assumption that at the temperature of the electric arc we 
do not get such " simplifications/' has landed me in the most helpless confusion, and 
if I do not succeed in finding a higher law than that on which I have been working,, 
my four year's work, in this direction at all events, will have been thrown away. 

This and other reasons compel me to hold that the answer to the question put is, 
that what has been taken for granted is, in all probability not true. But before I 
proceed to give the reasons for the faith that is in me I must, at the risk of being 
both technical and tedious when I should wish to be neither, lead up to the under- 
standing of them. 

The spectioscope, however simple or complex it may be, is an instrument whicb 
allows us to observe the image of the &lit through which the light enters it, in the- 
most perfect manner. If the light contains rays of every wave-length, then the 
images formed by each will be so close together that the spectrum will be contin- 
uous, that is, without break. If the light contains only certain wave- lengths, then 
we shall get certain, and not all, of the possible images of the slit, and the spectrum 
will be discontinuous. 

Again, if we have an extremely complex light-source, let us say a solid and a 
mixture of gases giving us light, and we allow the light to enter, so to speak, Indis- 
criminately into the spectroscope, then in each part of the spectrum we shall get a 
summation — a complex record — of the light of the same wave-length proceeding 
from all the different light-waves. But if by means of a lens we form an image of 
the light-source, so that each particular part shall be impressed in its proper place on, 
the slit-plate, then in the spectrum the different kinds of light will be sorted out. 



Am. Jour. Pharir . ) 
April, 1879. / 



The Chemical Elements. 



203 



There is a simple experiment which shows clearly the different results obtained. 
If we observe the light of a candle with the spectroscope in the ordinary manner, 
that is, by placing the candle in front of the slit at some little distanee from it, we 
see a band of color — a continuous spectrum — and in one particular part of the band 
we see a yellow line, and occasionally in the green and in the blue parts of the band 
other lines are observable. Now, if we throw an image of the candle on to the 
slit — the slit being hoiizontal and the image of the candle vertical — we then get 
three perfectly distinct spectra. We find that the interior of the candle, that is the 
blue part (best observed at the bottom of the candle), gives us one spectrum, the 
white part gives us another, while on rhe outside of the candle, so faint as to be 
almost invisible to the eye, there is a region which gives as a perfectly distinct spec- 
trum with a line in the yellow. In this way there is no difficulty whatever in deter- 
mining the co-existence of three light-sources, each with its proper spectrum, in the 
light of a common candle. 

We see t in a moment that much tl e same condition of affairs will be brought 
ahout if, instead of using a candle, we use an electric arc, in which the pure vapor 
of the substance which is being rendered incandescent fills the whole interval 
between the poles, the number of particles and degree of incandescence being 
smaller at the sides of the arc. We can throw an image of such an horizontal arc 
on a vertical slit,- the slit will give then the spectrum of a section of the arc at 
right angles to its length. The vapor which exists farthest from the core of the arc 
has a much more simple spectium than that of the core of the arc itself. The 
spectrum of the core consists of a large number of lines, all of which die out untii 
the part of it farthest from the centre gives but one line. 

In this way the spectrum of each substance furnishes us with long and short lines^ 
the long lines being common to the more and less intensely heated parts of the arc,, 
and the short lines more special to the more heated one. This is the first step. 

It has been necessary to enter thus at length into the origin of the terms long and 
short lines, because almost all the subsequent work which need be referred to now 
has had for its object the investigation of the phenomena presented by them under 
different conditions. The first results obtained were as follows : 

1. When a metallic vapor was subjected to admixture with another gas or vapor,, 
or to reduced pressure, I found that its spectrum became simplified by the abstraction 
of the shortest lines and by the thinning of many of the remaining ones. To obtain 
reduction of pressure, the metals were inclosed in tubes in which a partial vacuum 
was produced. In all these experiments it -vas found that the longest lines invariably 
remained -visible longest} 

1 In the case of zinc the effect of these circumstances was very marked, and they may be given as at 
sample of the phenomena generally observed. When the .pressure-gauge connected with a Sprergel 
pump stood at from 35 to 40 millimeters, the spectrum at the part observed was normal, except that the two 
lines 4924 and 4911 (both of which, when the spectrum is observed under the normal pressure, are lines- 
with thick wings) were considerably reduced in width On the pump being started these lines rapidly 
decreased in length, as did the line at 4679 — 4810 and 4721 being almost unaffected ; at last the two 314924. 
and 491 1 vanished, as did 4679 and appeared only at intervals as spots on the poles, the two 4810 and 4721 
remaining little changed in length, though much in brilliancy. This experiment was repeated four times , 
and on each occasion the gauge was found to be almost at the same point, viz : 

1st observation, when the lines 4924 and 491 1 were gone, the gauge stood at 30 millimeters. 




it 



u 



29 
29 



'204 The Chemical Elements. {^t^S^*- 

2. When we use metals chemically combined with a metalloid — in other words, 
when we pass from a metal to one of its salts (I used chlorine) — only the longest 
lines of the metal remain. The number is large in the case of elements of low 
atomic weight, and small in the case of elements of high atomic weight, and of twice 
the atom-fixing power of hydrogen. 

3. When we use metals mechanically mixed, only the longest lines of the smallest 
constituent remain. On this point I must enlarge somewhat by referring to a series 
of experiments recorded in the " Philosophical Transactions," 1873. 

A quantity of the larger constituent, generally from five to ten grams, was weighed 
out, the weighing being accurate to the fraction of a milligram ; and the requisite 
quantity of the smaller constituent was calculated to give, when combined, a mix- 
ture of a definite percentage composition by weight (this being more easily obtain- 
able than a percentage composition by volume). 

The quantities generally chosen were 10, 5, 1 and cri per cent. 

In a few cases, with metals known to have very delicate spectral reactions, a mix- 
lure of 01 per cent was prepared. 

Observations were then made of the spectrum of each specimen, and the result 
was recorded in maps in the following manner: First, the pure spectrum of the 
smallest constituent was observed, and the lines laid down from Thalen's map. 

The series thus mapped was as follows : 

Tin -f" Cadmium, percentages of Cd 10, 5, 1, 015 
Lead -j- Zinc " Zn 10, 5, i, o'i 

Lead -j- Magnesium, " Mg :o, 1, o'i, 0.01 

The observations showed that the lines of the smallest constituent disappeared as 
the quantity got less. Although we had here the germs of a quantitative spectium 
analysis, the germs only were present, because from the existence of several u criti- 
cal points," and great variations due to other causes, the results obtained were not 
constant. 

In a subsequent research on the gold-copper alloys used in the coinage, Mr. 
Roberts, the Chemist of the Mint, and myself were able to show that the shortening 
in the length of the lines by reduced quantity was such a definite physical effect 
following upon reduced quantity, that a difference of jq^qq part of copper in gold 
could be detected. 

We are now in possession of the facts utilized in the work which has led up to 
the subject discussed in the present paper. 

They have been utilized along two perfectly distinct lines of thought : 

(1 ) They have been used in an attempt to enable us to produce a spectrum of a 
substance free from lines due to the impurities which are almost always present. 

(2) They have been used to indicate the existence and amount of dissociation 
when acknowledged compounds have been submitted to -the action of different and 
increasing temperatures. 

I will deal with (1) first. 

The elimination of impurity lines is conducted as follows: The spectrum of the 
element is first confronted with the spectra of the substances most likely to be pres- 



Am Ap rn r ;i? 7 h 9 am '} The Chemical Elements. 205 

cnt to impurities. This is most conveniently done by photographing the spectra 
on the same plate one above the other, so that common lines are continuous. 

The retention or rejection of lines coincident in two or more spectra is deter- 
mined by observing in which spectrum the line is thickest; where several elements 
are mapped at once, all their spectra are confronted on the same plate, as by this 
means the presence of one of the substances as an impurity in the others can be at 
once detected. 

Lines due to impurities, if any are thus traced, are marked for omission from the 
map and their true sources recorded, while any line that is observed to vary in length 
and thickness in the various photographs is at once suspected to be an impurity line,, 
and if traced to such is likewise marked for omission. I give a case. 

The two lines H and K (3933 and 3968), assigned both to iron and calcium by 
Angstrom, are proved to belong to calcium in the following way : 

a. The lines are well represented in the spectrum of commercial wrought iron, 
but are absolutely coincident with two thick lines in the spectrum of calcium chlor- 
ide with which the iron spectrum was confronted. 

b. The lines are represented by mere traces in the spectrum of a specimen of pure 
iron prepared by the late Dr. Matthiessen. Both poles of the lamp were of iron, the 
lower pole consisting of an ingot of the metal which had been cast in a lime-mold. 

c The lines are altogether absent in a photograph of pure iron, where both poles 
of the lamp were of pure metal not cast in lime, and they are likewise absent in a 
photograph of the spectrum of the Lenarto meteorite. 

By eliminating lines due to impurities in the manner just described, a spectrum is 
at length obtained, of which every line is assignable to the particular element photo - 
graphed, the same temperature being employed in the case of all the elements 
observed. 

With regard to the second line of work, I should commence by stating that from 
a beautiful series of researches carried on by several methods, Mitscherlich concluded 
in 1864 that every compound oj the first order, heated to a temperature adequate for the 
production of light, is not decomposed, but exhibits a spectrum peculiar to this compound. 

In some experiments of my own, communicated to the Royal Society in 1873, I 
observed : 

First. That whether the spectra of iodides, bromides, etc., be observed in the flame 
or a weak spark, only the longest lines of the metals are visible, showing that only a 
small quantity of the simple metal is present as a result of partial dissociation, and 
that by increasing the temperature, and consequently the amount of dissociation, the 
other lines of the metal appear in the order of their length vjith each rise of temperature. 

Secondly. I convinced myself that while in air, after the first application of heat, the 
spectra and metallic lines are in the main the same, in hydrogen the spectra are different 
for each compound, and true metallic lines are represented according to the volatibility of 
the compound, only the very longest lines being visible in the spectrum of the least vol- 
atile compound. 

Thirdly. I found that with a considerable elevation of temperature the spectrum 
of the compound faded almost into invisibility. 

These results enable us to make the following statement : 



no6 The Chemical Elements. {^ m '^;S^ rm ' 

A compound body, such as a salt of calcium, has as definite a spectrum as that 
given by the so-called elements; but while the spectrum of the metallic element 
Itself consists of lines, the number and thickness of some of which increase with 
the increased quantity, the spectrum of the compound consists in the main of chan- 
neled spaces and bands, which increase in like manner. 

In short, the molecules of a simple body and a compound one are affected in the 
same manner by quantity in so far as their spectra are concerned ; in other words, 
both spectra have their long and short lines, the lines in the spectrum of the element 
being represented by bands or fluted lines in the spectrum of the compound; and 
in each case the greatest simplicity of the spectrum depends upon the smallest quan- 
tity, and the greatest complexity upon the greatest. 

The heat required to act upon such a compound as a salt of calcium, so as to 
render its spectrum visible, dissociates the compound according to its volatility; the 
number of true metallic lines which thus appear is a measure of the quantity of the 
metal resulting from the dissociation, and as the metal lines increase in number, the 
compound bands thin out. 

These results bring us face to face with the subject matter of the recent work. 

First with regard to impurity elimination. I find that, although the method is 
good for detecting and eliminating impurities, there are still short-line coincidences 
between metals which are pure. 

This "higher law" has come out in the following manner: 

For the last four years I have been engaged upon the preparation of a map of the 
solar spectrum on a large scale, the work including a comparison of the Fraunhofer 
lines with those visible in the spectrum of the vapor of each of the metallic elements 
in the electric arc. 

To give an idea of the thoroughness of the work, at all events in intention, I may 
state that the complete spectrum of the sun, on the scale of the working map, will 
be half a furlong long; that to map the metallic lines and purify the spectra in the 
manner described, more than 100,000 observations have been made and about 2,000 
photographs taken. 

In some of these photographs we have vapors compared with the sun ; in others 
vapors compared with each other ; and others again have been taken to show which 
lines are long and which short in the spectra. 

A rigorous application of the system of impurity elimination formed, of course, 
a large part of the work. 

The final reduction of the photographs of all the metallic elements in the region 
39 — 40 — a reduction I began in the early part of last year — summarized all the 
observations of metallic spectra compared with the Fraunhofer lines accumulated 
during the whole period of observation, and all the results of the impurity elimi- 
nation. 

Now this reduction has shown me that the hypothesis that identical lines in differ- 
ent spectra are due to impurities is not sufficient. I show in detail in the paper the 
hopeless confusion in which I have been landed. 

I find short-line coincidences between many metals the impurities of which have been 



t 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1879. ) 



The Chemical Elements. 



207 



eliminated, or in which the freedom from mutual impurity has been demonstrated by 
the absence of the longest lines. 

The explanation of this result on the hypothesis that the elements are elementary 
does not lie on the surface, but it does on the assumption that they are compounds 
and behave like them. 

This is the first point. We now pass from the results brought about at the same 
temperature with different substances to those observed at different temperatures with 
the same substance. 

I find that when the temperature is greatly varied, the elements behave spectroscop- 
ically exictly as-compound bodies do, as we have already seen. New lines are devel- 
oped with increasing temperatures, and others fade in precisely the same way as the 
metallic lines made their appearance in the salts at the expense of the latter, which 
faded too. 

In short, the observations and reasoning which I formerly employed to show how 
acknowledged compounds behave in the spectroscope are now seen to indicate the 
compound nature of the chemical elements themselves.. 

In a paper communicated to the Royal Society in 1874, referring, among other 
.matters, to the reversal of some lines in the solar spectrum, I remarked : 

** It is obvious that greater attention will have to be given to the precise character 
as well as to the position of each of the Fraunhofer lines, in the thickness of which I 
have already observed several anomalies. I may refer more particularly at present to 
the two H lines 3933 and 3968 belonging to calcium, which are much thicker in all 
photographs of the solar spectrum (I might have added that they were by far the 
thickest lines in the solar spectrum) than the largest calcium line of this region 
(4226*3), this latter being invariably thicker than the H lines in all photographs of 
the calcium spectrum, and remaining, moreover, visible in the spectrum of substances 
containing calcium in such small quantities as not to show any traces of the H lines. 

** How far this and similar variations between photographic records and the solar 
spectrum are due to causes incident to the photographic record itself, or to variations 
in the intensities of the various molecular vibrations under solar and terrestrial con- 
ditions, are questions which up to the present time I have been unable to discuss." 

The progress of the work has shown that the differences here indicated are not 
exceptions, but are truly typical when the minute anatomy of the solar spectrum is 
studied. 

Kirchhoff, indeed, as early'as 1869 seems^to have got a glimpse of the same thing, 
for in his memorable paper, which may justly be regarded as the basis of all subse- 
quent work, he is careful to state that the sixty iron lines in the sun, to which he 
referred, only agree " as a rule " in intensity with those observed in the electric spark. 
Those who have given an account of his work have not always been so cautious. 
Indeed, I find Professor Roscoe 1 running far beyond the record in the following 
sentence : 

"In order to map and determine the positions of the bright lines found in the elec- 
tric spectra of the various metals, Kirchhoff, as I have already stated, employed the 
dark lines in the solar spectrum as his guides. Judge of his astonishment when he 

1 "Spectrum Analysis," third edition, p. 240. 



The Chemical Elements. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ April, 1879. 



observed that dark solar lines occur in positions connected with those of all the 
bright iron lines ! Exactly as the sodium lines were identical with Fraunhofer's lines, 
so for each of the iron lines, of which Kirchhoff and Angstrom have mapped no less 
than 460, a dark solar line was seen to correspond. Not only had each line its dark 
representative in the solar spectrum, but the breadth and degree of shade of the two sets of 
lines uoere seen to agree in the most perfect manner, the brightest iron lines corresponding 
to the darkest solar lines." 

This statement was made to prove the absolutely identical nature of the iron 
vapor in the sun's atmosphere and in the electric spark. As the statement is not 
true, the vapors can hardly be identical. 

Such, then, is the reasoning on which I base the two counts in the indictment 
against the simple nature of the elementary bodies. 

First, the common lines visible in the spectra of different elements at high iden- 
tical Temperatures point to a common origin. Secondly, the different lines visible in 
the spectra of the same substance at high and low temperatures indicate that at high 
temperatures dissociation goes on as continuously as it is generally recognized to do 
at all lower temperatures. 

In my paper I attempt to show that if we grant that the highest temperatures pro- 
duce common bases — in other words, if the elements are really compounds — all the 
phenomena so difficult to account for on the received hopothesis find a simple and 
sufficient explanation And, with regard to the second count, I discuss the cases of 
calcium, iron, lithium and hydrogen I might have brought, and shall subsequently 
bring, other cases forward. In all these I show that the lines most strongly devel- 
oped at the highest temperatures are precisely those which are seen almost alone 
in the spectra of the hottest stars, and which are most obviously present in the spec- 
trum of our own sun. Now, if it be true that the temperature of the arc breaks up 
the elements, then the higher temperature of the sun should do this in a still more 
effective manner. Here, then, we have a test. 

I have put this question to the sun, and I have sent in a second paper to the Royal 
Society embodying a preliminary discussion of Professor Young's work at Sherman, 
Tacchini's observations, and my own. In this paper I state my grounds for the 
believe that all the solar phenomena we have been watching with our spectroscopes 
for the last ten years can not be explained on the existing hypothesis, and that they 
are simply and sufficiently accounted for by supposing that primordial atoms are 
associated in the corona and dissociated in the reversing layer. 

In this way the vertical currents in the solar atmosphere, both ascending and 
descending, the intense absorption in sun-spots, their association with the faculae, and 
the apparently continuous spectrum of the corona, and its structure, find an easy solution. 

We are yet as far as ever from a demonstration of the cause of the variation in the 
temperature of the sun; but the excess of so-called calcium with minimum sun-spots, 
and excess of so-called hydrogen with maximum sun-spots, follow naturally from the 
hypothesis, and afford indications that the temperature of the hottest region in the 
sun closely approximates to that of the reversing layer in stars of the type of Sirius 
and a Lyrae. — Popular Science Monthly, March, 1879. 



Am Ap° , i, r 'i8 7 h 9 arm "} Opium Smoking among the Celestials. 209 

OPIUM SMOKING AMONG THE CELESTIALS. 

By Rich V. Mattison, Ph.G., M.D. 
As one passes through the Chinese quarter of San Francisco he cannot help being 
sharply impressed with the immense traffic in an article which is seemingly part of 
the very life necessities of this curious people. We seem scarcely to pass a shop, 
whether devoted to the sale of clothing or drugs or groceries, but what we find a 
notable proportion of the business to consist in the sale of opium. We pass the 
shop of the merchant, and while one assistant is counting out the gold for a bill ot 
exchange on the Flowery Kingdom, we see another weighing carefully a small portion 
of the much coveted drug. The jeweler, surrounded by the precious bracelets of 
nephrite and phrenite, lays aside for the moment the curious golden circlet he is 
filing, to catch up the balance and poise upon the pan the little horn cup a moment, 
and ag^in return to his employment. The grocer, surrounded by the many dainties 
of Mongolian gastronomy, stands under the rows of varnished fowls, balance in 
hand, dispensing the drug with the most imperturbable gravity and solemnity. As 
we stand by the half-open doorway on one of those beautiful summer evenings so 
common to Pacific climes, a young celestial enters the shop to return in a moment 
laden with his store of dreamy forgetfulness, the absorption of which transports him, in 
imagination, to his native land, where riding in a gorgeous palanquin, with maidens 
to fan him and coolies to fly at his slightest wish, he passes into his dwelling by the 
KinSha-Kiang, or the river of the golden sands, where his wife, with the feet of a 
mouse, brings his tea in golden cups, and so he passes iuto the arms of Morpheus 
(or Morphia's meconic embrace), his couch covered with scarlet and silken curtains 
with fringes of golden strands, only to awake finding himself lying coiled up on a 
hard board shelf covered with matting, his head upon a block 5 for now transported 
by the magic lamp of a private detective we are in the classic precincts of an opium 
den. To reach it we have passed through many dark, subterranean alleys, through 
courts of filth and squalor and wretchedness to any other than Mongolian eyes. 
On either side of the room, which is about sixteen feet square, are accommodations 
for twenty or more smokers — shelves rising in tiers like the bunks of a steamer's 
cabin. In the centre is a small table covered with the shells, bowls, cups, lamps 
and other paraphernalia of a first-class opium den, sustained by liberal patronage. 
It was early evening, scarcely midnight, and at our right inclined a strong, sleek, 
almond-eyed native of a foreign land, well known to our guide as one of the most 
inveterate smokers of the city. Immediately in front of him was a small saucer- 
filled with lamp oil, and inverted over it was a tumbler in the bottom of which (or 
the apex as it was placed) a small hole was drilled, through which protruded a piece 
of wick — this being lighted constituted the lamp. By its side lay an oyster-shell 
containing a quantity of a dark colored extract, and on either side a long wiie 
exactly like the knitting needles of our grandmothers, excepting that one extremity 
ends in a small spoon. The pipe is naturally of interest. The most usual style is 
that having a shaft of bamboo, resembling somewhat a flute pierced laterally 
at each extremity, at one of which is fitted a small metal cup in which 
to receive the bowl of the pipe proper. This bowl is of earthen ^ox metal, 
and is about three and a half inches in diameter, convex on both its upper and lower 



2io Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A %£™\f5£ rB1 " 

surfaces, the latter ending in a tube of half an inch diameter and of similar length ; 
this fits into the metal cup of the bamboo shaft. The upper convex surface is 
pierced in the centre with a metal tube, having a funnel-shaped aperture about one 
thirty-second of an inch in diameter. The cavity of the bowl, as here exhibited, 
is of a capacity of nearly a hundred cubic centimeters. 

The pipe is filled by taking up on the apex of one of the knitting needles a small 
portion of the extract, usually from 2 to 5 grains, and holding it momentarily in the 
flame of the lamp, rotating the needle dexterously meanwhile, then withdrawing it 
only to repeat the same operation until the extract is dried to light brown color and 
of just such consistency that it sticks to the pipe, when, with a dexterous twist, the 
point of the needle is inserted into the apex opening of the upper convex suiface of 
the bowl, and the needle instantly withdrawn by a rotary motion ; this manoeuvre 
places the extract in the shape of an inverted pyramid, with a central opening com- 
municating with the orifice leading into the cavity of the bowl. It is during this 
evaporation of the extract over the lamp that the cultivated smoker judges of the 
quality of the opium : if it bubbles up to that delicate shade of light brown, and, 
at the same time, gives off the peculiar odor so characteristic to the trained olfactory 
nerve bulbs of the Mongolian smoker, then is he satisfied of the quality of the 
extract purchased. 

The bowl being filled, it is inverted over the flame of the lamp at an angle of 
about 45 , and the volatilizing narcotic rapidly drawn by a few strong inspirations 
into the body of the pipe, and so on into the pulmonary cavities. The inspiration 
thus made is peculiar ; it is not only buccal, but more strongly pulmonary. The 
inspiration is slow and deep and prolonged, until the chest is filled with the narcotic 
vapor, and expiration then occurs with the mouth closed, and the expired smoke 
issuing slowly through the nostrils. 

The quantity smoked varies greatly with different smokers, it varying from 30 
grains to upwards of 300 or 400 grains at one sitting, this being from 10 to 100 
pipefuls of the extract. The whole process is done in the most methodical manner 
The veriest coolie or wealthiest merchant proceeds to arrange his lamp and extract 
and pipe with a solemn gravity ludicrous to behold. In this grave affair of state, 
perhaps five, ten or even fifteen minutes are consumed, then follows an interval of 
placidity in those unaccustomed to smoking, to be followed by another and another 
smoke. But we begin to feel almost like opium smokers ourselves breathing so long 
the atmosphere DeQuincy called " the mephitic regions of carbonic acid gas," so 
we ascend to the upper regions of the street, and realize, as we never have before, 
the fresh, invigorating influence of the brisk midnight air of the ocean coast. 

Philadelphia, Twelfth mo. 30th, 1878. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES A ND ASSOCIATIONS. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The examination of the members of the 
Junior Class was held on the afternoon and evening of February 15th. In addition 
to twelve specimens of medicinal chemicals, drugs and pharmaceutical preparations 



Aro A J P °rii! x8 7 h 9 arm } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 2 1 1 

•set out for examination and recognition, the following questions were handed to the 
students to be answered in writing: 

CHEMISTRY. 

A. — i. What is the velocity of Light ? 2.. How is a ray of white light affected 
in passing through a prism ? 3. How many simple or elementary colors are there ? 
4. Enumerate them. 5. Describe how white light may be re-formed by the union of 
the elementary colors. 6. What is meant by spectrum analysis? 7. How does the 
spectrum of one metal differ from that of another? 8. What would be the differ- 
ence in appearance between the solar spectrum and the spectrum of an element like 
sodium? 9. What is meant by the refraction of light ? 10. What is phosphor- 
escence. 

£. — 1. Do bodies expand or contract under the influence of heat ? 2. Give an 
experiment illustrative of this with a solid, 3, a liquid, and 4, with gases. 5. Name 
and^ describe the instruments used to measure temperatures. 6. Give the fixed 
,points and graduation of the one in common use 7. How may any number on one 
scale be converted into the corresponding number on another scale? 8. Convert 
6o° Fahrenheit into the corresponding reading of the Centigrade scale. 9 Convert 
79'4° Centigrade into the corresponding reading on the Fahrenheit scale. 10. 
What are the limits of heat and cold that may be determined with the mercury 
thermometer ? 

C. — 1. What is the correct chemical name for Muriatic Acid? 2. Give the 
method by which it may be obtained as a gas, and describe its collection. 3. 
Describe some of its properties. 4. Give the properties of the officinal Acidum 
Muriaticum. 5. What is its action on Zinc, and 6, upon Zinc Oxide? 7. Write 
the reaction for each of these actions. 8. What are the chief uses of Muriatic 
Acid? 9. What class of compounds result generally from its action? 10. Illus- 
trate this by examples. 

PHARMACY. 

D. — How were the units of length, capacity and weight obtained in the French 
Metrical System ? Give the value of each in the system of weights and measures 
used in this country. 

E. — Explain how the following processes are practically performed: 1. Percola- 
tion. 2. Sublimation. 3. Crystallization. 4. What special precautions are neces- 
sary to observe with each to ensure success. 

F. — Define the following pharmaceutical terms: 1. Cerate. 2. Ointment. 
3. Vinegar. 4. Syrup. 5. Fluid Extract. 6. Emulsion. 7. Extract. 8. Tincture. 
9 Liniment. 10. Plaster. 

MATERIA MEDICA AND BOTANY. 

G. — Define briefly the nature of parenchyma and prosenchyma cells, and of ducts 
or vessels. State where they are found in stems, in barks and in leaves. 

H. — What is Ergot, and on what plants is it found ? Describe briefly its devel- 
opment. 

/. — Give the botanical characters of the natural order of Ranunculaceae. Which 
Tanunculaceous herbs are officinal ? Give their botanical names and state their 
habitat. What are their most important chemical constituents? 

COMMITTEE. 

K — What is a Cotyledon ? What are plants called which have one, two and 
three or more Cotyledons? Name an example of each. 

L- — Water — What is its chemical composition ? Specific gravity ? Proportion 
of constituents by weight ? Proportion of constituents by volume? Freezing and 
boiling point? Point of maximum density? How can it be separated into its 
elements? What is the purest form of water found in nature ? What is the pure 
officinal form ? What are the impurities of natural waters ? 

M. — Describe two methods of obtaining substances in fine powders by the use of 



2 1 2 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am Ap?n,%£ 7 h 9 arm * 

liquids. How many degrees of fineness of powders are recognized by the United- 
States Pharmacopoeia? Give the Pharmacopoeia name of each degree of fineness,,, 
with the number attached to it, and explain what the number refers to. How are 
powders usually prepared and dispensed upon Physicians' prescriptions? 

About two-thirds of the candidates .passed the examination in all the branches 
successfully 5 the remainder will come up for a supplementary examination in one 
or more branches near the close of September next, at which time also students, 
from other Colleges, who have not passed the junior examination, will be examined. 
The precise time will be announced hereafter. Students intending to be present- 
should report by letter to the actuary of the College, Mr. Thos. S. Wiegand, on or 
before September ist. 

The examinations of tint senior students commenced February 27th and closed 
March 4th with the examination in practical manipulations. The written examina- 
tions were conducted on four consecutive days on the following subjects : 

QUESTIONS IN CHEMISTRY. 

A. What is "Sal Soda? " of the shops, and from what natural source was it for- 
merly obtained ? From what salts is it prepared on a large scale ? Give the process 
for its manufacture and explain the chemical changes in each stage of the operation. 
Give the composition of the crystallized salt, and describe its general physical pro- 
perties What changes are produced in it by exposure to air and to heat? State the 
forms in which it is officinal and the names they bear in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 
What salt is formed by saturating it with carbon dioxide ? Describe the process 
used and state the changes which take place. By what tests may its full saturation 
be ascertained ? What are the effects of heat upon it, both when dry or dissolved > 

B. State the chemical nomenclature of the two principal classes of iron salts, and 
give an example of each. State the quantivalence of the iron in each class, and give 
the symbol for iron with notation denoting the quantivalence. Give the general 
distinctive properties of the soluble salts of the two classes. State the officinal 
method of obtaining "Liquor Ferri Chloridi," U. S. P., and explain the chemical 
changes which take place in each stage, both by words and by formulas. What 
officinal preparation contains this solution ? In what respect does this differ chemi- 
cally from the "Liquor? " 

C. Give the chemical name for " Lunar Caustic," and state its mode of prepara- 
tion, with formula of the reaction. Give the names under which it is officinal, and 
state what difference exists either in appearance or composition of its different forms. 
Which of these is intended for internal use, and whv ? Is either form subject to 
adulteration 5 if so, which, and what is generally used for this purpose? How can 
this adulteration be detected ? 

D. State the composition and mode of preparing Ammonium Nitrate. What are 
the effects of heat upon it, both at moderate and high temperatures? Name any new 
compounds resulting from its decomposition, and give a formula of the reaction. 
State any precautions necessary to be taken in effecting its decomposition. 

E. What is- the probable composition of " Calx Chlorinata ?" Give the mode by 
which it is made, and any precautions necessary to be taken. Give the formula for 
the reaction that takes place. What are the properties which render it useful in 
medicine and the arts? What are the effects of the action of acids upon it? 

F. What is the difference in the action of pure and of ordinary water on lead, and 
to what is the difference due? Which acid is the best solvent for lead, and what are 
the products formed ? Is the salt thus formed used pharmaceutically, and for what 
purpose? Why is it preferred to the more common lead salt? 

G. What metal exists in lime, and with what element is it combined? From 
which of its compounds is lime usually obtained, and in these with what other 
metallic compound is it associated? Give its general properties, and the physical 



Am A J P rii^ i87 9 arm *} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 213 

and chemical changes which take place in it from exposure to air and moisture. 
What effect has alteration or" temperature upon the solubility of lime? 

H. What are the antidotes for Arsenic? State the mode in which they act. 

J. What tests are capable of distinguishing from each other the Salts of Potassium, 
Sodium and Ammonium ? 

K. Which of the elementary bodies is now considered essential to all acids? What 
relation does the number of atoms of this element bear to the basicity of the acid ? 

QUESTIONS IN MATERIA MED1CA. 

A. From which plant or plants, and from which natural order, is sarsaparilla 
obtained ? Give a general description of its physical and of its structural character- 
istics. Name the principal commercial varieties, and state briefly in what respects 
'they differ. Which constituents of sarsaparilla are of medical and pharmaceutical 
jnterest ? 

B. What is squill? Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant yield- 
ing it. Describe the drug, its varieties and its affinity for moisture. What causes 
•irritation of the skin on handling the drug ? Name its medicinal properties, the doses 
in which it is given and the principles to which its remedial properties are due. 

C. Give the source of guaiacum <wood as to the plant or plants, natural order and 
•country producing it. Give a concise description of the drug. State which portion 
of the wood is richest in the medicinal principle, how this principle is obtained in 

.^he native courftry of the drug, and what are its characteristic chemical reactions. 
What medical virtues are attributed to guaiacum ? 

D. Describe the physical and structural characteristics of each of the following 
varieties of Cinchona barks: quilled calisaya bark, flat calisaya bark, quilled red 
bark, flat red bark and pale bark. 

E. Name the plants, with their native country, of the natural order of Solanacea, 
yielding officinal leaves. State how these leaves maybe distinguished from one 
another, and upon which principles their medical properties chiefly depend. 

F. Describe the principal properties and reactions of eugenic acid ; state in which 
officinal drugs the acid is found ; name the plants and the natural order from which 
these drugs are obtained, and briefly describe each one of the drugs. 

G. Give the name, the natural order and the habitat of the plant yielding poppy, 
and state when the drug should be collected. Describe the principal physical and 
structural characteristics of the drug, and state in what respect the varieties of the 
<drug differ from one another. What are its medical properties? 

H. Name those officinal drugs which naturally occur in the state of po-vuder, and 
give of each the name of the plant and the part yielding it. Describe briefly the 
structural characteristics of each drug. 

/. What is storax? From what plant, natural order and country is it obtained ? 
'What is the cause of its opaqueness? Name its principal constituents, and state 
which indigenous product resembles it in composition. 

K. Give the name, class, order and habitat of the animal yielding castor. Explain 
the location of the latter in the body of the animal. Describe the drug, and name 
■its medical properties and dose. 

QUESTIONS IN PHARMACY. 

A. What proximate principles are usually present in Fixed Oils? Express in words 
the chemical composition of the proximate principles present in Olive Oil. What 
•change takes place in these principles when Olive Oil is heated with Oxide of Lead 
and water? Name the liquid soluble in water produced by this reaction. How 
many grams of this liquid would a bottle hold which contains 29^53 cc. of pure water 
at 4 °C? 

B. Give the ingredients and unabbreviated officinal names of the following pre- 
parations: Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia, Syrup of Ginger, Tincture of Bella- 
donna, Mercurial Ointment, Wine of Rhubarb, Fluid Extract of Ergot, Green 



214 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Km '$S;$£T' 

Iodide of Mercury, Acetate of Potassium, Tincture of Nux Vomica (with propor- 
tions), Mezereon Ointment. 

C. Give the ingredients and English names for Acetum Scillae, Acidum Sulphur- 
icum Aromaticum, Ceratum Cetacei, Collodium cum Cantharide, Confectio Rosa;,. 
Infusum Gentiana? Compositum, Liquor Arsenici et Hydrargyri Iodidi, Pilula? 
Aloes et Mastiches, Liquor Iodinii Compositus, Syrupus Rhei Aromaticus. 

D. Name the oil found naturally in the Bitter Almond. Explain the process for 
preparing Volatile Oil from the Bitter Almond. What is its chemical name and 
its unabbreviated officinal name? What poisonous Acid is usually found in the 
Volatile Oil? How may this Acid be removed? What crystallizable Acid is apt 
to be found in old specimens? How does the Sweet Almond differ from Bitter 
Almond in chemical composition? Name two officinal preparations of Sweet 
Almonds. Name three officinal preparations of Wild Cherry. State how each is- 
prepared. 

E. What is Malt? How does its taste differ from that of Barley? What is the- 
difference in taste due to? What fermentative principle is present in Malt? Name 
the products formed by fermentation of Malt in the order in which they areformed.- 
What solid crystalline substance is found coating the interior of wine casks? What 
is its chemical composition? What impurities does it contain? Describe how the 
Acid present in it is made. Give a test for the Acid. 

F. What is Pepsin? What are its medical properties? How is it prepared for 
use by Scheffer's process? What is the standard of strength adopted for Sacchar- 
ated Pepsin? What two liquid preparations of Pepsin are in common use, and 
what are their principal faults? Name three officinal preparations of Cantharides. 
What are the special uses of each? Give the ingredients in each. State what offi- 
cinal Acid is obtained from milk ; give the specific gravity of the Acid. Name an. 
officinal preparation. 

G. Name the three principal Alkaloids present in Opium. What peculiar Acid 
is present in Opium? What are the tests for this Acid? What are the tests for the 
principal Alkaloids? What emetic preparation is prepared from the principal 
Alkaloid 5 What is its dose ? What are the officinal liquid preparations of Opium ? 
Give the proportion of Powdered Opium in each fluidounce. State the object of 
using Ether in one of the liquid preparations. 

H. How is officinal Sweet Spirit of Nitre prepared? What peculiar Ether does 
it contain? Explain the rationale for the production of Sweet Spirit of Nitre. What 
is its specific gravity and usual adulteration ? What are the officinal tests ? What 
pharmaceutical preparation is made by a similar process from Amylic Alcohol ? 
What is its use in medicine? How is it administered and dispensed? 

/. How is Syrup of the Iodide of Iron prepared? What is the modern chemical 
name for the Salt contained in it? What o*her officinal preparation contains the 
same Salt ? State how this preparation is made. Give the pharmacopoeial tests for 
this preparation. How is Monsefs Solution prepared? What is its unabbreviated 
officinal name? What is its specific gravity? What solid preparation is made from 
it ? What are its medical uses? 

K. Into what three classes are Volatile Oils usually divided ? What are the 
proximate constituents of most Volatile Oils? How are Volatile Oils obtained from 
plants? How may Alcohol be detected when used to adulterate Volatile Oils? How 
may Fixed Oils be detected? What are Oleo resins ? Give the officinal name of 
a natural Oleo-resin. State how the Oleo-resins forming a class in the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia are made. What is the best way of dispensing Oleo-resins with aqueous 
mixtures? Illustrate by a practical example. 

QUESTIONS BY THE EXAMINING COMMITTEE. 

A. Name the three officinal Alums. State the full officinal title of each without 
abbreviations. Give the chemical formula of each. What is the crystalline form. 



Am A J p°rii r ; i87 9 arm } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 215 

of each ? Name another element which will substitute Potassium, and one which 
will substitute Aluminium in Alum. What test will distinguish Aluminium Salts 
from Magnesium Salts ? 

B. What are the sources of Citric Acid of commerce ? Describe the mode of 
its preparation. What mineral Acid is it liable to be contaminated with ? What 
Acid is formed by the action of heat on Citric Acid ? What effect has red heat 
upon metallic Citrates? What i< the saturating power of Citric Acid as indicated 
by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia? What is its quantivalence ? Name three prepara- 
tions of the U. S Pharmacopoeia into which it enters. How may adulterations 
with tartaric acid be detected ? 

C. State the officinal name of Galls. Give the botanical name, natural order and 
habitat of the plant which yields the drug. How are they formed ? Name two 
active principles which they contain. Give the process for obtaining each of these 
active principles. How may they be distinguished chemically? What is a charac- 
teristic feature of good Galls ? 

D. Give the botanical name, natural order and habitat of the plant which yields 
Ipecacuanha. Describe briefly the physical and structural characteristics of the root 
Describe one of the non-officinal Ipecacuanhas. Name the active principle of 
Ipecacuanha. In what portion of the root does it reside ? What are the medical 
properties of Ipecacuanha? Give the officinal names and .strength of three prepa- 
rations containing Ipecacuanha. 

E. Give the officinal names and ingredients of the following preparations (omit- 
ting quantities), with the dose of Black Drop and Huxhanrfs Tincture : Black Drop, 
Huxham's Tincture of Bark, Brown Mixture, Seidlitz Powders, Basilicon Ointment. 

F. Give the formula, and describe the process of making the following prepara- 
tions (omitting quantities): Syrupus Senegae, Potassii Citras, Pulvis Ipecacuanha? 
Compositus, Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis, Ceratum Cantharidis. 

G. Give the formula for preparing Liquor Ferri Chloridi, and explain in words 
what chemical changes take place. What is its specific gravity ? State in what 
officinal preparation it is used. Give the formula for this preparation, and state its 
dose and medical properties. 

H Give the officinal names and active principles of the following drugs ; also the 
botanical names, natural orders and habitat of the plants which furnish them : 







Officinal 


Active 


Botanical 


Natural 


Habitat. 






Name. 


Principle 


Name. 


Order. 


I 














1 














3 














4 














5 


Levant Wormseed, 












6 


Deadly Nightshade, 












7 
8 


May Apple, . 












9 














10 















/. Criticise the following prescriptions 



2i 6 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
( April, 1879 



R — Quiniae Sulph., . . . gr. xxxii 

Acid. Sulph. Aromat , . f gss 

Syrup. Zingiber., . . f 3 i 

Aquas, . . . . f^ii 
Tinct. Valerianae Ammo 

niatae, .... f^i 
M. Sig.: Give a teaspoonful four times 
daily. 

R — Hydr. Chlorid. Corrosiv., gr. ii 

Acid. Hydrochlor. Dilut., f 3 n " 

Syrupi, .... f^i 

Aquas, . . . . f £vi 

M. Sig.: Give a teaspoonful three 

times a day. 



R — Mist. Potass. Citrat., . f |iv 
Spt. Aether. Nitros. . . fji 
Syrupi, .... f|i 
Tinct. Aconit. Rad., . f^i 
M. Sig.: Give a tablespoonful three 

times daily. 



4. Diarbhcea Mixture. 



Cretae Praeparatae, 
Pulv. Gum. Acacias, 
Pulv. Opii, 
Glycerinas, 
Aquae Cinnam., 
M. Sig.: A tablespoonful 
hour. 



3iii 
every 



]{ — Morphias Sulphat., 
Potassii Bicarb., 
Aquae, 

M. Sig.: A teaspoonful every two hours. 
K. Criticise Prescriptions No. 1 and 2. 



gr. 111 
fgii 



R — Copaibas, . 

Tinct. Ferri Chloridi, 
Pulv. Acaciae, . 
Sacchari, . 
Aq. Menth. Pip., ad. 
M. Sig : To be used as directed. 



f^iv R — Tinct. Ferri Chlorid., . f giti 
f 3iv I Liq. Ammonii Acetatis, . f ^iv 
£>iv I Ammonii Carbonatis, . ^ss 
£iv Elixir Curagoa, . . r ^i 

f.^iv! Syiup. Cort. Aurant., . f 3iss 
Aquae, q. s. ut. ft. . . f i;viii 
i M. Sig.: Basham's Mixture. 

3. Write out a prescription for 12 powders, each containing 10 grains of Dover's 
Powders, giving the ingredients separately in Latin, without abbreviations. 

4. Translate the following : 

R — Morphias Sulphatis centigramrnata viginti quinque. 
Acidi Hydrochlorici decigrammata tria. 
Spiritus Vini Gallici grammata septem et dimidium. 
Aqua destillatas grammata viginti duo et dimidium. 
Misceatur, Detur, Signetur : 30 drops 3 or 4 times a day. 

5. Translate the following, and change the Metrical Weights to Troy Weights: 

R — Hydiargyri Chloridi Corrosivi, . . .0 6 

Solve in Aquae destillatae gutt. nonnullis. 

Adde Pulveris Opii, . . . .03 

" Glycyrrhizas Radicis, . . . 5*0 

" " Extracti, . . 80 

Misce exactissime. Fiant pilulas 100 Lycopodio Conspergantur 

The following is the list of specimens in each department which had been plac:d 
upon the table for examination : 



A ^jJprii*I*n* m '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 217 

Chemistry. Materia Medica. Pharmacy. Examining Committee. 

Potassii carbonas. Asarum. Liquor pitasii permang. Potassii bromidum. 

Potassii nitras (granul.). Veratrum viride. Jnfusum Salvise. . Potassii chloras. 

Potassii chloras. Juglans. Syrupus Ferri Iodidi. Uva ursi. 

Potasii bichromas. Gaultheria. Extract. Ergotae fluidum. Salvia. 

Sodii chloridum. Santonica. Aqua Mentha? viridis. Acidum gallicum. 

Sodii bicarbonas. Cocculus. Acidum sulphurosum. Infus. Gentiana; ccmp. 

Liquor Calcis. Delphinium. Alcohol amylicum. Tinct. Gentiana; comp. 

Alumen. Sassafras Medulla. Pulvis aromaticus. Tinct. Opii camphorata. 

Ferii subcarbonas. Tapioca. Confectio Rosae. Syrupus Scillae. 

Tinct. ferri chloridi. Resina. Ferri citras. Extr. Pruni Virg. fluid. 

For the practical examination, the preparation of an oil emulsion, of pills, 
lozenges and an ointment, had been selected. 

The following candidates passed the examination, and were recommended for the 
degree of Graduate in Pharmacy: 

James Polk Aaron, Pennsylvania, Soda Water Apparatus. 

Emanuel Allison Alleman, Pennsylvania, Eriodictyon Glutinosum. 

Alexander Bonnell Allen, New York, Glycerin. 

John Reese Allen, Delaware, Natural Mineral Waters. 

Louis Ancker, South Carolina, Citron. 

Alfred Croskey Ashmead, Pennsylvania, Rubus Villosus. 

•George Hickman Bancroft, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical uses of Ung. Petrolei. 

Thomas Barnes, Jr . Pennsylvania, Apis Mellifica. 

W. Wallace Beitenman, Pennsylvania, Althaea as a Pill Excipient. 

John Jacob Beyer, Pennsylvania, Glycerole of Sub- Acetate of Lead. 

John Blankenhorn, New York, Smilax Glauca. 

Joseph Brakeley, New Jersey, Oil of Gaultheria. 

John Griscom Bullock, Pennsylvania, 'O Pharmakopolos. 

Frederick White Carpenter, New York, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

Edward Ligon Enders Castleton, Texas, Percolation vjith Improved Apparatus. 

Hesser Charles Ci.apham, Pennsylvania, Manufacture of Licorice. 

Alfred W. Cochran, New Jersey, Alcoholic Fermentation 

David Costelo, Indiana, Gambogia. 

Harry Oscar Cox, New Jersey, Strychnos Nux Vomica. 

Harry Otis Cravens, Texas, Licorice Lozenges. 

Walter Crawford, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical and Medical Relationship. 
John P. Curran, Jr., Pennsylvania, Grindelia Robusta. 
William George Day, Maryland, Thymol as an Antiseptic. 
Oeorge Frank Deacon, New Jersey, Arsenic and its Preparations. 
Robert P. Dinges, Pennsylvania, Camphora Officinarum. 
Theodore Drake, New Jersey, Glycerin and its Uses. 
Joseph B. Driver, Wisconsin, Emulsions. 

George Morris Eckels, Pennsylvania, Comparative Strength oj Winss and Tincts. 

Maurice Edgar'^Eyler, Pennsylvania, Ceratum Cantharidis . 

Clarence Preston Eyre, New Jersey, Yerba Buena. 

Levi Fahnestock, Penn>ylvania, Valuation of Blistering Beetles. 

Hiland Flowers, Pennsylvania, Lactuca Canadensis. 

John Henry Frederick, Pennsylvania, Evaporation. 

William Kerr Freas, Pennsylvania, Cimicifuga. 

Andrew G. Frey, Pennsylvania, Cornus Florida. 

-Ernest Fruh, Pennsylvania, Storage of Botanical Drugs. 

William Henry Gerhard, Pennsylvania, Plasters. 

James Lord Graham, Delaware, Glyceritum Picis Liquida. 

Edward Clarence Griffin, Michigan, Emulsions. 

Edwin Howard Hammer, Ohio, Syrupus Ipecacuanha. 

Henry Gettman Haring, Pennsylvania, Podophyllum Peltatum, Folia. 

Charles Albert Harrold, District of Columbia, Dialyzed Iron. 

George William Henry, New Jersey, Camphora Officinarum. 



2i 8 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { ^a^'^*™' 

Charles Austine Higgins, New Jersey, Potassii Brom'idum. 

Leonard Adkins Hudson, Delaware, Bark of Cerasus Serotina. 

Morris Albert Hull, Pennsylvania, Asclepias Tuberosa. 

William Beetem Hum rich, Pennsylvania, Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis. 

Joe Jacobs, Georgia, Melia Azedarach. 

Roland Davis Jones, Delaware, Citric Acid. 

Emil Jungman, Germany, Present Miseries of Pharmacy and their Remedy. 

William Wilkins Kain, New Jersey, Potassii Bitartras. 

Loren Dewey Kays, Pennsylvania, Cosmolin in Ointments. 

Patrick Malcahy Kelly, M.D , Pennsylvania, Red Lead in Paint. 

George Henry King, Pennsylvania, Hydrobromic Acid. 

Harry Clarence Lawall, Pennsylvania, Carbonic Acid. 

Alexander Benjamin Levi, Pennsylvania, Perfumery and its relations to Pharmacy v. 

John Herrman Locke, Pennsylvania, Emplastrum. 

Daniel Longaker, Pennsylvania, Vanilla. 

Charles Edgar McComas, Maryland, Hamamelis Virginica. 

Eugene A. McFadden, Pennsylvania, Vanilla and its Extract. 

Clement Brook McCullough, Pennsylvania, Before attending College of Pharmacy^ 

Watson Megill, Kentucky, Cultivation of Tobacco in Kentucky. 

Edward Frederick Menger, Nebraska, Ceratum Plumbi Subacetatis. 

Jacob Myers Mitchell, Jr., New Jersey, Organic Chemistry. 

William Mittelbach, New Jersey, American Wines. 

David Moffet, Pennsylvania, Euonymus Atropurpureus. 

Bayard Murray, Pennsylvania, Grindelia Robusta. 

Emile Ott, Pennsylvania, Hydrargyri Oxidum Flafum. 

William Renick Patterson, Ohio, Syrupus Lactucarii. 

George Alexander Woodson Payne, Virginia, History and Chemistry oj Glass 

Horatio Gates Peters, Pennsylvania, Sodii Boras 

Charles Fred. W Pliebel, Pennsylvania, Nux Vomica. 

William S. Plumer, Jr, South Carolina, Cocculus Indicus. 

Ernest P. Raab, Illinois, Ricinus Communis. 

Aaron William Radley, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical Notes. 

Frederick Rapp, Illinois, Saccharated Pepsin. 

Eugene Lewis Reed, New Jersey, Statice Caroliniana . 

Willoughby Henry Reed, Pennsylvania, Hydrargyrum. 

Charles Edward Resag, Germany, Capsicum Annuum 

Afred Nathan Richards, Pennsylvania, Catechu-tannic Acid. 

Charles H. H. B. Roberts, Pennsylvania, Eucalyptus. 

Victor Christopher Roberts, New Jersey, Toxicology. 

Aucustus Harvey Ross, Pennsylvania, Unguentum Zinci Oxidi. 

John M. Rudolph, Pennsylvania, Corallorhiza Odontorhiza 

Warren Blachly Rush, Ohio, Copaibic Acid. 

Charles J. Siglinger, Pennsylvania, Spigelia Marilandica. 

Moses S. Simpson, Ohio, Oils aud Fats. 

Jacob Daniel Smeltzer, Pennsylvania, Honey 

Augutus Swartz Smith, Pennsylvania, Glucose 

Henry George Smith, Pennsylvania, Croton Chloral Hydrate. 

Alfred Denny Sparks, Delaware, Liquor Magnesii Citratis. 

George Sylvester Speaker, Pennsylvania, Ceratum Plumbi Subacetatis . 

Theodore Sprissler, Pennsylvania, Wood Products. 

Albert August Gustav Starck, Illinois, Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis 

Oliver Henry Sterner, Pennsylvania, Dracontium Fatidum. 

Jacob Frederick Stock, New Jerey, Prinos Verticillatus. 

Albert H. Stites, Pennsylvania, The Bark of Diospyros Virginiana. 

Emil Conrad Thomas, Pennsylvania, Prinos Verticillatus . 

William Conrad Troll, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical Education. 

Alexander Turner, Pennsylvania, An Index of Strength in all Galenical Solutions. 



^a&i^ 01 *} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 219 

Curtis Waugh Turner, Pennsylvania, Toxicology in its Relation to Pharmacists 

John Basketter Turner, Pennsylvania, Castanea. 

John Augustus Uhland, Pennsylvania, Medicated Waters. 

Robert Hays Vansant, New Jersey, Glucose in its Pharmaceutical Applications. 

McClanahan Wade, Virginia, Simple Syrup. 

Charles Hugh Wagener, New Jersey, Carbon and its Compounds. 
Edward Morrell Wallington, New Jersey, Emulsion of Codli<ver Oil. 
Charles Wesley Watson, Pennsylvania, Pilula Zinci Phosphidi Composite. 
William Wendel, Germany, Podophyllum Peltatum, Folia. 
John Louis Wessels, Germany, Erythroxylon Coca. 
Henry Clay W hitney, New Jersey, Apium Petroselinum. 
Fred Tyacke Williams, Pennsylvania, Coffee. 
William Rufus Wilson, Pennsylvania, Cydanium. 
George Edward Witsil, Pennsylvania, Honey and Glucose. 

William Warren Woodnut, New Jersey, Cosmolin as a Basis jor some OfficinaL 
Ointments. 

Max Robert Zaegel, Wisconsin, Red Podophyllin. 

PASSED THEIR EXAMINATION IN JUNE, 1878. 
August Drescher, New Jersey, Examination of a Case of Supposed Arsenica! 
Poisoning. 

Thomas Edward Barron Kern an, Pennsylvania, Solution of Oxychloride of Iron. 

An invitation had been extended by the professors to the successful candidates and. 
the Board of Trustees of the College to assemble at the College hall on the evening 
of March 13th. Tables had been set in the museum, and after partaking of the 
refreshments provided for the occasion, speeches were made, toasts offered and 
responded to, and the conversation occasionally interspersed with songs, until the 
hour of adjournment arrived. 

On the evening of March 14th a large audience was'attracted to the Academy of 
Music, where the Fifty-eighth Annual Commencement was held, and the degrees 
conferred upon the graduates by the President of the College, Dillwyn Parrish. A 
gold medal, which had been offered by E. Mclnall, Ph.G., to the student passing 
the best examination in chemistry, was presented to Joseph Brakeley. Professor 
Remington delivered the valedictory address, at the close of which Rob. H. Vansantj, 
on behalf of the class, presented a series of resolutions, handsomely engrossed and 
framed, expressive of the feeling of the class on learning of the resignation of Pro- 
fessor Bridges ; they were received by Vice President Chas. Bullock in behalf of 
Prof. Bridges, who was absent, owing to indisposition. The class surprised Prof. 
Maisch with a handsome library table, on which was placed a silver set of exquisite 
workmanship, consisting of waiter, pitcher, goblets and bowl, which were presented 
by Curtis W. Turner. The exercises were interspersed with music, and closed with 
the distribution of flowers, books and other presents sent upon the stage by the 
friends of the graduates. 

The steps taken a year ago for the celebration of the "Silver" Anniversary of 
the Zeta Phi Society were approved by the members of the different classes since 
1854. The committee, on learning of the intended resignation of Prof. Bridges, 
quietly went to work, determined to erect a lasting monument to him, who had 
faithfully seived the College in the chair of chemistry for 37 years. At the Anni- 
versary meeting held on the evening of March 1 ith, in one of the lecture rooms of 
the College, the committee presented the result of their labors, the sum of $i,ooo„. 



220 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am ApX'i8 7 9 arin * 

10 the College, with the stipulation that the fund be known as the " Robert Bridges 
Scholarship Fund," and that the interest thereof be annually appropriated toward 
defraying the expenses of one or rrore deserving students, under the direction of the 
Board of Trustees. In the course of the evening it was also announced that a 
friend of the College had offered to the class of 1879-1880 the sum of $100, as a 
prize, for the best thesis. The exercises over, the company was invited to proceed 
to the museum, where a collation was provided, and where the younger folks after- 
wards indulged in singing and dancing. A society has been formed, styled the 
"** Zeta Phi Alpha Society," with the view of gathering the alumni tri-annually in a 
social reunion ; its first president is Jos. L. Lemberger, Ph.G., of the class of 1854. 



Massachusetts College of Pharmacy.— The annual meeting of the Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy was held on March 3d, 1879. The following officers were 
elected: Thomas L. Jenks, M.D., President; B. F. Stacey, First Vice President; 
A. R. Bayley, Second Vice President ; Thomas Doliber, Ph.G., Recording Secre- 
tary ; Prof. G. F. H. Markoe, Ph.G., Corresponding Secretary; Charles I. Eaton, 
Treasurer ; James S. Melvin, Auditor — Trustees : Henry Canning, Secretary ; 
George H Cowdin, Ph.G.; Edward S. Kelley, Ph.G.; Chas. P. Orne, Ph.G.,- S. A. 
D. Shepphard, Ph.G.; Charles A. Tufts, M.D., Ph.G.; I. Bartlett Patten, Daniel 
«G. Wilkins. 

The College introduced three new features the past year. First. Compulsory 
and Free Laboratory Exercise, in connection with the new chemical laboratory. 
This was opened last autumn, and will accommodate 256 students. Second. A 
Junior Examination in October for those students who failed to pass the .regular 
Junior Examination in the Spring. Third. Preliminary Examination in reading, 
writing, spelling, and arithmetic as far as and including fractions and proportions. 
This was announced in the College Catalogue of 1877-78. 

The school of Pharmacy has been attended the present session by 114 students. 
The school suffered a great loss in the death of Prof. Merrick, which took place on 
the 25th of February of this year. Prof. Merrick had filled the chair of Chemistry 
for five years. 

The College at this meeting voted a change in its by-laws, whereby wholesale 
druggists and manufacturers of pharmaceutical preparations can become members. 

The retiring president, Mr. Sheppard, read an address detailing the events of the 
past year in reference to the College, and containing many valuable suggestions for 
its future welfare. Thomas Doliber, Rec. Sec. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — The forty-ninth annual commencement took 
place in Chickering Hall on the evening of March 1 8th. After an address by the 
President, Mr. Ewen Mclntyre, the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was conferred 
on the following gentlemen : 
Samuel Abraham, New York, Urine. 

Louis Bangert, New Jersey, Products of Destructive Distillation. 
Samuel M. Barbarow, New Jersey, Pills and Excipients. 
Smith Bartlett, Cape Vincent, Zinc and its Preparations. 
Conrad W. Braeutigam, New York, Emplastrum Plurnbi. 
Ernest Breiting, Germany, Iodine and its Officinal Preparations. 
John Breuing, New Jersey, The Various Processes of Pill Coating. 
Percival Brewer, Illinois, The Comparative Quantity of Pure Phosphoric Acid m 
j£nj£ral samples of Diluted Phosphoric Acid of Commerce. 



Am Ap°",'i879. rm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 221 

Alb'rt F. Brugman; New York, The Food of Man. 

Christian F. Burger, Jr , Germany, Citric Acid. 

Bernard F. Callaghan, New Jersey, Diluted Phosphoric Acid. 

M. Frank Casey, Massachusetts, Pharmacy and Pharmacopceial Preparations . 

Frederick Cassebeer, New York, Quinine and its Salts. 

Herman F. Csssebeer, New York, Opium and its Alkaloids. 

Thelesphore Chagnon, Canada, Corrosive Sublimate. 

Fonwell C. Cutts, Massachusetts, Belladonna aud its Officinal Preparations. 
Charles N. Davidson, New York, Practical 7 ests for Adulterations in Cod- Liver Oil. 
Carl Do^pfner, Germany, Mercury 

Hicko Dorestan, Wisconsin, Volatile Oils, The Chief Adulterations and their Prin- 
cipal Tests 

William H. Ebbit, New York, Caloric in Changes of Aggregation. 
Walter E. Faber, New York, Glycerin. 
Louis E. Feindt, New York, Poisons. 

William W. Fowler, New Jersey, The Adulterations of Cream of Tartar and their 
Detection. 

George Blair Frazee, Mississippi, Disinfection and Disinfectants. 

George W. Freygang, New Jersey, Cod-Liver Oil. 

Paul L. Frohwein, New Jersey, Oxalic Acid and Oxalates. 

Theobald R. Frohwein, New York, Estimation of the Morphia Strength of Tinctura- 
Opii. 

Dennis Gerrity, New York, Arsenic and its Compounds. 
Louis J. Golm, Illinois, The Solubility of Pills. 
Martin Heldt, Jr., New York, Antiseptics. 

James D. Hendrickson, New Jersey, Qualitative Analysis of Urine. 

Frederick Herdling, Germany, Thymus Vulgaris, its Constituents. 

August Hoerle, New York, Salicylic Acid. 

George H. Hoerning, New Jersey, Ergota. 

Hermagoras Isea, Venezuela, Bromide of Potassium. 

John Kremer, Jr., New York, Analysis of Urine. 

Henry E. C. Kuehn, Canada, Water and its uses. 

Mathew Mahler, New York, Aconitum Napellus and its Preparations . 
George J. Martin, New Jersey, Eucalyptus Globulus. 
Charles H. May, Maryland, Salix and Salicin. 

Isaac Meseritz, New York, Glycerin as an Excipient in the Manufacture of Pills. 
Charles P. Moll, New York, Chloroform. 

James T. Morehouse, New Jersey, Products derived from Apis Mellifica. 

Robert Muellenbach, Germany, Hydrate of Chloral. 

Simeon Nauheim, England, Ihe Salts and Scale Preparations of Iron. 

Sidney H. Neergaard, New York, Hyoscyamus and its Officinal Preparations from 

the Dried American, English and German Leaves. 
John Oehler, New York, The Flora of Bergen county, New Jersey. 
Herman Orlewitz, Germany, Gold. 

Jacob Oswalt, New York, Use of Disinfectants, Anticeptics, Deodorizers. 
Frederick W. Petri, New York, Arsenic and Arsenious Acid. 
Jonas Pfeiffer, New York, The Thermometer and Latent Heat. 
George Redder, New York, Citric Acid. 

Floyd W. Rogers, Connecticut, (( The Tvjo Paths'"'' (in Pharmacy.) 

Hilon H. Sawyer, New York, Acid. Hydrocyanic. Dilut. The Purity and Percentage 

strength of Commercial Samples. 
Gottlieb Schick, Missouri, Antimony. 

Henry J Schleckter, New York, Chemistry and its Atomic Theory. 
Gustavus Schlegel, New Jersey, On Fluid Extracts. 
Frank A. D. Smith, New York, Strychnos Nux Vomica. 
Mallory H Taylor, Virginia, Viscum Album, 



222 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am xiXi87 9 arm * 

Greenleaf Voorhes, New Jersey, Digitalis. 

William W. Washburne, New York, Sulphuric Acid. 

Joseph Weidenfeld, Wisconsin, Mercury and its Compounds 

Rudolph C. Werner, Germany, Phosphorus and its Chemical and Pharmaceutical 

Preparations. 

Alfred W. Wiener, New York, The Location of the Active Principle in the Spanish 
Fly. 

Alwin J. Wilhelm, New York, Gum Benzoes and Benzoic Acid. 

The Alumni prizes, consisting of a gold, silver and bronze medal, were awarded 
to C. W. May, G. W. Freygang and R. C. Werner, the three graduates who had 
passed the best general examination ; and a special prize, a microscope, was pre- 
sented to John Oehler, the best student in botany and Materia Medica. Professor 
Chandler, on behalf of the Alpha Beta Gamma, presented to the College Johnson's 
"Universal Encyclopedia," in four volumes. The address of Judge H E. How- 
land, who was unable to be present, was read by Chas. P. Miller, and the Vale- 
dictory on behalf of the graduates was delivered by J L Hendrickson. A crayon 
portrait of Prof. Frcebel was presented to the College by the Laboratory Class. 



Alumni Association New York College of Pharmacy. — The annual meeting 
was held in the College building on Tuesday, March 17th. Starr H. Ambler occu- 
pied the chair, and 38 new members were elected. The President read his annual 
address. The Committee on Papers and Queries presented a report favoring the 
establishment of a money prize, to be awarded for original investigation and 
research into any particular pharmaceutical subject by members of the Alumni. 
The Treasurer's report showed the finances of the Association to be in a satisfactory 
condition. The annual election resulted in the choice of the following ticket : — 

President, P. W. Bedford,- Vice Presidents, George B. Frazer, Starr H. Ambler, 
H. L. Coit; Treasurer, Theobald Frohwein; Secretary, B. F. Hays; Register, 
L. M. Royce. Executive Board — Messrs. B. F. Mclntyre, F. Herman, E. Mon- 
taunus, Jr., G. Inness. Delegates to the Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association — Messrs. William Wright, Jr., J. L. Golin, 
T. Frohwein, J. W. Ballard, H. C. Porter. At the close of the meeting the gradu- 
ating class sat down to a dinner tendered them by the Alumni, the festivities being 
prolonged until a late hour. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the Pharmaceutical meeting 
held Nov. 6th, the President, Mr. John Williams, in the chair, a paper entitled some 
bismuth residues was read by Dr. E. A. Letts. The residues had been left on dis- 
solving commercial bismuth in a mixture of 2 parts of nitric acid and 3 parts of 
water, and consisted in all probability of tellurides and selenides of the metals gold, 
silver and bismuth ; neither sulphur nor other electro-negative constituent could be 
detected, and with the exception of traces of copper, no other metal. The tellurium 
amounted to between 12 and 20 per cent of the weight of the residue. The bismuth 
was of Australian origin, and had been refined probably by fusion with nitrate of 
potassium 

Mr. Schacht stated that these residues amounted to about one-half per cent, of the 
metal, and that the bismuth preparations made from the metal seemed to contain a 
trace of tellurium. A girl of about six years had taken less than one grain of oxide 
of bismuth, which had made her breath smell of garlic for more than a week. 
Similar effects had been noticed before (see "Am. Jour Phar.," 1876, p. 133), and 
w.-re attributed to the presence of tellurium. Professor Attfield suggested that since 
seleniuretted hydrogen was said to be much more pungent and powerful than tellu- 
rietted hydrogen, a minute quantity of selenium might cause all the mischief. 

Tincture of' quinine was the title of a paper read by Mr. W. Martindale, who 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
April, 1879. J 



Editorial. 



223 



advocated its preparation from hydrochlorate instead of sulphate of quinia. The 
latter salt partly crystallizes from the tincture of orange peel, if but slightly deficient 
in alcohol, and sometimes a precipitate of sulphate of calcium is produced ; both 
inconveniences are avoided with hydrochlorate of quinia, which however contains 82 
per cent, of alkaloid against 74-5 per cent, in the sulphate. 

Mr. J. C. Thresh read a paper on the detection and approximate determination of 
minute quantities of alcohol (see page 87). 

Mr. E. M. Holmes read a paper, entitled an adulteration of senega. The drug 
had been sent to London from Brussels ; the adulteration consisted of the rhizome 
and rootlets of Asclepias vincetoxicum, Lin , which about a year ago was reported 
by Charbonnier, of Caen, as having been met with as an adulteration of valerian, 
and which Professor Redwood observed had been received in London as white helle- 
bore The vincetoxicum root consists of a horizontal rhizome about ; ] inch thick, and 
having a well defined pith in the centre of yellow wood ; the roots are numerous, in 
tufts about an inch apart, smooth, scarcely furrowed and without a keel 5 it has a faint 
earthy odor and a slight taste and contains starch. Vincetoxicum resembles senega in 
color, but is readily distinguished from it by the characters given. 

At the meeting held Dec. 4th, the deposit from tinture of quinia was again referred 
to. It was pointed out that for some years past the calisaya bark of commerce 
often contained scarcely any quinia ; this Mr. Holmes believes to be due to the 
admixture of the bark of Cinchona peruviana 

Prof. Bentley called attention to spurious sumbul root, which had been described 
by Pereira as Indian sumbul, but which is merely ammoniacum root flavored with 
musk, as was stated last year by Dr. Dymock. Prof. Bentley also referred to gentian 
root as derived from different species of Gentiana indigenous to Europe, which in 
many respects agree with the root of G. lutea. 

Mr. Robbins and others made some remarks about ethylate of sodium, which was 
introduced some years ago by Dr. Richardson as a caustic (see p. 195). 

Papers were read by Mr. J. Williams on aceto-nitrate of iron (see p. 93), and by 
Mr. E M. Holmes on Baycuru root and guaycuru. The latter is derived from 
statice brasiliensis, but the origin of baycuru root is still unknown. The root, bark 
and leaves of a Brazilian rosaceous shrub, Chrysobalanus icaco, is used as an astrin- 
gent in chronic diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, etc., and a lotion to heal ulcers and wounds. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Poisoning by Chlorate of Potassium.— We have frequently observed that arti- 
cles originally contributed to this journal, on their way through several other cotempo- 
raries failed to receive the proper credit as to origin, and occasionally came back 
to the United States as neiv information. The latest case in point is Mr. 
Kennedy's paper with the above caption, which was published on p. 112 of our 
last volume, and which is now being credited to the " Allg, Med. Central Zei- 
tung." It was copied into that journal from " Archiv der Pharmacie," where 
proper credit was given. We do not know into how many American medical jour- 
nals it may have since found its way ; but we have noticed it in the " Medical and 
Surgical Reporter" and in the Cincinnati "Lancet and Clinic," both of February 
15th, 1879. 



Iodide of Potassium.— The following communication explains itself : 

In justice to American manufacturers, and especially those in the Western States, I deem it my duty 
to say that since the publication in the February number of the "Journal " (p. 76), of the article relating 
to the adulteration of iodide of potassium, I have discovered that the sample referred to is an imported 
drug, though at the time I supposed it was of Western manufacture from the manner in which the labels 
upon the bottle were printed. C. E. DE PUY. 

Chelsea, Mich., February 28th, 1879. 



224 Reviews, etc. — Obituary. { 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Medicinal Plants ; being descriptions, with original figures, of the principal plants 
employed in med cine, and an account of their properties and uses By Robert 
Bentley, F.L.S., and Henry Trimen, M. B., F.L.S. Philadelphia: Lindsay & 
Blackiston. Price, per part, $2.co. 

Parts 35 and 36, now before us, contain the handsome plates and the usual full 
descriptions of the following medicinal plants : Aspidium filix-mas, Sivartz; Dichop- 
sis (Isonandra) gutta, Bentl.; Erigeron canadense, Lin. ; Foeniculum capillaceum, 
Gilib ; Hjbiscus exculontus, Lin.; Lactuca sativa, .Lw. ; Menyanthes trifoliata, Lin. „- 
Metroxylon sagu, Rottb. ; Morus nigra, Lin.; Rheum rhaponticum, Lin.; Rosa cen- 
tifolia, Lin. ; Salvia officinalis, Lin. ; Triticum sativum, Lin., and Vitis vinifera, Lin 



The National Dispensatory. ' By Professors Alfred Stille and J. M. Maisch. Phil- 
adelphia : Henry C. Lea, 1879 8vo, pp. 1628 Price, bound in muslin, $6.75 j, 
in leather, S7.50 Or bound in two parts, in muslin, $7.50 5 in leather, $8.50. 
This work was issued March 1st, but we regret, in consequence of an oversight, 

the gentleman who has undertaken to review it for the Journal failed to receive it 

in time for preparing a critical review for the present number ; it has been promised 

for the May number. 



O BITUA RY. 

F. L. M. Dorvault died in Paris February 16th, in the 65th year of his age- 
After having passed the examination at theecole superieure de Pharmacie, he estab- 
lished himself in Paris, and in 1852 founded the Pharmacie Centrale, of which he 
was the Director until the time of his death. He had been a contributor to several 
medical and pharmaceutical journals, and in i860 commenced the publication of a 
monthly journal, "TUnion Pharmaceutique." His most important work is "TOffl- 
cine," of which eight or nine editions have been published. The deceased was 
a corresponding member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and the recipient 
or" similar marks of esteem from numerous other scientific societies. 



Professor Dr. Franz Sonnenschein died in Berlin February 26th, after severe 
illness, in his 60th year. He was born in Cologne, became a pharmacist and located 
in Berlin as instructor in chemistry. About eight years ago he was elected to a 
professorship. He was an authority in forensic chemistry and the author of several 
works on chemistry, the most important of which is one on the detection of poisons. 



Professor George B. Wood, M.D., died in Philadelphia March 30th at the 
age of 82 years. He was connected as professor with the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy from 1822 to 1 835, occupying first the chair of chemistry, and after- 
wards that of Materia Medica. From 1835 to i860 he was a member of the 
Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, laboring for 
fifteen years as Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy, and for ten years in the 
chair of Practice of Medicine. Dr. Wood was widely known as an author, chiefly 
of medical works j but the one through which he was best known among pharm- 
acists is the United States Dispensatory, which was written in conjunction with Dr. 
Franklin Bache, and of which the first edition appeared in 1833. Through this 
work he has exerted a marked influence upon the elevation of pharmacy in the 
United States, in the history of which his name will always occupy one of the most 
prominent places. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MAY, 1879. 

AN IMPROVED DISTILLATORY APPARATUS. 

By Joseph P. Remington. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 1 5//;. 
\ Since the distillatory apparatus described and figured in the January, 
1878, number of this journal came into use, the writer has been some- 
what occupied in devising improvements aiming to increase its effi- 
ciency. 

Soon after it appeared and was introduced through a manufacturer, 
who took some pains to advertise the still and make them with some 
variation in size and styles, it became evident that a smaller apparatus, 
embodying the principles of the old form, would better serve the wants 
of most pharmacists who use distillation in many of their formulas. An 
effort was also made to reduce the cost of the still to the lowest possi- 
ble sum without injuring its usefulness or durability. 

The body of the still is of planished copper, holds about three and 
a-half gallons, is cylindrical in shape and has a double-thick copper bot- 
tom ; a glass gauge-tube is arranged on the side to show the height of 
the liquid, or at least to indicate when the liquid is at a dangerously 
low point. The method of joining the dome with body is the same as 
that heretofore employed, i. by tightly clamping the two brass rings 
together, a piece of wet twine having been placed between them. 

The dome has been entirely altered, and instead of the opening to 
permit the escape of the vapor being in the middle it is at one side 
and shaped so as to afford as little condensing surface as possible, and 
is connected with the condenser by a ground joint, slightly tapered, 
which admits of the ready union with it, and by slightly twisting when 
the condenser is inserted, all danger of its coming apart is removed 
and the necessity of using any kind of lute is thus avoided. The con- 
denser does not differ in principle from the one connected with the old 
apparatus, but its construction has been simplified and the proportions 



'5 



226 Improved Distillatory Apparatus. { Km d™J£ rm ' 

altered somewhat so that its power is increased. It has seven straight 
tubes yg-th inch in diameter and twelve inches long, surrounded by a 
planished copper cylindrical case, to which brass ends are soldered. 
There is an opening in each of these ends, in which a short piece of 
copper tubing is soldered for admitting the supply of cold water at the 
lower tube by connection with rubber tubing with the water supply, 
either the hydrant or by syphoning from a bucket or other reservoir of 
water, placed on a shelf or box suitably elevated. The exit tube at'the 
top carries off the water as it is warmed. 




Pharmaceutical Still. 



By arranging a syphon, joined to a piece of rubber tube, as shown 
in the cut, and this compressed with one of Squibb's screw pinch-cocks 
to adjust the flow of the liquid, it is possible to use this still for much 
larger quantities of fluids than three gallons (the contents of the body). 
In fact, twenty or thirty gallons, or an unlimited quantity, might be 
passed through this small still, and on account of the power of the con- 
denser, distillation effected quite as rapidly as when stills four or five 
times the size are used ordinarily. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1879. j 



Note on Minim Pipettes. 



227 



A gallon of alcohol may be recovered from weak percolate easily in 
forty minutes. 

The still may be placed in any suitable vessel containing water 
employed in the laboratory where a water bath is to be used — or for 
small operations — the smaller dish accompanying the still may be placed 
between the two brass rings, and by disconnecting the rubber tubing at 
the top of the glass gauge-tube on the side, so as to permit the steam 
from the water bath to escape, distillation at low temperatures may be 
accomplished, and it is hardly necessary to add that the still body, with 
the shallow dish so arranged, may be used as an evaporator when dis- 
tillation is not desired. 

Philadelphia, March 1st, 1879. 



NOTE ON MINIM PIPETTES. 

By Charles W. Drew, Ph.B. 
I notice in the last number of the " Journal" a paper from the pen 
of Dr. E. R. Squibb, in which he pointedly assails my right to describe 
the device which was figured and described by me in the March num- 
ber of the "Journal," and within which he asserts that "these pipettes 
and the arrangement figured are by no means new or original " with 
me. 

That the pipette was originated by me I never had any intention or 
desire to claim, and do not by any means claim in the paper to which 
he refers. Neither do I, nor did I, claim that I was the first to apply 
the principle of the syringe to any device for obviating the necessity of 
direct suction in their use. The use of the rubber nipple for filling 
the small minim pipettes and for facilitating its use as a dropper, I have 
been familiar with for some time — ever since it was brought to the 
notice of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy by Dr. Squibb and 
Prof. Remington as described in this journal for 1878, p. 314. The 
device figured by me differs considerably, not in principle, but in con- 
struction and facility of adaptation to various sizes of pipettes, from 
that of the rubber nipple ; and hence, I hold, is entitled to a separate 
description, and not at all included in the modification of Dr. Squibb. 

The device figured by me I first made for my own convenience while 
assistant to Dr. Squibb, and it had been in use by me for some little time 
before I drew the attention of Dr. Squibb to the modification, which I 



228 



About Magnifiers. 



Am. Jour. Pharnr 
May, 1879. 



did, claiming that it was original with me and recommending it as an 
improvement in certain cases over any other which I had seen — the 
rubber nipple included. Subsequently to this the modification has been 
used somewhat in the laboratory of Dr. Squibb, and I doubt not in 
other similar establishments. So far as I know and believe, that of my 
manufacture was the first upon the model figured, and that my idea of 
the device originated either from any similarly constructed, or from Dr, 
Squibb, I cannot admit. 

Having shown the device, as original, to several professional gentle- 
men, and being assured that it was to them new, I ventured to describe, 
it in the " Journal." As far as I know the right to thus describe it 
was mine, though I cannot of course state that it may not, without my 
knowledge, have been previously employed. In that case I shall very 
cheerfully waive my present claim to its originality. 

April 12, 1879. 

ABOUT MAGNIFIERS. 

By Hans M. Wilder. 

Last month I called attention to a microscope which, although cheap T 
is really a good one. I have only to add that those wishing higher 
power than one hundred diameters may buy a quarter inch French 
achromatic triplet from any respectable optician at from three to five 
dollars ; the milled heads of the instrument are large enough and the 
teeth of the rack are fine enough to permit easy focusing. The power 
will be increased to over two hundred. 

In order to use a microscope to advantage, the objects have to be 
prepared, and this can most easily be done with the aid of a hand mag- 
nifier (what the Germans call " Loupe "). As it is tedious work, and 
sometimes impossible, to hold the magnifier in one hand while preparing 
with the other, a kind of stand is desirable which permits the free use 
of both hands and relieves the eye from the excessive strain of contin- 
ually accommodating itself to the always changing focus. 

I presume that in nearly every drugstore is found a " note-detector " 
(one of those three-legged microscopes), an old prescription jile with a 
heavy foot, and probably also a pocket-lens, whether single, doublet or 
triplet. 

Take the prescription file (if provided with a hook, break that off) 
and sharpen the end to a point ; get a sound, preferably velvet, cork of 



Tullys Powder. 229 

about one inch or a little more in diameter by about as long or longer, 
push the file lengthwise through it, not through the centre but midways 
between it and the periphery ; now get hold of a brass wire of about 
one-eighth of an inch thick and ten inches long, bend one end in a loop 
large enough to easily hold the body of the " three legs " but not wide 
enough to let it slip through the other end is sharpened to a point. 
Pass the brass wire through the cork at right angle to the file and bend 
the sharp end in a right angle up. In order to strengthen the cork, 
slip two broad rubber bands over the ends, one above the wire and one 
below. The cork can now be slid along the file and the brass wire 
be shortened or lengthened without difficulty. Put the body of the 
** three legs " in the loop and the pocket-lens on the point (most of the 
new style pocket-lenses are provided with a hole somewhere through 
the handle). For use, push the cork down or up till the magnifier you 
use is focused on the object. The " detector " is easier to work with, 
owing to its large field, but as it seldom magnifies more than three 
diameters, recourse must sometimes be had to the pocket lens, the mag- 
nifying of which varies from five to about fifteen times, according to size 
and number of lenses. Further, get hold of two sewing needles, insert 
one head down into a wooden penholder, the other point down. The 
latter with the blunt end serves to keep the object steady, while with 
the first one the tearing and separating is done. 

Easier still : find a crack in the table or counter, stick into it a match 
and having on the match the above-mentined pocket-magnifier. A 
match is generally about large enough to pass, with some friction, 
through the hole in the magnifier, so that the latter can easily be kept 
at any desired height above the table. 

The above is nothing new, but only an improvement of a stand 
described in nearly all books on the use of the microscope. 



TULLY S POWDER. 

New Haven, Ct., April 9th, 1879- 
Editor Journal of Pharmacy : 

Noticing in your "Journal" for this month several formulas ror 
Tully's Dover Powder, and having prepared it many years for Prof, 
Wm. Tully, for his own use and for his prescriptions, I herewith send 
the formula, which you will see agrees with neither of those published. 



Aro Jour. Pharm 

May, 1879. 



2 3 



Tully's Powder. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1879. 



R Morphia? sulph., . . . . gr. i 

Cretas Praeperat, 

Rad. glycyrrh. pulv., .... 
Camphor pulv., . . M 31 

M. ft. pulv. 

This is the formula adopted by the Connecticut Pharmaceutical 
Association, any variation from which should have an affix of improved 
or an attachment of So-and-so's make. 

In an acquaintance of fifteen to twenty years with Prof. Tully I 
never knew of his varying from this. 

A. F. Wood, Pharmacist. 



Hinsdale, Mass., April 8th, 1879. 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir — The formulae of " Tully's Powder," as given in his 
(Tully's) " Materia Medica," Vol. 1, Part 2, page 1260, I quote: 

" I then contrived a substitute for Dover's Powder, in ten grains of 
which there was one grain qf opium and three grains of camphor, the 
remainder being a mixture of equal parts of the root of Glycyrrhiz<t 
glabra and prepared soft carbonate of calcium. The last two ingredients 
were added to prevent the other two from concreting into minute 
masses, to render the camphor less volatile, to cover the taste of the 
opium, and to give the whole such a bulk as would allow it to be 
divided into suitable doses for small children. After the salts of the 
oxide of morphinum became sufficiently common, I substituted a sixth 
of a grain of the sulphate for the grain of opium in this preparation, 
which nbw constitutes a far more eligible preparation than the old 
Dover's Powder." • 

The above being Prof. Tully's own language, consequently is autho- 
rity for "Tully's Powder"; any variation from the above, of course, is- 
not Tully's. In this section of the country we use : 

U Morphia sulphate, .... part 1 

Powd. camphor, .... 
Powd. liquorice root, .... 
English precipitated chalk, . . of each parts 20 

M. 

G. B. Plummer. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1879. ) 



Chemical Notes. 



231 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. S. P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry.— E. Schering, the chemical manufacturer or 
Berlin, makes the following comments upon the manufacture of potas- 
sium iodide : The three methods in actual use are: (1) Decompo- 
sition of barium iodide (obtained from barium sulphide and iodine) with 
potassium sulphate. (2) Introduction of iodine into caustic potassa ; 
evaporation to dryness and fusion with carbon in order to reduce iodate. 
(3) Decomposition of ferroso-ferric iodide with potassium carbonate. 
Satisfactory results can be obtained by any of these methods, and the 
choice must be determined by local considerations. 

In method No. I, the preparation of a barium sulphide of high and 
regular strength is not unattended with nuisance, and the lixiviation of 
the barium sulphate requires much time. On the other hand, potassium 
sulphate can be obtained cheaper and purer than the corresponding car- 
bonate, whilst the barium sulphate can be readily utilized for the repro- 
duction of sulphide. 

Method No. 2 obviates the necessity for washing a precipitate, and 
yields at once a very strong solution of potassium iodide ; but the prep- 
aration of pure caustic potassa, and the concentration and subsequent 
fusion are circumstantial and tedious. The author therefore prefers 
the third method, as ferroso-ferric iodide is easily prepared, and the car- 
bonate of iron is readily washed. 

To obtain cubic crystals of a porcelain-like appearance it is essen- 
tial, in the first method, to ensure the complete decomposition of the 
barium sulphide by the iodine ; if alkaline sulphides are mixed with the 
potassium iodide the crystals are paltry. If the lye contains iron sul- 
phide, which is soluble in hot and concentrated potassium iodide, the 
crystals take a blue appearance. An excess of iodine dissolves foreign 
metals present in the barium sulphide, and the crystals may then be 
discolored. In the case of the second method, irregularity in melting 
may produce iodic acid, and a caustic potassa not free from sulphates 
causes the presence in the lye of alkaline sulphide. Both these injurious 
impurities must be removed prior to crystallizing. 

In the third method these annoyances are excluded. Salts of sodium 
must in all cases be avoided. Some manufacturers, to avoid the pres- 
ence of sulphides, leave purposely a trace of iodate in the lye. The 
result is that the crystals turn yellow. The presence of lead in the 



I 



23 z Chemical Notes. { Km ^ r t \!^ rm 

iodine is exceedingly objectionable. This metal is soluble in concen- 
trated potassium iodate, and cannot be precipitated by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, except after great dilution. If not removed, lead affects not 
merely the color, but the forms of the cry stals. 

No demonstrable trace of potassium carbonate is admissible, either 
for medical or photographic purposes. Potassium iodide, therefore, 
should be unaffected by salts of barium. The perfect absence of chlo- 
rine can never be attained, as even the best sample of iodine, as well 
as of pctassium carbonate, contains traces of this impurity. 

Chilian iodine, obtained from soda-saltpetre, is becoming a formidable 
rival to the European product, which cannot be offered at a reduced 
figure, as the manufacturers have lost their market for potassium chlo- 
ride in consequence of the rivalry of the Stassfurt mines. Chilian 
iodine is met with in commerce either as a paste or as copper iodide. — 
Chemical News, March.21, 1879, from Chemische Industrie. 

Although much study has been given to the action of chlorine upon 
calcium-hydrate, very little attention has been paid to the action of 
chlorine upon barium or strontium hydrate. J. Konigel-Weisberg has 
studied this action in the case of barium hydrate, and gives the follow- 
ing as his results : 

1. Barium hydrate, Ba0 2 H 2 , does not absorb chlorine. This 
absorption depends upon the presence of an excess of water ; the more 
water the more chlorine absorbed, and this continues until all, or nearly 
all, the barium oxide contained in the substance is saturated with chlo- 
rine, reckoning two atoms of chlorine to one molecule of BaO. 

2. By the action of chlorine is formed most probably a hypochlorite 
along with the chloride, but the barium hypochlorite decomposes at 
once into a chlorate and chloride, so that in the product finally obtained 
very small amounts only of hypochlorites can be found, while almost 
the ent>re chlorine percentage is present in the form of chloride and 
chlorate. The reaction can therefore be expressed in the way usual 
for the action of chlorine upon the alkalies: 6BaO-|- 1 2Cl=5BaCl 2 -|- 
Ba(C10 3 ) 2 . — Berichte der Chem. Gesells., xii, p. 346. 

Following upon the method suggested by J. W. Briihl (this journal, 
p. 188, 1879) for the purification of mercury, we have another by Lothar 
Meyer, which he claims involves less loss of mercury. It is to allow 
the impure mercury to fall in a fine stream into a tall tube containing a 
moderately dilute solution of commercial ferric chloride. The lower 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 

May, 1879. j 



Chemical Notes. 



*33 



end of this tube dips into a glass jar provided with a side tubulure for 
the escape of the purified mercury. The dimensions of this jar must 
be such that the mercury standing in it shall counterbalance the higher 
column of ferric chloride solution in the inner narrow tube. The 
mercury flows out of the side tubulure of the wider jar purified and 
dry. A single repetition of the treatment may be necessary if the 
mercury was very impure. — Berichte der Chem. Gesells., xii, p. 437. 

Organic Chemistry. — A French chemist, Forcraud, who with the 
aid of silver-ultramarine had already prepared the ultramarines of dif- 
ferent metals, has succeeded in preparing organic ultramarines containing 
the alcohol radicles in the place of the silver. Ethyl-ultramaiine thus 
prepared forms a gray powder, which when heated decomposes readily 
with evolution of ethyl-sulphide, and which when heated with chloride 
of sodium changes into the ordinary blue ultramarine. — Berichte der 
Chem. Gesells.. xii, p. 376, from Comptes Rendus. 

Chinolin, C 9 H 7 N, is an artificial alkaloid prepared by the destructive 
distillation of quinia, cinchonia with potassium hydrate. Its synthesis 
has just been effected by W. Koenigs, thus bringing us a step nearer 
that future possibility, the artificial production of the cinchona alka- 
loids. Ally 1 anilin is passed over oxide of lead, which has been heated 
to a faint red glow. An oily distillate is thus obtained, possessing the 
odor of benzonitrile. This is treated with dilute sulphuric acid and 
filtered from difficultly soluble anilin salts, shaken up with ether, and 
treated with solution of potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid until 
no further change takes place. The filtrate is made alkaline and dis- 
tilled in a current of steam, when the chinolin comes over with the 
first drops of water. — Berichte der Chem. Gesells., xii, p. 453. 

H. Weidel has studied the oxydation products of berberina, and 
describes an acid formed by the action of nitric acid upon the alkaloid, 
which acid he calls berberonic acid. It is obtained in the form of hard, 
nearly colorless prisms, of a glassy lustre, difficultly soluble in cold, 
easily soluble in hot water. Analyses of the purified crystals dried at 
iio°C. yield results corresponding to the formula C 8 H 5 N0 6 ; dried in 
the air, the crystals contain two molecules of water of crystallization. 
A characteristic reaction for berberonic acid is the deep red color, with 
a slight blueish shade, that its aqueous solutions show on the addition of 
sulphate of iron. This reaction, however, is shared by oxycinchom- , 
eronic and pyridendicarbonic acids. If the lime salt of berberonic acid 



234 Apocynum Cannabinum. 

be submitted to dry distillation with an excess of caustic lime, strongly 
alkaline fumes, possessing the peculiar odor of Dippel's oil, are pro- 
duced. The distillate on rectification gave a product possessing all the 
properties of pyridin, and on analysis it proved to be this base. The 
reaction appears to be C 8 H 5 N0 6 (berberonic acid) =3C0 2 + C 5 H 5 N 
(pyridin). The author proposes to follow up this work by a study of 
the pyridin bases which result so constantly from the decomposition 
of the alkaloids. — Berichte der Cbem. Gesells., xii, p. 410. 

Two Eng'ish chemists, J. J. Dobbie and W. Ramsey, have been 
studying the decomposition products of quinia and the accompanying 
alkaloids, and have gotten results very analogous to those of Weidel 
just mentioned. Quinidia, cinchonia and cinchonidia yield, on oxidation^ 
with potassium permanganate, acids which appear identical in all 
respects, and on analysis prove to be tricarbopyridinic acid, C 8 H 5 N0 6 -j- 
iJH 2 0. The authors conclude that the cinchona alkaloids bear a very 
close relation to the pyridin bases. — Ber. der Cbem. Gesells., xii, p. 392. 

The composition of the milk , from the brosimum galactodendron has 
been investigated by Boussingauit (" Comptes Rend.," 86, p. 277). The 
juice obtained from incisions in the bark of brosimum galactodendron, a tree 
growing in Venezuela, contains, like animal milk, a fatty substance, a 
saccharine body, casein, albumin and phosphates. The fatty body 
resembles very much beeswax, fuses at 50°C, is partly saponifiable^ 
easily soluble in ether, but difficultly soluble in alcohol. The per- 
centage composition of the milk is very varying. — Berlchte der Chem„ 
Gesells., xii, p. 374. 

APOCYNUM CANNABINUM, 1 PRECIPITATE from TINC- 
TURE AND FLUID EXTRACT. 

By J. U Lloyd. 

The root of this plant yields a very bitter tincture or fluid extract^ 
darker colored when made from the dry than fresh, whether the men- 
struum be alcohol or mixtures of alcohol and water. When a tincture 
or fluid extract of this root is permitted to remain quietly a white sub- 

1 It is the current impression that the Apocynum root of commerce (bitter-root, 
common name) is A. androsaemifolium. This I find generally incorrect as applied 
to the drug furnished from Cincinnati, although both species may be gathered pro- 
miscuously where A. androsaemifolium abounds, which is not the case in this section, 
although said to be local to some places near. During the last season, I compelled 



}A.m. Jour. Pharos 
May, 1879. 



Am - ] v{^' I f 7 h 9 arm -} Apocynum Cannabinum. 235 

stance separates, and is deposited upon the bottom of the vessel, and 
that portion exposed to light as the bottle ordinarily stands upon the 
shelf. This peculiar appearing substance attracted my attention a few 
years ago, and thus led to a more careful investigation, and the phe- 
nomena accompanying its formation in a series of experiments upon 
Apocynum cannabinum carried on during the preceding six months 
(Oct., 1878, inclusive, to April, 1879). 

The precipitate formed fastest during cold weather, and I obtained 
the substance in considerable amount. It appears in little aggregations 
which increase regularly, each radiating from a central point, appearing 
like aggregations of minute crystals until close examination shows them 
to be destitute of any crystalline form. I can compare them to the 
warty aggregations which deposit from tinctures of other plants, appar- 
ently systematically formed, and yet devoid of mathematical structure. 
Tincture of the fungus white agaric (made with alcohol) is particularly 
prone to deposit a yellow resinous sediment, of formation like that from 
Apocynum cannabinum, depositing itself upon the part of the bottle 
ordinarily exposed to light, and upon the bottom. 

Upon close examination, interspersed throughout the afore-mentioned 
white substance, I found numbers of transparent crystals, some obtained 
from a 10-gallon keg being quite large. These belonged undoubtedly 
to the monoclinic system, and were simple crystals (OP, 00 P,oo P 00). 1 
When purified from adhering impurities they dissolve freely in water,, 
are insoluble in chloroform and ether, almost insoluble in cold alcohol 
and slightly in hot ; cold sulphuric acid chars them upon standing and 
is colored dark red. Fehling's solution retains its blue color when 
boiled with a crystal, and there is no red precipitate. They are very 
sweet, and the foregoing, in connection with crystalline form and other 
tests, convince me they are cane sugar. 

The associated white precipitate dissolves freely in chloroform, there- 
fore to purify it from sugar and foreign matters the dried precipitate was 

the diggers to bring specimens of the herb, and in all instances A can. was fur- 
nished. My brother was compelled to supply his herbarium with A. androsaemi- 
folium from abroad. Recently, by request, I sent Mr. Chas. Mohr, of Mobile, 
Ala., some specimens, and selected them promiscuously from 2,000 pounds in our 
ware-rooms. Mr. Mohr afterward wrote that undoubtedly they were A. cannabinum. 

^gleston's Diagrams, plate xxxii, fig. 11, and Roscoe and Schorlemmer "Trea- 
tise on Chemistry," vol. i, p. 736, fig. 333. 



236 Apocynum Cannabinum. } ^ii™*^ 

dissolved in chloroform, filtered and the filtrate evaporated to dryness. 
The residuum was dissolved in boiling alcohol, and the solution poured 
mto ice cold water with constant stirring, whereby the material was 
obtained in the form of a light porous body, which readily dried when 
exposed to the atmosphere. 

Thus we find a white, tasteless inodorous powder, insoluble in water, 
bu! freely soluble in carbon disulphide, benzin, chloroform and sul- 
phuric ether; soluble in hot alcohol, slightly in cold; glacial acetic acid 
dissolves it to an extent; hydrochloric acid changes it after some hours 
to a grey color; sulphuric acid dissolves it with decomposition and effer- 
vescense, the solution being of a dark brown color, with that peculiar 
greenish fluorescent hue possessed by crude petroleum, which to appear- 
ances it nearly resembled. When the foregoing was mixed with water, 
a black oleaginous substance with the odor of coal tar appeared upon 
The surface, the underlaying liquid having a rose tint. 

Cold nitric acid appears not to affect it, but in time the acid turns 
yellow, as does the material which liquefies. When boiled in contact 
with nitric acid decomposition ensues, and nitric oxide is copiously gen- 
erated. The liquid turns yellow and dissolves the larger part of the 
organic matter present. Water added to this solution causes a floccu- 
lent precipitate, white when recent, yellow when washed and dried. 

If anv wish to investigate the matter, I will furnish by mail a sufficient 
amount of the precipitate 1 have purified. The subject may be of interest 
to such as are studying the elementary constituents of vegatable princi- 
ples. This article is interesting to pharmacists, inasmuch as the precipitate 
may make trouble by separating from tinctures. Worthless materials 
are only a burden to fluid extracts, and sometimes we wonder if a pre- 
cipitate is valuable. In this instance I feel that the material can be 
safely separated, as both the white resinous or waxy substance and the 
sugar are valueless. Tinctures from which both articles have been 
separated give with physicians the best of satisfaction, while in case of 
the deposition of peculiar white matter within a bottle after its recep- 
tion by the consumer distrust is natural. 

It was mentioned that the deposition of matter occurred upon those 
portions of the bottles that were exposed to the light, and upon the 
bottom. The entire front part of the bottles, as they naturally stood 
upon the shelves, was covered with a considerable layer of matter, 
while the portion behind was free from precipitate. 



Am Ma"x8 7 9 arm } Poisonous Species of Astragalus. ' 237 

This lead me to experiment upon the subject, although it certainly- 
seemed natural to accept without question a general conclusion. [ 
believe in similar cases that light influences the change. 

The experiments instituted for the purpose of testing the accuracy 
of the light hypothesis contradict it most positively. In similar inves- 
tigations with other substances, I have been compelled to admit that 
light has little if any influence. So with this; the light as a coincidence 
only happens to strike upon the portion of the vessel where, under 
natural laws which govern the deposition of this substance, the pre- 
cipitate will form. 

This article is not intended as an argument upon Nature's laws and 
the phenomena which accompany, however interesting they may be; 
therefore, I will not consume time with the experiments. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, April 15th, 1879. 



POISONOUS SPECIES OF ASTRAGALUS. 

By John M. Maisch. 

The April number of the " Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal" 
contains a paper by D. H. Gibbons, Sr., on the "Poisonous Effects of 
Crotalaria — vulgo Rattle Weed, Loco Weed " — in which the effects of 
the plant on horses and sheep are described. These are indicated to 
some extent by the name (loco weed) given to the plant by the native 
population, the term loco indicating insanity or madness. The plant 
in question is described as follows : 

" The plant grows abundantly in almost all parts of California, and 
may be easily distinguished by its bunches of inflated seed vessels, each 
of which is an oval bladder about an inch in length, or about the size 
of a chestnut. The seeds occupy but a small portion of the bladder, 
and when the clusters are trodden on there is quite an explosion. The 
plant mostly has flowers and full-grown seed-pods at the same time, 
and continues in bloom from spring to autumn. It grows from one to 
three feet high, and is commonly much branched from the root. The 
flowers are white, or greenish-white, and in long, erect racemes. The 
leaves are pinnate and rather handsome." 

The botanical name of the plant is not given, but since the descrip- 
tion of the seed vessels corresponds with the general appearance of the 
inflated legumes of the genus Crotalaria^ it was at first supposed that 



2 j 8 . Poisonous Species of Astragalus. { 

the California rattle weed might probably belong to it. Of this genus, 
DeCandolle's Prodromus enumerates 130 species, which are chiefly 
found in the tropical and subtropical regions of both the eastern and 
western hemispheres. Several East Indian species, like Crotalaria 
quinquefolia, retusa, verrucosa, Lin., and others are reported as possessing 
emetic properties, the bitter tasting leaves being usually employed. One 
species, Crotalaria sagittalis, Lin., is found in barren sandy soil through- 
out the greater part of the United States from the Atlantic to the Mis- 
sissippi ; and two other somewhat larger species, C. ovalis, Pursh, and 
C. Purshii, D. C, grow in similar localities from North and South 
Carolina to Florida. All three are commonly known as rattle-box, and 
appear to be confined to the North American continent ; at least neither 
of them is mentioned among the 15 species which Grisebach enumer- 
ates as being indigenous and naturalized in the British West Indian 
Islands. Several species of Crotalaria are natives of Mexico, but none 
is found in California. The rattle-weed of that State belongs to the 
genus Astragalus, of which Prof. A. Gray says that in California the 
species have the reputation of being poisonous to sheep, which would 
be most unexpected were it not that several Papilionaceae of Australia 
are known to be so. 

Astragalus crotalarise, Gray. — This is most likely Dr. Gibbons' 
plant, and is described in the " Botany of California," vol. i., 
p. 149, as follows: "Glabrous or slightly pubescent, or the young 
parts sometimes villous ; stems erect or nearly so, two or three 
feet high, usually stout ; leaflets from oblong-linear to obovate oval, 
or slightly obcordate, thickish (from a quarter to a full inch long) j 
stipules triangular and distinct ; calyx-teeth subulate, about half 
the length of the short campanulate tube ; corolla white ; pod of 
rather parchment-like texture, but much inflated, ovoid, an inch to an 
inch and a half in length. Far. Virgatus, Gray. — Stipules more subu- 
late, racemes virgate and loose, four to ten inches long ; calyx-teeth 
subulate-setaceous and longer. Hills and plains from around San 
Francisco Bay to Santa Barbara, Cal., the variety about San Francisco 
Bay." 

It belongs to the sub-genus Pbaca which has a one-celled pod, and 
to the section inflati the legume being inflated. 

Astragalus mollissimus, Torr. — Through the kindness of Dr. 



A ™M°y r ,'J 7 h 9 * rm } Poisonous Species of Astragalus. 239 

Wm. Neergaard, of New York, I obtained some time ago the root, 
leaves and seed pods of a plant from the Indian Territory, in regard to 
which the following information was given : " The plant is among the 
first to make its appearance in the spring, and is anxiously sought after 
by the Indian ponies and horses. They will dig into the earth for it, 
and after eating it they become intoxicated and excited and seek water, 
which they drink with avidity, when they begin to swell, soon fall over 
and rarely live to get away from the water, not being able after they 
have drunk to rise to their feet again." Although the specimen had 
suffered much while passing through the mail, and flowers had not been 
sent, it could be referred to the natural order of Leguminosae, and by 
the peculiar legume was traced to the genus Astragalus. 

The Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
vol. vi, contain an excellent paper, by Professor Asa Gray, entitled "A 
revision and arrangement (mainly by the fruit) of the North American 
species of Astragalus and Oxytropis," in which he unites the genus 
Phaca as a subgenus or division of Astragalus, describing altogether 
108 species, 56 of which belong to the former and 52 to Astragalus 
proper, which is characterized by the partly or completely two-celled 
legume, resulting from a septum and the inflexion of one or both sutures. 
Of the 16 sections of the last mentioned division, the plant in question 
belongs to section 4, mollissimi, and is thus characterized by Gray 1 : " Le- 
gume cartilaginous or coriaceous, sessile, oblong, turgid, not compressed, 
more or less sulcate at both sutures, by the perfect septum two-celled, 
at length incurved. With a perennial caudex, subacaulescent, glossy, 
with a soft, silky, often yellow, pubescence ; peduncles scape-like, long ; 
spikes dense ; flowers rather large, violet ; calyx tubular." 

The plant has lanceolate stipules cohering below the petiole, and 
leaves with 11 to 14 pairs of ovate-oblong or oval, obtuse but slightly 
mucronate leaflets ; its pods are about one-half inch long and smooth. 
It is widely distributed west of the Mississippi, and has been found 
from Nebraska to Western Texas ; it is rare in Colorado, and is not 
mentioned as occurring in California. 

3 Legumen cartilagineum vel coriaceum, estipitatum, oblongum, turgidum, nec 
compressum nec obcompressum, ad suturas utrasque pi. m. sulcatum, septo perfecto 
bilocellatum, demum incurvum. E caudice perenni subacaules, villo seiiceo molli 
(saepius fulvo vel aurato) splendentes j pedunculis scapiformibus elongatis. Spicae 
densiflorae. Flores inter majores, violacei ; calyce tubuloso. 



240 Poisonous Species of Astragalus. { Am ^ 1 f^ ra " 

The order of leguminosae, which contains a very large number of 
plants, indigenous to all parts of the world, yields many edible and other 
useful products ; but that some leguminous plants, like Citysus laburnum, 
Lin., Tephrosia toxharii, Pers., Piscidia erythrind, Jacq , and others, 
possess more or less poisonous properties has been known for a long 
time. More recently Pbysostigma venenosum, Balf., Sophora speciosa, 
Benth., and others, have been added to the list. But the genus 
Astragalus, although a very extensive one, and comprising several 
hundred species, appears to have attracted very little attention for 
medicinal use. The product of the shrubby astragali of the Levant, 
gum tragacanth, is universally known and employed. Astr. glycyphyllos , 
Lin., of Europe and Northern Asia, the leaves of which have a rather 
unpleasant sweet taste, formerly enjoyed some reputation as a diuretic, 
Ast. exscapus, Lin., a native of Central Europe, has a mucilaginous, 
mildly astringent and somewhat bitter root, which was formerly 
employed in syphilitic complaints. The seeds of Ast. baeticus, Lin.,, 
which is found in Southern and Middle Europe, have been to some 
extent used as a substitute for coffee ; they were examined by Tromms- 
dorff (1824) and the root of the preceding species by Fleurot (1833)}. 
but in both cases only the common constituents of vegetables were 
found. 

There are about 12 species of Astragalus found in the United States 
east of the Mississippi, and 100 or more westward to the Pacific coast,. 
The eastern species are popularly known as milkvetch, and as far as I 
could ascertain are nowhere employed for medicinal or domestic purposes;, 
and since not a single species is enumerated in the interesting paper by 
Dr. E. Palmer ("Am Jour. Phar.," 1878, p. 539) as being used by the 
Indians, it is to be presumed that no use has been found for the western 
astragali. From the accounts given above, however, it would seem 
that they deserve attention, at least so far as very active and even 
deleterious effects have been noticed from a few species of a large genus, 
which seems to produce mostly plants of little or no importance in a 
medicinal point of view. 



Am. Jour. Pharir. ) 
May, 1879. J 



A r alia Papyrifera. 



241 



ARALIA PAPYRIFERA, Hooker. 

Philadelphia, April 14th, 1879. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy. 

In the article on Aralia, by Thomas Moore, in the " Treasury of 
Botany," is the following account of the rice paper plant : "The rice 
paper plant of China has been referred to this genus by Sir W. J. 
Hooker, under the name of A. papyrifera. This plant grows in the 
deep swampy forests of the Island of Formosa, and apparently there 
only, forming a small tree, branching in the upper part, the younger 
portions of the stem, together with the leaves, covered with copious 
yellow down. The full-grown leaves are sometimes a foot long, 
cordate, five to seven-lobed, of a soft and flaccid texture. The panicles 
of flowers come from the extremeties of the stem and branches, rising 
above them, and then becoming pendulous, one to three feet long, bear- 
ing numerous capitate umbels of small greenish flowers. The stems 
are filled with pith of very fine texture, and white as snow, which when 
cut, forms the article known as rice paper." 

The results of the investigations of Dr. Hooker, in regard to this 
subject, are recorded in his " Journal of Botany " in the volumes for 
1850, p. 27; 1852, pp. 50 and 347 ; 1.853, p. 79> and l8 55> P- 280. 
The volume for 1852 contains a plate giving representations of the leaf, 
root and stem, with the cylinders of pith entire, and cut vertically to 
exhibit the septa. The writer states that " The root is thick and fusi- 
form, slightly divided, equally woody with the stem. Our representa- 
tion of that is taken from the lower part of a dead plant, cut through 
transversely and vertically. Our larger stems exhibit the same charac- 
ters. A section exhibits a moderately thick bark, a thicker circle of 
pale wood ; within, the tube is occupied by the white pith descending 
to the root. In the thicker stems the pith readily separates from the 
wood, with a rather rusty colored furrowed coat, which seems to take 
this character from so many ridges on the inside of the wood. Among 
our numerous samples of the pith, freed from the external coating, and 
cut into perfect cylinders, some are uniform or solid, while others are 
furnished with cavities, divided into compartments by entire or more or 
less ragged septa. The comparatively high cost of the large sheets 
proves that the pith does not in general attain a great diameter. The 
largest specimens of the pith sent to the Kew Museum measured twenty- 

j6 



242 



Aralia Papyri/era. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1879. 



six inches in length, and the thickest was rather more than six inches 
in girth." 

Up to 1855 none of the living plants that had been sent to the Kew 
Museum had borne flowers, and the description of these was derived 
from plants under cultivation in the Governor's garden at Hong Kong. 




Aralia Papyrifera. 
Root and part of stem, cut vertically ; pith, entire, and cut vertically. 



By comparing the accompanying specimens of the pith, which I pro- 
cured in Formosa in 1868, with the copy of this part of the plant, taken 
from " Hooker's Journal," 1 it will be evident that they were really 
derived from the plant described by Hooker. The smaller one is still 
covered by the corrugated envelope referred to above, while the larger 
one has been deprived of this covering and cut into the cylindrical form, 
in which shape it appears to be always sent to the artists who cut it 
into sheets. As the largest cylinders have a diameter of more than two 
inches, and as some of them are solid, it will be seen that sheets even 

1 The above figures have been reduced to one-half the original size. 



/ 



Am. Tour. Pharm 
May, 1879. 



Insect Powder. 



2 43 



larger than those in the accompanying book could be made from this 
pith. 2 

The pith of the Aeschynomene paludosa (asp era), which somewhat 
resembles that of the Aralia papyr'ifera, is used in the East Indies for 
making floats, light hats, etc.; and still another plant, the Sccevola taccada, 
which furnishes a pith having an almost identical appearance, even under 
the microscope, with the rice paper pith, is also employed in the Malay 
Archipelago, for making artificial flowers and small figures. It is distin- 
guished, however, from the A. papyrifera by the smaller size of its cyl- 
inders, which never exceed T 7 ^ of an inch in diameter, and also by the fact 
that the cylinder of pith becomes more slender as the stem ages and 
thickens. Very truly yours, 

F. V. Greene, M.D. 



INSECT POWDER. 

By William Saunders. 

Reprint from the Canadian Entomologist , March. Communicated by the author. 

The insect powders of commerce are the powdered flowers of dif- 
ferent species of Pyrethrum. Those of Pyrethrum carneum and roseum 
were introduced some thirty years ago under the name of Persian Insect 
Powder, and subsequently those of Pyrethrum cinerariafolium, a native 
•of Dalmatia, Austria, as Dalmatian Insect Powder. Both the Persian 
and Dalmatian powders are good insecticides, but the latter is much the 
more energetic in its action and hence commands a higher price ; 
indeed, it is so much preferred that it is gradually driving the so-called 
Persian powder out of the market. The fact of the flowers of P. 
roseum being less active than those of P. cinerariafolium, has been 
accounted for on the ground that the single flowers are much more pow- 
erful than the double ones, and that the double flowers occur in P. roseum 
in much larger proportion than in the other species. The flowers, 
either whole or powdered, preserve their activity for a long period. A 
recent European experimenter states that he could not perceive any 
particular loss of activity in samples which had been kept for six years. 
The fresh (undried) flowers act very slowly as compared with the same 
dried and powdered, and the plant itself powdered is quite inactive. It 

2 It is stated that the parings of the pith, or perhaps of the root, are employed in 
China, in the form of infusion, for their supposed diuretic properties. 



2 4 4 



Insect Powder. 



Am. Jour. Pharnn 

May, 1879. 



is singular that while there are many other composite plants closely- 
related to the genus Pyrethrum, as yet this peculiar property has been 
found only in plants belonging to this genus, and even within this limit 
there are several species whose value as insecticides is very slight. A 
large number of Composite indigenous to Austria have been tested and 
found to be of no value in this respect. The flowers of Tansy 
{Tanacetum vulgare) are said to have a slight stupefying effect. 

The Pyrethrums are hardy plants which bloom abundantly the second 
year from seed. The powder is prepared from the half-opened flowers 
gathered during dry weather and dried in the shade under cover, but 
the process of gathering, drying and preparing involves so much time 
that their culture can only be made profitable where labor is cheap. 

Insect powders have not attracted general attention as insecticides- 
until within the last three or four years, during which time they have 
been introduced in various forms in packages and boxes, accompanied 
by suitable blowers or insect guns for the purpose of properly distrib- 
uting the powder, and recommended for the destruction of flies, cock- 
roaches, fleas, bugs, etc. Sometimes these prepared articles have been 
artificially colored so as to disguise their source, but all have owed their 
activity solely to the presence of the powdered flowers of one or other of 
these Pyrethrums. 

House flies are very sensitive to the effects of these powders. A few 
puffs of the dust from an insect gun, blown into the air of a room with 
the doors closed, the discharges directed towards those parts where flies 
are congregated, will stupefy and kill them within a very short time. 
The powder is somewhat pungent, and to breathe an atmosphere 
charged with it will frequently cause a slight sneezing, but beyond this 
the operator need not anticipate any annoyance. Frequently during the 
past summer, when flies have been troublesome, we have pretty thor- 
oughly charged the air in our dining-room and kitchen at night, closing 
the doors, and in the morning found all, or nearly all, the flies lying 
dead on the floors. A few minutes after its use they begin to drop on 
their backs, and after a very short time die ; if a room be closed for 
half an hour after using the powder, few, if any, will escape. By some 
this energetic action has been attributed to the presence of a volatile oil 
in the flowers, by other and later investigators to a peculiar crystalline 
principle believed to be an alkaloid, but this point does not as yet seem- 
to be fully settled. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1879. j 



Insect Powder. 



^45 



More recently we have been experimenting with this powder on the 
green Aphis which troubles our green-house plants. The usual plan of 
smoking with tobacco is an unpleasant remedy, and is also very injurious 
to many plants of delicate constitution, whereas the insect powder used 
to any extent is perfectly harmless to plant-life. After freely charging 
the air of a green house with the powder, blowing it in fine clouds of 
dust among the plants, the tiny tormentors who are busily engaged in 
sucking the life out of the leaves and tender shoots, soon manifest 
symptoms of uneasiness and begin to drop from the plants to the ground, 
and in the course of an hour or two the larger portion of the enemy's 
forces will be found lying sprawling on the earth in the pots or on the 
shelves and floor of the house, where, probably partly from the stupe- 
fying effects of the powder and partly from their natural inability to find 
their way to any given point, they fail to reach the plants again and 
hence perish. By applying the powder freely in the evening and giving 
the plants a thorough syringing in the morning, they may in the worst 
cases be almost freed from Aphides by a single application; it is better, 
however, to repeat its use the next evening, so as to make sure work. 
The powder does not appear to kill this Aphis as it does the flies. For 
the purpose of testing this point we placed a number of them in an 
open glass cell of a microscope slide and powdered them thoroughly, 
and found some of them alive after two days of such severe exposure 
to its influence. Having recently found a plant literally swarming with 
the green Aphis, so that the sight of it was almost disgusting, we sub- 
mitted it to the action of this powder one afternoon, having previously 
spread a large piece of white paper under the plant so that the effect of 
the powder on the insects might be distinctly seen. Almost immediately 
they began to fall on the paper, and in less than ten minutes a hundred 
or more of them were lying on their backs or crawling sluggishly about. 
In the course of half an hour some four or five hundred had fallen on 
the paper, and when the plant was examined again the following morn- 
ing, there remained but very few on it, and most of these were removed 
by a slight syringing. We have had the powder used in green-houses 
by some of our friends, who also report its success. The matter is 
well worthy the attention of all those who indulge in window gardening 
or who grow plants in small conservatories attached to dwellings, since 
if this proves an efficient and economical substitute for tobacco smoke, 
it will save much annoyance and some loss. Success will necessarily 



246 Experiments with Pyre thrum Roseum. {^M°y r t 'J^ rm " 

depend on the quality of the material used, but after the experiments 
we have tried, we feel confident that with good Dalmatian powder 
there need be no failure. It will be interesting to learn as opportunity 
offers how moths and other insects will be affected by the use of insect 
powders. If the beautiful specimens which sometimes fly into our 
rooms at night can be drugged in this way and captured without a 
struggle, we may add many a perfect specimen to our collections which 
would otherwise be more or less defaced. There is quite a field for 
experiment here. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH PYRETHREUM ROSEUM IN 
KILLING INSETCS. 

By W. L. Carpenter, U.S.A. 
In the August number of the "American Naturalist " appeared an arti- 
cle on the carpet-beetle, by J. A. Lintner, in which the statement was 
made, as nearly as I can now remember, that " although he had never 
used Pyrethreum roseum as an insect exterminator, he had no doubt 
that it would prove unavailing if applied to the destruction of the 
Antlirenusy As it seemed unfair to condemn without a trial what is 
generally regarded as a useful insect poison, I resolved to test it experi- 
mentally, and now present the result of several trials with different 
orders of insects. 

The insects were placed under a tumbler, which was slightly raised 
to admit fresh air, and a small quantity of the Pyrethreum roseum, or 
Persian Insect Powder of commerce, introduced on the point of a pen- 
knife. The movements of the insects brought them in contact with 
the powder, which readily adhered to the body ; in attempting to 
remove it from their appendages, a few particles would be carried to the 
mouth and thus incorporated in the juices of the stomach with fatal 
effect. 

A honey-bee became perfectly helpless in fifteen minutes, a mud- 
wasp in eight minutes, a small species of ant in five minutes ; a small 
species of Pyralidce became helpless in twenty minutes ; the large 
Papilio asterias resisted the effects of the drug for over one hour, and on- 
being released seemed to recover, but died next day. A larva of one 
of the Noctucelita: did not seem susceptible ; its jaws were repeatedly 
filled with the powder, which it invariably ejected by throwing out its 
juices ; at the end of two hours it was still able to crawl feebly. A. 



Am Ma y, r i8 P 7 9 arm ' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 247 

house-fly became helpless in ten minutes, a mosquito in fifteen minutes, 
a flea in three minutes. 

In experimenting upon the Coleoptera, an insect as nearly the size of 
the carpet-beetle as could be found was secured in Diabrotica duodecim- 
punctata, an abundant species here. It was easily affected, and became 
helpless in twelve minutes. A small pinch placed in the jaws of a 
large Carabus stopped locomotion in thirty minutes. The Hem'iptera, 
owing to their peculiarly shaped mouths, were enabled to vigorously 
resist the baleful influence. A species of Coreus was active at the end of 
two hours, but was ultimately overcome. A large-sized katydid was 
deprived of motion at the end of ten minutes ; Caloptenus spretus like- 
wise in eighteen minutes. A dragon-fly {Libellulidce) died in one hour. 
Spiders succumbed in one hour and fifteen minutes. The scent from 
the powder did not produce any bad effect upon insects subjected to its 
odor where actual contact was not possible, but when carried to the 
maxillae or mandibles, the effect is to produce complete paralysis of the 
motor nerves. The legs are paralyzed in regular order, commencing 
with the first pair. Insects will sometimes live for days in this condi- 
tion, but death ultimately results from the introduction into the mouth 
of the smallest quantity. These experiments prove that all insects 
having open mouth-parts are peculiarly susceptible to this powerful 
drug, and, as a result, the writer does not hesitate to recommend the 
powder to housekeepers as an infallible agent in destroying the carpet- 
beetle and preventing its ravages. Twenty-five cents' worth of the 
powder liberally sprinkled on the floor before putting down a carpet, 
and afterward freely placed around the edges and never swept away, 
will suffice to preserve a large-sized carpet. No ill effects from its use 
need be feared by the household, since, if applied in this way, it will 
be only poisonous to all kinds of insects. — Am. Nat., March, 1879. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
Unguentum Hydrargyri. — Dr. Godeffroy states that the thick 
liquid residue of petroleum refining, if mixed with a little paraffin or 
ceresin in order to obtain a more solid consistence, is an excellent sub- 
stitute for lard and suet in the preparation of mercurial ointment. One 
gram of soft paraffin will make a good ointment in 6 or 7 minutes with 



248 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am Ma";^ m * 

10 grams of" mercury. — Ztschr. d. Allg. Oest. Ap. Ver., March 1, 1879, 
p. 104. 

Unguentum diachylon Hebrse. — According to Dr. Vulpius, 
this ointment as made in Hebra's clinic at Vienna, is far superior in 
every respect to the officinal (Ph.G.), and will keep for weeks without 
turning rancid. It is made by the following formula : 1 kg. litharge 
is heated with sufficient water and 4 kg. olive oil until the reaction is 
completed, when 50 grams lavender oil are added to the strained and 
cooling mass. — Pharm. Ztg., March 8, 1879, P- I 5 I - 

Carbolic Lint. — Prof. Bruns saturates 1 kg. lint with a solution of 
100*0 carbolic acid, 400*0 rosin and 40*0 castor oil in 2 liters alcohol. 
— Pharm. Ztg., March 8, 1879, p. 151. 

Chloral Plasters, recommended for pain caused by colds, neuralgia 
or syphilis, are made by spreading powdered chloral on ordinary Bur- 
gundy pitch plasters — 1 or 2 grams of chloral to every square decimeter. 
They are applied for 24 or 48 hours and then removed ; the small 
blisters formed are opened and dressed with simple cerate, when the 
original pain has usually ceased entirely. — Ztschr. d. Allg. Oest. Apoth. 
Fer., Feb. 10, 1879, p. 69. 

Virginin, a New Mineral Fat.— Prof. Sonnenschein describes vir- 
ginin as a new, semi-transparent, yellowish, fatty mass, which when 
fused has a blue fluorescence ; it commences to melt at 47°C, is liquid 
at 50°, solidifies again at 46 , is partly soluble in ether, and separates 
again from it as an amorphous, fatty substance. It contains no acid, is 
obtained from the residue when distilling crude petroleum, does not 
absorb oxygen from the air, and can never turn rancid. — Pharm. Ztg., 
Feb. 19, 1879, p. in. 

Caustic Pencils of Sulphate of Copper.— W. Weber deprives 
sulphate of copper of all water of crysrallization by heating it in a 
small porcelain dish, stirring continually, until a white powder is 
obtained. Paper moulds are made over a lead pencil or glass tube ; 
these are filled with the dry sulphate as uniformly and solidly as possi- 
ble, then closed and carefully rolled into suitable pieces of linen, previ- 
ously saturated with water and expressed with the hand ; after 3 or 4 
hours, the salt has re-absorbed its water of crystallization, and after 
drying for a short time forms very hard pencils. — Archiv d. Pharm*, 
Feb., 1879, p. 160. 



^"iia"i879 arm *i Gleanings from the German Journals. 249 

servation of Fowler's Solution of Arsenic— The well- 
known decomposition of Fowler's solution, probably caused by organic 
substances frequently present in ordinary distilled water or brought into 
the preparation by filtration through paper, is prevented, according to J 
Mueller, by the addition of 0'4 powdered borax to IOO'O of the solu- 
tion, which cannot possibly interfere with its efficacy. — Pharm. Ztg., 
Feb. 22, 1879, P- 1 10 - 

Castoreum. — In the opinion of Hager, castoreum should be dis- 
carded from the Pharmacopoeia, not only because it is an unpleasant 
medicine to those knowing its origin, but also because it possesses no 
greater medicinal properties than valerian root. — Pharm. CentralbL, Feb. 
13, 1879, p. 65. 

Gallate and Haematoxylate of Iron Inks. — A. du Bell makes gal- 
late of iron inks, which will keep well for any length of time, by tritu- 
rating in a porcelain mortar 15 grams of tannic acid, 7*5 grams of 
lactic acid, 60 grams of distilled water and 15 grams of ferrous lactate 
until the combination is perfect. Sufficient distilled water to make 720 
grams and several drops of chlorine water are added, and the mixture is 
well shaken and digested in a bottle having a capacity of 2 liters. After 
24 hours gum arabic, sugar or glycerin may be added. Haematoxylate 
of iron ink is prepared by making a solution of 15 grams of purified 
dry extract of logwood, 5 grams of oxalic acid, 15 grams of ferrous 
lactate and 800 grams of distilled water, and adding to it 5 grams of 
liquor ferri sesquichlorati, when a dark violet preparation results, which, 
after gum and sugar or glycerin have been added, will remain unaltered. 
—Pharm. Ztg., March 12, 1879, p. 158. 

Zinc Acetate. — Almost all French, Italian and German works on 
chemistry state that zinc acetate contains 3 molecules of water, two of 
which escape at a temperature of ioo°, while Dibbit alone claims that 
it contains but 2 molecules. N. Franchimont's new investigations prove 
the latter correct, and also that both of these two molecules of water 
escape at ioo°. If the anhydrous salt is heated in a retort it melts, 
and acetic acid, carbonic acid and acetone are liberated, while plates 
resembling mother of pearl remain, which Voelckel considers an acid 
salt, and Larocque sublimed anhydrous zinc acetate. Franchimont 
agrees with the latter opinion, and states that the sublimed salt has the 
same melting point as the dried (242°C), contains 357 per cent. Zn, 



250 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am, M T ay''i8 ^ rm ~ 

and can be volatilized without leaving a residue. — Ber. d. Deutsche 
Chem. Ges., 1879, p. 11. 

Benzoate of Sodium. — The commercial salt is usually amorphous,, 
has a strong, unpleasant odor, a strongly alkaline reaction, and frequently 
contains considerable sodium chloride and sulphate. Bernbeck prepares* 
the pure compound by treating pure diluted soda lye with pure benzoic 
acid until slightly acid, heating moderately, filtering, and, if intended 
to be dispensed in a liquid form, bringing to the specific gravity of 1*04. 
at 20°C, when the solution contains 10 per cent, of the dry salt. The 
crystals are obtained by evaporating the solution on a sand bath at a 
temperature of about 6o°C. to one half, and placing the residue over 
sulphuric acid, when crystals will form. O. Schlickum triturates 
6 parts of benzoic acid with 7 parts of crystallized sodium carbonate 
in a porcelain mortar with pressure, when carbonic acid soon begins to 
escape and the mixture becomes soft; this is dissolved in water, a little 
alcohol is added and the mixture dried in the air, when 8 parts of ben- 
zoate of sodium are obtained; if dried at ioo°, 7 parts of anhydrous 
salt remain. 

Benzoate of Magnesium. — 12 parts of benzoic acid and 5 to 6 parts 
of magnesium carbonate, dissolved in luke-warm water, yield 18*5 parts 
benzoate of magnesium. In order to obtain a neutral salt calcined 
magnesia is added after the addition of 5 parts of the carbonate, until 
blue litmus paper is no longer reddened. The liquid is then filtered,, 
evaporated and placed in a cool place, when needles having the con- 
stitution Mg2C 7 H 6 2 -f-6H 2 are obtained. — Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 19 
and March 5, 1879. 

Starch in Milk. — Dr. Vulpius coagulates the suspected milk, pre- 
viously heated to the boiling point, with a few drops of acetic acid, and 
filters after cooling, when the addition of a single drop of a saturated 
aqueous solution of iodine, containing 0*2 gr. iodine in a liter, will 
cause a blue cloud, disappearing on shaking; the coloration remains 
for one minute if 1 cc. is added to 5 cc. of the filtered serum, and 
constant, if another cc. is added. The presence of 5 milligrams of 
starch in 5 cc. milk can thus be easily determined by the addition of 

milligram iodine. — Pharm. Ztg. y March 5, 1879. 

Determination of Carb:>lic-Acid-Intoxication. — Normal urine 
contains sulphates, yielding a precipitate with barium chloride, insoluble 



Am M°y*'i&?* rm '} Gleanings from the German Journals. 25 c 

in nitric acid. Carbolic-acid intoxication will transform either ail of 
these sulphates, or at least some, into sulphocarbolates. Since barium- 
sulphocarbolate is soluble in nitric acid, Dr. Vulpius acidulates the sus- 
pected urine strongly with nitric acid, when it will either not be precip- 
itated at all, or only slightly, by barium chloride. The presence of 
carbolic acid in the system can be thus easily determined. — Pbarm* 
Ztg., March 5, 1879. 

Naringin, the bitter principle of Citrus decumana, discovered 
in Java by de Vrij in 1857, an( ^ formerly supposed to be identical with 
hesperidin, the bitter principle of Citrus limonum, exists in almost all 
parts of the plant, but most particularly in the fully developed blos- 
soms, which sometimes contain as much as 2 per cent , while the 
undeveloped contain only 0*29 per cent. A single tree not unfre- 
quently yields 100 kilograms of fresh flowers, which, when distilled 
with water, yield an oil of neroli equal in all respects to the French or 
Italian oil. While distilling this oil a large percentage of naringin was 
found to separate in needle-shaped crystals on cooling of the residue.* 
It was purified by dissolving in boiling water, separating the coloring 
matter and tannic acid by sugar of lead, redissolving repeatedly in alco- 
hol the almost pure naringin, which crystallizes from the liquid on 
cooling, precipitating by adding water, and finally crystallizing from hot 
acetic acid in white crystals, resembling quinia sulphate. Hoffmann 
finds naringin soluble in 300 parts of cold, very soluble in hot water* 
alcohol and glacial acetic acid, insoluble in chloroform, ether, etherial 
oils and benzol ; it has a bitter taste, rotates polarized light to the left, 
and forms yellow solutions with alkalies, from which it is precipitated 
in crystals by acids. When boiled with diluted acids, it splits into a 
crystalline substance and a sugar, resembling mannite, called hesperidin 
sugar. When dehydrated, it melts at 1 7 1 C., is colorod brownish-red 
by solution of iron-chloride, and is easily distinguished from all other 
principles of Aurantiaceae, hesperidin, limonin and murrayin, by its 
solubility, melting point and reaction with chloride of iron. — Archiv d*. 
Pharm., Feb., 1879, p. 139. 

Betulin, a peculiar principle of birch bark, was isolated in col- 
orless needles, melting at 25 1°, by Wigman, by extracting the bark 
with boiling 96 per cent, alcohol, distilling off the alcohol, treating the 
residue first with water and then with soda-lye, crystallizing from ben- 
zol or petroleum, and decolorizing by boiling an alcoholic solution of 



252 Accurate Estimation of Quinia. { km ^%f^" m ' 

it with animal charcoal. Elementary analyses prove Hausmann's for- 
mula for betulin, C 36 H 60 O 3 and C 36 H 58 0(C 2 H 3 2 ) 2 , his formula for the 
acetate, which consists of long, colorless needles, correct. — Ber. d. 
Deutsch. Chem. Ges. y 1879, p. 7. 

Daphnetin was obtained by Carl Stuenkel by dissolving commercial 
extract of daphne mezereum in alcohol, heating with hydrochloric acid in 
order to split the glucoside daphnin, existingin the solution, into daphnetin 
and sugar, evaporating the liquid on a water-bath until only traces of HC1 
continue to evaporate, boiling the black residue repeatedly with water, 
msxingthe reddish-brown decoctions, condensing, adding a small quantity 
of neutral lead acetate to remove the coloring matter, etc., then by con- 
tinued fractional precipitations effecting a combination of daphnetin and 
lead oxide, which was decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, when a 
comparatively pure daphnetin was obtained, which was purified by boil 
ing with animal charcoal. Daphnetin is soluble in boiling water, more 
so in diluted alcohol, crystallizing from thsse solutions in yellowish- 
white prisms, is scarcely soluble in ether, benzol, chloroform and car- 
bon bisuiphuret, forms red solutions with concentrated H 2 SO i and 
HC1, is precipitated from these by water and forms reddish-yellow 
solutions with caustic alkalies and alkaline carbonates. — Ber. d. Deutsch. 
Chem. Ges., 1879, p. 109. 

Lactucon is made by Wigman by extracting lactucarium prepared 
from Lactuca altissima, first with water, then with diluted alcohol, 
and boiling the residue with 90 per cent, alcohol. Wart-like granules 
were obtained on cooling, which, after being treated with animal char- 
coal and recrystallized several times from alcohol, proved to be groups 
of microscopic needles. They melt at 296°C, become amorphous, 
are insoluble in water, scarcely soluble in alcohol, but readily soluble in 
petroleum. The author considers lactucon homologous with camphor 
and Paterno's zeorin. — Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges.^ 1879, p. 10. 



NOTE ON THE MORE ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF 
QUINIA IN FERRI ET QUINIA CITRAS, B. P. 

By W. Stevenson. 
The Pharmacopoeia process for the estimation of quinia in ferri et 
quiniae citras frequently occasions some difficulty as regards the amount 
of washing required by the precipitated quinia. If the whole of the 



Am Ma°y, r i8 P 79 arm '} Accurate Estimation of Quinia. 253 

iron is to be removed, a loss of the alkaloid must occur to some extent^ 
owing to its slight solubility in water. The following modification has 
been found to give more~accurate results : 

Five grams of the citrate to be taken. Dissolve in 50 cc. of water, 
add a slight excess of dilute ammonia '960, stir well, and after standing 
five minutes pour on to a double filter, made of two filter papers of 
open texture, tared on a balance, one against the other, by cutting down 
the heavier ; the smaller one to be placed outside to prevent the pre- 
cipitate getting between the two. This dispenses with weighing and 
drying a filter, as both have the same solutions passing through them 
and remain equal in weight. 

Instead of distilled water, the following solution is to be used for 
washing : r oz. of ammonia *88o is added to 80 ozs. distilled water. 
The precipitated and washed quinia from one drachm of the sulphate 
is added to the dilute ammoniacal solution and well shaken during 
twenty-four hours. As much as may be required is then filtered and 
used in an ordinary wash bottle. 

The precipitated quinia may now be freely washed with this solu- 
tion ; no quinia will be lost, and if the precipitation has been properly 
performed every trace of iron may be removed in from five to ten 
minutes, leaving the alkaloid white and granular. In this short time 
any quinia deposited by evaporation of the washing solution would be 
so small that it may be neglected. Remove the filter from the funnel 
and thoroughly drain on bibulous paper for two or three hours. If the 
drying be commenced without this precaution, the water held by the 
precipitate will, on becoming hot, dissolve a portion of it. Dry at a 
temperature not exceeding ioo°F. until constant in weight, the outside 
filter acting as a counterpoise. 

Very accurate results have been obtained as above, known weights 
of quinia having been added to ferri citras, ferri et ammoniae citras, etc. , 
and, though it may appear an unnecessary complication of the B, P. 
process, it really requires less time when the solution is kept ready made 
up. The suggestion is simply an adaptation of Teschemacher's excel- 
lent method of estimating morphia in opium. — Phar. four, and Trans, 7 
Feb. 15, 1879, p. 673. 



254 Note upon Cinchona Alkaloids. {^m™*^ 

NOTE UPON THE CINCHONA ALKALOIDS. 

By Dr. O. Hesse.. 

On p. 611 of this journal Mr. J. E. Howard sought to refer the 
injurious action of the " mixed alkaloids " prepared from the bark of 
C. succirubra to their containing aricin or an amorphous decomposition 
product from it. But since this bark contains neither aricin nor the 
easily decomposable cusconin, with which some authors are wont to 
confound aricin, and as further it does not yield amorphous substances 
which can be taken for decomposition products of this alkaloid, the 
above opinion must at any rate appear to be unfounded. 

It is true that in 1862 Mr. Howard claimed to have prepared aricin 
from the bark in question, but in subsequent investigations of it he does 
not again mention this alkaloid. Probably the substance was only cin- 
chonin, which under certain conditions crystallizes in a form that 
resembles aricin. The reverse of this accident almost happened to 
the discoverers of aricine, Pelletier and Coriol, for they say : u La 
jessemblance qui se trouve entre ces deux substances nous avais deja 
fait penser que c'etait de la cinchonine que nous avions obtenue." 
Nevertheless the two alkaloids are readily distinguishable by their 
behavior towards an excess of dilute sulphuric or oxalic acid, inasmuch 
as aricin is precipitated by these acids, whilst cinchonin remains in 
solution. These precipitates are crystalline, and so difficultly soluble 
in water and in dilute acids that they might be taken for sulphate or 
oxalate of lime respectively. Also if cusconin be present a precipi- 
tate is formed by sulphuric and oxalic acids, but these precipitates are 
gelatinous and do not show the least trace of crystallization. 

As a fact, at the present time the bark in question does not contain 
the minutest trace of aricin or cusconin. On the other hand there 
are found in it, 'besides varying quantities of quinia, cinchonidin and 
cinchonin, also the following alkaloids: conquinia, conquinamin, 
paracin and two or three other amorphous basic substances ; probably 
also cinchotin. 

One thing worthy of note in this bark' is the quantity of quinamin 
it contains, which amounts to about 0*4 per cent. According to the 
experiments of Professor Falck quinamin appears to moderate the 
temperature of the body in a manner similar to quinia. In a rabbit to 
which I had administered o'l gram of quinamin dissolved in acid by 
injection into the throat I could observe no lowering of the tempera- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1879. 



Distilled Essence of Lemon. 



255 



lure. Quinamin would therefore appear not to participate in the 
sometimes peculiar action of the mixed alkaloids. 

I believe moreover that the before mentioned action of the mixed 
alkaloids is referable to the individual better-known cinchona alkaloids, 
inasmuch as every person is not similarly affected by them. Under 
these conditions it would be the business of the physician to determine 
which substance should be given in a particular case. — Pharm. Jour, 
Trans., April 12, 1879. 



DISTILLED ESSENCE OF LEMON. 

By John Moss, F.I.C., F.C.S. Lond. et Ber. 
The interest attaching to this body at the present time was excited 
by a paper (read before the Pharmaceutical Society on the 5th of Feb- 
ruary, and published in the Society's Journal on the 8th) entitled, "An 
Examination of Distilled Essence of Lemon." The author, my friend 
Dr. Tilden, intimated to me some months ago his desire that my firm 
should prepare for him a small quantity, not less than eight ounces, of 
the essence from the peel of the fresh fruit. The essence of lemon 
of commerce being notoriously and skillfully adulterated, he wished to 
operate on an article to which no suspicion of admixture could possi- 
bly attach, and we on our side were very pleased to place the resources 
of our laboratory at his service to further the important researches on 
the composition of the essential oils, which he has been prosecuting 
now for some years. Curiously enough, the discussion on Dr. Til- 
den's paper did not once refer to the more important scientific aspect 
of the question displayed to the meeting, the principal speakers content- 
ing themselves with the utterance of a decorous and prolonged excla- 
mation of surprise at what was, after all, for the occasion, of very sec- 
ondary importance, namely, the author's statement that the distilled 
essence prepared for him "had a most deliciously fragrant odor of the 
peel, superior, in my opinion, to the foreign essence." At the March 
meeting of the Society, I placed on the table a small specimen of the 
distilled oil, which had been reserved from the quantity prepared for 
Dr. Tilden, and also for purposes of comparison, some of the finest 
imported oil. Connoisseurs differed as to the respective merits of the 
two essences; but the majority of them agreed' with Dr. Tilden's esti- 
mate of the distilled oil. Tested by smelling at the neck of the bottle, 



256 



Distilled Essence of Lemon. 



( Am. Jour. Phanu. 
\ May, 1879. 



the foreign essence did, perhaps, produce a more favorable impression^ 
but, when rubbed in the hand, as the fashion of the expert is, the fruity 
fragrance of the distilled oil passed out of comparison with anything 
the imported one could furnish. The odor might be a little "thin" 
and lacking in persistence, but superior delicacy was manifest. 

Seeing that so much interest was excited by the specimens, some 
details of the distillation will probably not be unwelcome, and will 
afford a means of instituting that "comparison of the operation of 
obtaining oil of lemons, as performed by Mr. Moss in this country, 
and the usual operation abroad," asked for by Mr. Giles in the discus- 
sion previously alluded to. 

It was supposed that the peel of 600 lemons would yield the weight 
of essence required by Dr. Tilden, viz., eight ounces, and that quan- 
tity, weighing forty-seven pounds, was accordingly operated upon as 
soon as received into the laboratory. It was placed in a small copper 
still capable of holding thirty gallons, covered with cold water, and heat 
applied. Twelve gallons of liquid were distilled over into an earthen- 
ware receiver, from which, when the oil was judged to have separated^ 
the water was run off below into a similar vessel. The oil, not quite 
free from water, was allowed to stand in a separating funnel, and when 
all the water was removed measured three and a half ounces. This 
result was disappointing, as it did not come up to half of the estimated 
yield. No more oil had appeared on the surface of the separated 
water, and accordingly ten pounds of salt were dissolved in it, with the 
hope that a further slight separation might be promoted thereby. The 
expedient was futile, though the solution stood over night. In the 
morning the liquid, salt and all, was returned to the still, from which 
the peel had not yet been removed, and twelve gallons were again 
drawn over. Not a single drop of oil was obtained from this distillate., 

It was therefore necessary to operate on a further quantity of peel, 
and this time fifty-two pounds were taken; for practical purposes, the 
same quantity as before, viz., the peel of 600. lemons. In this opera- 
tion no salt was used, and only one distillate (twelve gallons) was col- 
lected. The yield was eight and a half fluidounces, or more than 
twice the quantity formerly obtained. Before distilling, however, this- 
lot of peel was well crushed, and the cellular tissue torn apart to free 
the oil. No doubt this had a verv important influence on the yield of 
oil, but I cannot think that the whole of the gain was due to it, espe- 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

May, 1879. 



Distilled Essence of Lemon. 



cially when it is remembered that the vertical granite runners, which 
came into actual contact with the peel, have a crushing surface of about 
twenty-four square feet, and the granite bed on which they run has a 
surface of thirteen square feet. The wetting of this large surface by 
the liquid contents of the peel no doubt occasioned a loss of oil of 
some importance when referred to the small quantity operated upon. 
Working on large quantities the absolute loss would be very little greater, 
and the relative loss would, of course, be very much smaller. Giving 
these facts due consideration, I think that the second lot of peel was 
naturally much richer in oil than the first. 

The peel was taken from lemons which were not only ripe, but old, 
being of the season 1 877, and the distillation being made in July, 1878 ; 
they were, therefore, at least nine months old, and had not only lost oil 
in ripening, but also in keeping. 

In Pharmacographia it is stated that by the sponge process, as practiced 
in Calabria and Sicily, 400 fruits yield from nine to fourteen ounces of 
oil, i. 600 fruits yield from thirteen and a half to twenty-one ounces 
of oil. Taking the average yield of this number of fruits, about 
seventeen ounces, it will be seen that the larger product obtained as 
described above was exactly half this quantity. This being so, and 
remembering the age and condition of the peel, there are good grounds 
for believing that under favorable conditions distillation will yield as 
large results as the processes now employed; indeed, from what Prof. 
Redwood states respecting essence of limes, there is reason to believe 
that the distillation will show an advantage in this respect. 

Both Pereira and the authors of Pharmacographia state that oil of 
lemon procured by distillation is of inferior fragrance. It is highly 
probable that the construction of the still may account for some por- 
tion of the difference between the subject of their remarks and the 
subject of this short paper. In conclusion, I may state that the still 
employed in these experiments was expressly constructed for the distilla- 
tion of medicated waters. — Pharm. 'Journ. and Trans., March 29, 1879,, 



258 Yerba Santa for Disguising Taste of Quinia. 

YERBA SANTA (Eriodictyon Californicum), AS A MEANS 
OF DISGUISING THE TASTE OF QUINIA. 

By Henby M. Kier, M. D. 
Living in a malarious country, where intermittent and typhoid fevers 
prevail, physicians cannot be indifferent to the many urgent requests of 
their patients to provide them with a remedy devoid of bitter taste, and 
which can be taken easily. Accordingly, in furtherance of this uni- 
versal desire, I have experimented to quite an extent in the endeavor 
to obtain an innocent, palatable vehicle for the administration of the 
bitter, active anti-periodics ; but with indifferent success, until some 
four or five years back, I commenced the use of the Yerba Santa, in 
the form of elixir and syrup, and found it to be a most excellent.remedy 
to disguise the taste of many bitter drugs. The well-known bitterness 
of the quinia salts forms a great objection to their use, but when given 
in combination with either of the preparations above named, in the 
proportion of ten to twenty grains to the fluidounce, they are rendered 
palatable, or at least tolerable, are retained much more readily by a 
delicate stomach, and can be given in this manner without the patients 
knowing anything of the nature of the remedy prescribed. 

The peculiar property of the Yerba Santa leaf, in imparting to quinia 
the taste of starch when chewed and held upon the tongue for a second, 
has been well known for years to the old settlers of California, and it 
was a knowledge of this fact which first led me to employ it in the form 
above indicated. 

As regards the plant itself, my experience has taught me that, like 
many of the so-called " New Remedies," of which, singularly enough, 
we have heard so much lately, it has but liltle, if any, special thera- 
peutical power, and can be given ad libitum in any quantity or form 
prepared. ' 

Any competent pharmacist can prepare a syrup or elixir in the man- 
ner he may deem best. However, an admirable syrup may be obtained 
by boiling for an hour two ounces of the fresh, or recently dried leaves, 
with fourteen ounces of water and two of glycerin, percolating through 
the residue an ounce of brandy, and adding to what would be a pint of 
the product, two pounds of sugar. 

A working formula for the elixir can be modeled after that for elixir 
calisaya, substituting for four ounces of yellow calisaya seven to eight 
of the Yerba Santa, and for the syrup one pound of glycerin and eight 



Am Ma°y, r i8 P 79 arm ' } Codliver Oil Emulsion. 259 

to ten pounds of sugar, this latter to be dissolved by gentle heat in the 
percolate, after filtration. — Pacific Med. and Surg. Jour., March. 
Knigbfs Landings Yolo, Co. 



CODLIVER OIL EMULSION. 

By William Gilmour. 

Codliver oil emulsions in various forms are peparations which have 
of late become somewhat popular. I express no opinion whatever on 
any of these preparations, far less do I intend to individualize any prep- 
aration by attempting to give a copy of the formula. I simply recog- 
nize the unfortunate necessity which sometimes arises of following 
where our inclination does not lead, and I therefore give a formula for 
an emulsion, believing it without prejudice equal to any of the many 
now bulking so largely before the profession and the public. 

Of all the excipients suggested by different authorities, as well as 
commending themselves to one's own approval for emulsifying codliver 
oil, none, I think, equals gum tragacanth. Without, therefore, ignor- 
ing other substances, such as mucilage of gum arabic, white of egg, 
alkaline solutions, and so on, I have principally endeavored to ascertain 
the conditions most favorable to produce with tragacanth an insepara- 
ble emulsion, which at the same time would be miscible with water, 
contain a reasonable amount of oil, and be not particularly objection- 
able in appearance, taste or smell. Of course in all these preparations 
much may be left to individual fancy as to combination, and I therefore 
make no suggestion as to all the different ingredients which may be 
u hotched potched " into it further than this, that if oil of bitter 
almonds be the flavoring agent employed, the emulsion need not be spoiled 
by the addition of an extravagant excess of the bitter almond. Expe- 
rience and experiment both have determined that a half per cent., or 
about two drops to each ounce of codliver oil employed, is the proper 
proportion, and that of the two oils, namely, an oil deprived of its 
hydrocyanic acid, or an oil containing it, the latter is much preferred. 

As to the emulsion, let three drachms of the finest white powder of 
tragacanth be rubbed up in a large mortar with three ounces of glycerin. 
To this add as much boiling water as will convert it into a thick, 
transparent jelly, from eight to ten ounces probably being required. 
After cooling add the codliver oil, which should first be mixed either 



260 Fragrant Woods, { Am i£^ r, i8^T nr 

with plain water or lime water in the proportion of one of the latter to 
three of the oil ; or if, as is customary, the emulsion is intended to 
contain the hypophosphites of lime or soda, let these be added to the 
plain water previous to mixing with the oil, and then let this primary 
emulsion be gradually added to the mucilage of tragacanth with con- 
stant stirring. In the process of mixing, the emulsion not only creams 
but also thickens up to a certain point, and individual taste must settle 
the extent to which the mixture may be carried. I have found the 
three drachms of tragacanth emulsify from 50 to 80 ounces of what I 
have called the primary emulsion, the former quantity being very thick 
and not easily poured from the mortar, the latter quantity flowing more 
freely and forming what I consider the better emulsion. In mixing the 
oil with the mucilage of tragacanth care must be taken not to add it 
too hurriedly else it will not emulsify. The mixture will simply break 
up into a clotted mass and no amount of labor apparently will bring it 
back to the emulsified form. Under these circumstances the better 
way is at once to begin again with a small quantity of fresh mucilage,, 
to which the clotted mass should be carefully added by degrees. In 
this way only can the emulsion be brought back to its proper form. — 
Pharm. Jour. [Lond.], March 22, 1879. 



FRAGRANT WOODS. 

By P. L. Simmonds. 
The properties and uses of woods are various,- some are sought for their beauty 
and utility for the cabinet-maker or pianoforte manufacturer, some for their adapta- 
bility for carving or engraving on, others for their coloring properties, and some for 
their medicinal uses. There are a few, however, which have the rare attraction of 
being fragrant and odorous, and hence are valued for small and special fancy articles 
for ladies' use, or for the purposes of the perfumer, who distils pleasant scents from 
them. Although fragrant odors are very generally diffused over the vegetable king- 
dom, yet they are not often centered in the woody fibre of plants. We know these 
odors well in flowers, and we find them strongly diffused in many aromatic leaves, 
as the lemon and citronelle grasses, the leaves of the Faham orchid {Angrxcum fra- 
grans), and of the Eucalyptus citriodora, and E. odorata. Sometimes the pleasant 
odor or pungent flavor is concentrated in the seeds and seed-vessels, as in the nutmeg, 
the tonquin bean [Dipterix odorata), the musk seed (Abelmoschus moschatus), the 
odoriferous seeds of Oxydendron Cuyumany (Nees), the vanilla pods, and those of 
Myrospermum frutescens (Jacq.), etc., of South America. In several trees the aro- 
matic principle is strongest in the barks, as in cassia and cinnamon, the sassafras of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1879 



Fragrant Woods, 



261 



Tasmania (Atberosperma moschata), and Croton cascarilla and C. eleutheria, of the 
(Bahamas. Essential oils are obtained from many of these. 

The study and consideration of woods may be influenced by many causes, accord- 
to the purpose to which they are to be applied. The cabinet-maker will group 
them according to the disposition of their colors and the distinction of their fibres, 
and will sometimes also take into consideration the odor, which is an essential point 
in the eyes of the perfumer. As I do not remember to have seen any grouping of the 
fragrant or odorous woods, I propose condensing a few observations as a guide to 
those who may be interested in this class of woods, which is not, after all, extensive, 
and only a few of which are as yet much used. Two or three are tolerably well 
iknown, such as camphor, sandal and cedar-woods; others have not been so gener- 
ally described. 

The bark of Ocotea aromatica, from New Caledonia, possesses a strong sassafras 
flavor, and there is a fragrant bark yielded by the Alyxia aromatica, of Java and 
•Cochin China ; but as I have not met with specimens, I cannot tell whether the 
odor penetrates to the wood. The Ixora [Coffea) odorata of Tahiti has, however, 
I know, a close and fragrant wood. 

In Tasmania and Australia we have the musk-wood [Eurybia argophylla), with a 
timber of a pleasant fragrance and a beautiful mottled color, well adapted to turnery, 
cabinet work and perfumery purposes. The native boxwood (Bursaria spinosa, Cav.) 
has also a pleasant but fleeting scent. The scent-wood of the same island {Alyxia 
buxifolia, R. Br.) has an odor similar to that of the tonquin bean. It is but a strag- 
gling seaside shrub of three to five inches in diameter, and consequently does not 
produce wood of any size, but is fine and close-grained, of a lightish-brown mottled 
appearance. 

In the colony of Western Australia we have the raspberry jam wood, a species of 
Eucalyptus, which derives its popular name from the similarity of the scent to that 
preserve. It is a handsome wood, well fitted for cabinet purposes. 

Many of the Australian woods exhibit a peculiar beauty of structure, which 
adapts them for small furniture and turnery uses. Some are highly fragrant and 
retain their agreeable odor for a considerable period of time, which renders them 
additionally pleasant and acceptable in the form of ornamental articles for the 
boudoir and drawing-room. The scented myall {Acacia homalophylla) is a very 
hard and heavy wood, which has an intense and delightful smell of violets. 
It has a dark and beautiful duramen, which makes it applicable to numerous pur- 
poses of the cabinet-maker and the wood-turner, and an infinite variety of minor 
uses. It rarely exceeds a foot in diameter, but has been used as veneers. This tree 
is common in many parts of Australia ; since the London Exhibition of 1862, when 
the caskets, pipes and other articles shown from Queensland, and the remarkable 
property it possesses became generally known to European manufactures, the wood 
was in request for making glove, handkerchief and other fancy boxes. As long as 
it remains unpolished it preserves this peculiar fragrance of violets, which does not 
occur with such perfection in any other known substance. 

The desert sandarac pine (Callitris verrucosa) is a tree of moderate size from the 
wicinity of the river Murray, seldom attaining to more than eighteen inches in 



262 



Fragrant IV oods. 



Am. Jour. Pharxn . 

May, 1870- 



diameter. It has a peculiar odor, from which it is sometimes called camphor- wood,, 
and it is said to be obnoxious to the attacks of" insects. The dark beauty of its 
wood makes it useful for many articles of small cabinet furniture. The mountain 
sandarac pine, another species similar to the preceding one, is available for identical 
uses. 

The sassafras-tree [Atherosperma moschata) has an aromatic bark, which yields an 
essential oil, resembling the sassafras oil of America, with an admixture of oil of 
caraways. The timber, which is useful to the cabinet-maker, has a dark duramen,, 
and frequently exhibits a pleasant figure, it has also the quality of taking a beautiful 
polish. Sassafras wood [Sassafras officinale), which is brought over from North 
America in billets, is highly aromatic, both in smell and taste, owing to a yellow 
volatile oil it contains. As this repels insects, the wood is used in India for the 
interior work of trunks, drawers, boxes, etc. 

Brazilian sassafras is the aromatic bark of Nectandra Cymbarum (Nees). The 
fragrant bark of the swamp sassafras of the United States (Magnolia glauca) is 
greatly sought by beavers, and hence is often called beaver-wood. A common 
deception is much practiced in the streets of London in selling artificially scented 
woods and roots which have been steeped in citronelle and other pleasant essential 
oils. 

The sandal-wood of commerce is the product of various trees belonging to the 
genus Santalum, and that species called Santalum album for a long time furnished 
the principal supply. Being a hard, close-grained and ornamental wood, it is used 
for some descriptions of cabinet work, and various carved ornamental and useful 
articles, such as fans, writing desks, work-boxes, card-cases, album-covers, etc., are 
made of it. But its chief characteristics consists in the remarkable smell of the 
wood, which it owes to the presence of a peculiar volatile oil, extensively used by 
the natives of India as a perfume. This also has caused it to be largely used as 
incense to burn in the temples of China. 

The roots, which are the richest in oil, and the chips go to the still, while Hindoos- 
who can afford it show their wealth and their respect for their departed relatives by 
adding sticks of sandal-wood to the funeral pile. The wood, either in powder or 
rubbed up into a paste, is employed by all Brahmins in the pigments used in their 
distinguishing caste marks. The oil forms the basis of many scents, and is some- 
times used for impregnating with its scent articles which, being really carved from 
common wood, are passed off as if made from true sandal. 

In course of time sandal-wood was discovered to be abundant in some of the 
South Sea Islands, where it is the product of several species of Santalum, different 
from the long-known Indian one 5 there are about ten species of the genus, which 
are chiefly restricted to the East Indies, Australia and Oceania. 

The Indian species are Santalum album and S. myrtijolium. The former is a srnail 
tree from twenty to twenty-five feet high, which is found on the border of Wynaad 
in the Peninsula, and in Mysore. The exports of the wood from Madras are con- 
siderable to Bombay, Bengal, Pegu and the Persian Gulf. The wood is burnt to 
perfume temples and dwelling-houses. The same tree yields both the white and 
yellow sandal-wood, the last being the inner part of the tree ; it is very hard and. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 
May, 1879. 



Fragrant JVoods. 



263 



fragrant, especially near the root. The Mahomedans obtain a precious oil from the 
moist yellow part of the wood, which they value as a peifume. Large shipments of 
it are made to Bombay, Bengal and the Persian Gulf. The tree grows in the islands 
of Sandal, Timor, Rotti, Savul, Samar, Bali and in the eastern part of Java, in the 
arid soil of the lower regions. The wood, which in its color and texture resembles 
boxwood, is much sought for as an article of commerce by the Chinese, who use 
the sawdust for making rings and pastiles for burning, and also for marking the time 
passed during combustion, when it exhales an agreeable odor. 

Mixed with some chemical preparation the sawdust is often used in scent-bags, 
which hang as charms to the women's dresses. The imports of sandal-wood into 
China have, however, of late years, almost ceased. Whilst in 1862 and 1863 from 
7,500 to 8,000 piculs (1^ cwt.) of sandal-wood, valued at about £14,000, were 
imported into Canton, within the last four or five years it has dropped to 20 or 30 
piculs. 

At Chefoo it is still imported to the extent of 520 piculs, and the general imports 
into the treaty ports amounted in 1872 to 64,237 piculs. 

In Europe, sandal-wood is chiefly used for carving and turning. In the Indian 
Museum, South Kensington, specimens of the ornamental application of sandal- 
wood in the East may be seen in boxes inlaid with ivory, a handsome carved sandal- 
wood table from Bombay and other articles. 

The Australian species of sandal-wood are believed to be derived from 6". lariceo- 
latum^ oblongatum, obtusifolium y ouatum and venosum. The tree is found in Queens- 
land and Western Australia. At the London International Exhibition of 1862 a 
fine log of sandal-wood, weighing 4! cwt., was shown from Blackwood River, 
Western Australia, and another, 3 ft. 6 in. long by 1 1 in. diameter from York. 
Specimens were also shown at Paris in 1878. The Australian sandal-wood is of an 
inferior quality as regards odor. 

In 1 849, 1,204 tons of sandal- wood, valued at £10,71 1, were shipped frc m Western 
Australia. The merchants bought it for shipment at £6 to £6 10s. a ton. Now 
the sandal trees of any size, within a radius of a hundred and fifty miles of Perth, 
have been cut down, and little can be obtained except from a great distance. In 
1876, 7,000 tons were exported, of the estimated value of £70,000. 

How long the colony may be able to continue to supply at the rate the trade is 
being carried on at present is another question, and a very serious one. Every year 
the expense of carriage becomes considerably enhanced by reason of the larger 
distance to be traversed, and the supply in some localities is altogether exhausted. 

It is probable that there are several distinct species of the tree in the South Sea 
Islands which have yet to be botanically determined. The tree is not found on all 
the islands of the Pacific; its head-quarters would appear to be among those of the 
southwestern po'tion, including New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, 
Esperito Santo and some others. In the Fiji Islands, which have produced several 
thousand tons within the last thirty years, the tree has become very scarce. It is 
only the central portion of the tree which produces the scented yellow wood con- 
stituting the sandal-wood of commerce. The trunk and larger branches are cut 
into lengths of from 3 to 6 ft., and the whole of the bark and outer white wood are 



264 



Fragrant IVoods. 



A.m.Jour. Phann. 
May, 1879. 



clipped off with the axe — an operation technically called " cleaning." Thus a log 
1 foot in diameter is reduced to a billet only from 4 to 6 in. thick. The quality of 
the wood depends on the quantity of the oil contained in it, as indicated by the smell 
when freshly cut or burned. The old trees produce the best, and in them that part 
of the wood near the root is the most prized. A handful of the shavings of the 
wood will prevent moths from attacking clothes of any description, and I have suc- 
cessfully used the same means to keep 'away insects from specimens of natnral 
history. Owing to a similar strong aromatic odor, furniture made of the fragrant 
timber of the bastard sandal- wood of Australia (Erimophila Mitchellii, Bentham) 
may be kept free from the attacks of insects. The wood is hard, of a brown color, 
nicely waved and beautifully grained. It will turn out handsome veneers for the 
cabinet-makers. 

S. austro -Caledonicum (Viell), of New Caledonia, furnishes a superior kind of 
sandal- wood to that of other countries, owing to the strength and fineness of its 
odor. It is to be regretted, however, that this tree is being ruthlessly destroyed in 
the island, as the wood is of such great use in perfumery. Scarcely anything but 
the stumps and roots left from former times can now be utilized. An essential oil, 
distilled in England and France from sandal-wood, fetches £3 per pound. The 
powdered wood for filling sachets and other uses is sold at is. the pound. The 
Pacific species of sandal-wood are S. ellipticum and S. Freycinetianum (Gaudichaud), 
which are met with in the Sandwich Islands. The latter species is found in the 
high mountainous ranges of Tahiti, but the wood is of inferior quality as it is not 
odoriferous, or only becomes so by age. The wood of Myoporum tumifolium 
(Forster) is used as a substitute for sandal-wood ; the fragrance of the fresh wood is 
very pleasant, but it soon loses this after being kept some time. 

The cedar-wood chiefly imported is Cedrela odorata, from Cuba, Mexico and 
Central America, in quantities varying from 3,000 to 5,000 tons yearly, and the red 
and pencil cedar of Virginia and Bermuda, Juniperus Virginiana. Fragrant cedrine, 
an essential oil, is distilled from the wood. The cedar-wood of British Guiana 
(Idea altissima, Aubl.) has also a strong aromatic odor which keeps away insects, 
and adapts it for cabinets, wardrobes, etc. In the translation of Latin authors the 
citron-wood has often been quoted for the cedar, without taking into account the 
difference which Pliny makes between the two woods. Cedri fantum et citri suorum 
fructicum in sacris fumo convolutum nidorem noverant, etc — Pliny's "Natural 
History," book xiii. And the description which Theophrastus gives of the Thuya 
and Homer cites in his " Odyssey " : "A great fire burnt on the hearth, the odor 
of the cedar which is easily split, and of the Thuya which was consumed, spread 
widely over the island." 

Pinus Cembra of Russia is another of the fragrant woods. 

The fragrant rosewood or Palisandre of the French cabinet-makers has been ascer- 
tained by M. Brogel to belong to two or three species of Triptolomea. 

An undefined rare wood from South Ameiica, called Palo santo, has a fine odor, 
which it never loses. It takes a magnificent polish, fs of a green color, very solid 
and elastic. It may be used for furniture, wind instruments, and would make mag- 
nificent pianos. A log brought down the river to Parana some years ago measured 



Am d™%(£" m } Fragrant Woods. 265 

27 feet in length, with a section of 17 inches square. The violet wood of British 
Guiana (Andira violacea) derives its specific name more from its color than of its 
scent. 

In Japan they use the wood of a small tree called camaboc largely for making 
toothpicks, which is of itself quite a trade in that country. The bark has a peculiar 
and pleasant aromatic flavor. A small portion of the bark is allowed to remain on 
each toothpick. All the Japanese use them regular after every meal. 

The odor of the cinnamon wood is familiar in domestic economy. 

The camphor-wood boxes brought from China and the East are well known for 
their strong preservative odor, and found useful for keeping away moths from 
woolens and furs. The China and Japan camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), 
Camphora officinarum, belongs to the laurel family, but that of Sumatra and Borneo 
is the Dryobalanops aromatica. Even the leaves and fruit smell of camphor. In 
Sumatra this tree is abundantly met with on the west coast, chiefly in the extensive 
bush, but seldom in places more than 1,000 ft above the level of the sea. The tree 
is straight, extraordinarily tall, and has a gigantic crown which often overtops the 
other woody giants by 100 feet or so. The stem is sometimes twenty feet thick. 
The barus camphor of this island is the most esteemed of any, and it is for this drug, 
obtained in small quantities — seldom more than half a pound to a tree — that it is 
ruthlessly destroyed. The tree, when felled, is divided into small pieces, and these 
are afterwards split ; upon which the camphor, which is found in hollows or crevices 
in the body of the tree, and above all, in knots or swellings of branches from the 
trunks, becomes visible in the form of granules or grains An essential oil also 
-exudes from the tree in cutting, which is sometimes collected, but is scarcely remu- 
nerative. On the west coast of Formosa there are forests of camphor-wood, and a 
great deal of crude camphor is shipped thence to Amoy and other Chinese ports. 
Large quantities of the wood are sawn into planks. Tables and cabinets are then 
made of it, and it is also turned into platters and washing-basins. 

Only a small portion of the vast camphor forest of Formosa has been reclaimed 
from its wild inhabitants, and this consists of fine tall trees, the growth of ages. 
When a tree is felled the finest part of the wood is sawn into planks, the rest chopped 
small and boiled down for the camphor. 

Camphor-wood (D. aromatica) grows in abundance in the mountains of Santer- 
borg, Marang, Sunda and Surgany Water, Borneo. Its girth reaches 17 or 18 ft., 
and the stem often attains the height of 90 or 100 ft. to the first branches. The 
wood contains a quantity of oil, is tough, durable, and, owing to its strong scent, 
withstands the attacks of the worm so destructive in those seas. Hence it is much 
valued for ship-building. It takes metal fastenings well from being oily, and iron 
has been found not so liable to rust in it. 

An essential oil of roses from some undefined wood, called' Aspalathum (probably 
a Convolvulus or species of R/iodozira), is distilled in France and Germany and sells 
at about £3 the pound. There is a wood which comes from French Guiana, called 
there Bois de rose femelle, believed to be the produce of Licaria odorata, which has a 
delicious odor approaching to bergamot, but being extremely fugitive it is necessary to 
pulverize the wood at the moment of distillation. The essence drawn from it is now 



266 



Varieties. 



\m. lour. Pharm.. 
May, 1879. 



employed by the Parisian perfumers. It is a coarse-grained, -yellow wood, and scarcely- 
ornamental enough to be sought for cabinet work. 

The Lignum aloes, Garoe, Calambak, or eagle-wood of commerce, is of all per- 
fumes that most esteemed by Oriental nations. The trees from which it is obtained 
are not well defined. The best is supposed to be from Aloexylon Agallochum (Lour.) 
of Cochin China, while the Aquilaria o-vata (Cav.), and A. Agallocha (Roxb.), of 
tropical Asia, furnish, it is believed, other kinds of aloe-wood. All are highly 
fragrant and aromatic, and occasionally used by cabinet-makers and inlayers. 

Aquilaria Agallocha (Roxb.) is a medium-sized tree growing in Borneo, Sumatra, 
and Java in the high regions. The wood is compact, of a yellow color streaked 
with black. By rubbing, however, it only gives forth an odor of rhubarb, which is 
also palpable in slicing the wood. The most esteemed kinds of this wood are 
obtained from the mountainous countries of Cambodia and Cochin China, to the- 
east of the Gulf of Siam. It is the decaying old heart-wood which is burnt for 
perfume. 

Incense wood is the fragrant product of Icica guyanensis. 

In conclusion, it may be added that, while some woods attract by their pleasant 
odor, others are so obnoxious that they have obtained the appropriate names of 
stink-woods Of this we have an example in .the stink-wood of the Cape of Good 
Hope ( Laurus bullata), which has a very disagreeable smell when cut 5 hence its- 
vernacular name. The brown-colored wood is durable, takes a good polish, and 
might probably be employed for cabinets for natural history collections as it is not 
attacked by insects. — Jour. Applied Science^ March 1, 1879. 



VARIETIES. 



A New Coffee Adulterant. — In the recent annual report of the principal of the 
Inland Revenue Laboratory, some observations were made on a new method of 
adulterating coffee, which has lately been detected. The adulterant in question 
consists of date-stones y which, after being roasted and ground, form such an imitation, 
of coffee as would, when mixed with the genuine article, easily deceive the consumer,.. 
Information received by the Inland Revenue authorities at Somerset House from a 
supervisor at Liverpool has led to an early discovery and suppression by the Somerset 
House authorities of this new mode of adulteration. Many tons of date-stones (a 
refuse from the manufacture of spirits at a distillery in Liverpool, and which had 
hitherto been considered useless) were being bought by a foreigner to be forwarded to 
Manchester, and supposed to be intended as an adulterant of coffee. It was subse- 
quently ascertained that a manufactory had been established in that city for the prep- 
aration of " Melilotine coffee " — a mixture of coffee, chicory and date-stones. OF 
this " Melilotine coffee, 1 '' and of the prepared date-stones, several tons had been 
seized. The early detection of this adulterant has prevented the consumption of any- 
large quantity of the "coffee." — Louisville Med. Ne-ivs, March 15. 



Am Ma°y, r i8 P 7 9 arro } Apothecaries and Rectifiers License. 267 

Chloramyl. — Chloramyl, the name given to a mixture of chloroform, i lb , and! 
nitiite of amyl, 2 drachms, is recommended as a new anaesthetic by Dr G. E. 
Sanford in the " Medical Record " He claims for it a trial on the ground of its 
safety as well as efficiency, the amyl antidoting the syncopal action of the chloro- 
form, while not modifying its anaesthetic properties. — Proceedings of Medical Society 
of Kings County. 

APOTHECARIES AND THE RECTIFIERS' LICENSE, 

In some sections of the United States druggists have received notice from the 
collectors of Internal Revenue that they could not lawfully make use, upon their 
premises, of an apparatus for the recovery of alcohol necessary to the manufacture 
of chemical and pharmaceutical preparations, when a license as a " liquor dealer " 
had been granted to said druggist, without taking out a "rectifiers'" license! 

We have always been of the opinion that this was an unjust construction of the 
law, oppressive to druggists, and not' within the intention of the statute. 

Mr. W. W. Heritage, of Philadelphia, has interested himself in a laudable man- 
ner to obtain from the Department of In'ernal Revenue a decision in the premises. 
The commissioner has taken a liberal and intelligent view of the subject, and we 
have no doubt that his decision will meet with the endorsement of all who are 
acquainted with the merits of the case. 

Treasury Dept., Office of Int. Rev., Washington, April 21, 1879. 

The last clause of Section 3246, Revised Statutes, as amended by Section 5 of the 
Act of March 1st, 1879, rea ds as follows, viz.: 

"Nor shall any special tax be imposed upon apothecaries as to wines or spirituous 
liquors which they use exclusivelv in the preparation or making up of medicines." 

This exemption extends over the entire chapter of special taxes, so that an apoth- 
ecary can neither be required to pay special tax as liquor dealer for selling medici- 
nal preparations, though spirituous liquor or wine be a component part thereof, nor 
be required to pay special tax as a rectifier for purifying or refining or in any man- 
ner treating liquors for use in the preparation of his medicines. 

But the exemption relates only to medicinal preparation, and the apothecary 
therefore is not exempt from the liquor dealers' special tax if he sells unmixed dis- 
tilled spirits (including pure alcohol) or wines, though he sell them strictly as med- 
icine, and even upon a physician's prescription. 

Many apothecaries, nearly all, perhaps, are compelled to hold special tax stamps 
as retail dealers in liquors to comply with the terms of the law, and, at the same 
time, meet the demands of their customers for pure liquors for medicinal purposes. 
The exigencies of their business also require them, as druggists, to keep pharm- 
aceutical stills or distilling apparatus. 

But under the third sub division of Section 3244, Revised Statutes, a retail dealer 
in liquors who has in his possession a still, is to be regarded as a rectifier and a* 
being engaged in the business of rectifying. 

The question has therefore been presented whether an apothecary holding a special 
tax stamp as a retail dealer in liquor, and having in his possession a still for use in 
the preparation of medicinal compounds, must not be required to pay the recti- 
fiers' tax. 

After careful consideration, the conclusion is arrived at that the exemption froua 
special tax accorded to apothecaries by that provision of the statute hereinbefore 
cited applies not only to the sale by them of their medicinal preparations or com- 
pounds composed in part of distilled spirits or wines, but also to any and all 



268 Sixth Decennial Pharmacopeia Convention, {^I^-J^ 

mechanical appliances and processes which they may find to be necessary or useful 
in the preparation or making up of medicines, and that an apothecary, therefore, 
notwithstanding the fact of his holding a specialtax stamp as liquor dealer, is not 
subject to special tax as a rectifier on account of his keeping a still or distilling 
apparatus for use exclusively in treating liquors, etc., employed in the making up of 
medicines. (Signed) Green B. Raum, Commissioner. 



SIXTH DECENNIAL PHARMACOPOEIA CONVENTION. 

To the several incorporated State Medical Societies, the incorporated Medical 
Colleges, the incorporated Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons and the incorporated 
Colleges of Pharmacy throughout the United States: 

By virtue of authority devolved upon me as the last surviving officer of the 
Pharmacopoeia Convention of 1870, I hereby call a general convention to meet in 
Washington, D. C, on the first Wednesday in May, 1880, for the purpose of revis- 
ing the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

For the information and guidance of all parties interested, 1 refer them to the 
rules adopted by the Convention of 1870, to be found on page 1 1 of the Pharm- 
acopteia of the United States, and request their compliance with the spirit and 
intention of the said rules. James E. Morgan, 

No. 905 E street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 



MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE, 

Philadelphia, March 31st, 1879. 
The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day 
at the hall of the College, No. 145 North Tenth street. Charles Bullock, First 
Vice-President, in the absence of the President, occupied the chair. 47 members 
were in attendance. 

The minutes of the meeting in December, 1878, and also those of the special 
meeting h?ld March 24th, were read and, on motion, adopted. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the months of January, February and 
March were also read bv Mr. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, and, on motion, 
adopted. 

These minutes refer to the change made last month relative to the proposed pub- 
lication in the "Journal of Pharmacy" of the list of graduates in alphabetical order 
instead of in the order of merit as heretofore. Some discussion arose as to the pro- 
priety of the change. Members differing in their opinions in regard to the matter, 
it was, on motion, referred to the Board of Trustees for their consideration. 

Messrs. Blair, Remington and Murray thought that honorable mention of those 
graduates who had distinguished themselves by receiving an average of " very satis- 
factory," should be made publicly at the Commencement, which was also referred 
to the Board for their consideration. 



* 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1879. J 



Minutes of the College. 



269 



These minutes also record the resignation of Dr. Robert Bridges as Professor of 
Chemistry in the College. 

The amendment to the by-laws of the College, which was proposed at the meet- 
ing in December last, and laid over under the rules for consideration at this meet 
ing, was read and, on motion, adopted, as follows: 

CHAPTER VIII.— ARTICLE XIII. 
All such persons as from their knowledge of Materia Medica, Chemistry, Pharmacy and their collat 
eral hranches of science, shall, in the opinion of the College, merit that distinction, may be elected hono ■ 
rary or active members of the College. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Librarian, read his annual report, which was, on motion, 

accepted. 

Philadelphia, March 31st, 1879. 
The Librarian respectfully reports that there has been added to the Library about one hundred and 
fifty volumes. Among these, there has been added the entire Series of the "Journal de Pharmacie et de 
Chimie," commencing in the year 1809, six volumes being the "Bulletin de Pharmacie," the next issue 
being ''Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences Accessoires," and since 1842 it has been continued as "Jour- 
nal de Pharmacie et de Chimie." The exchanges have been bound as usual, and the Library can now be; 
consulted with great advantage, as each class and each subject is arranged in its proper classification. 

Joseph P. Remington, Curator, read a report which embraces the changes in the 

Cabinet and Museum during the year. It was, on motion, accepted. 

The Curator would respectful report that the changes and improvements authorized by the College 
and Board of Trustees in the distribution and re-arrangement of specimens and apparatus have been 
thoroughly appreciated by all who are interested in the use of these very valuable parts of the equipment 
of the College. The building of the new walnut cases along the western wall of the Museum, and the 
removal of some of the apparatus used to illustrate lectures on physics to a suitable case in the second 
story lecture room, have probably contributed more to the general improvement than any other change. 
The reception of many valuable specimens during the past year encourages the hope that it will not 
be long before our institution will possess the most complete collection of objects of pharmaceutical inter- 
est in this country. Space will not permit the rehearsing in detail of all of the donations to our Cabi- 
net, but I may be permitted to call attention to the very valuable and interesting collection of Japanese 
drugs which have been sent out from Japan through the courtesy of Prof. S. Nagayo and H. Miyaka, of 
Tokio; to specimens of true damiana, Turnera aphrodisiaca ; two specimens of Aplopappus; several eri - 
odictyons and grindelias ; chittem bark from Oregon, fruit of Solanum paniculatum, oil of tucuma and of 
batiputa, and many others of greater or lesser rarity and value. The Curator feels that the pharmaceu- 
tical meetings have assisted largely in adding specimens to the Cabinet, and takes this opportunity to 
appeal to members to still further increase the resources and add to the general interest by placing not 
only crude drugs, but pharmaceutical preparations illustrating improvements or important changes, and 
this is now of particular interest from the fact of the near approach of the revision of the Pharmacopoeia 
of 1880. If members cannot attend the meetings personally, our Actuary, who has already given a 
great deal of time and interest to matters relating to the Cabinet, will be glad to receive papers and 
specimens, and place them on record for comparison or for permanent preservation. Such a collection, 
appropriately labeled and dated, would become more and more valuable as time rolls on. In thanking, 
on behalf of the College, the various members for their donations, the Curator would call the attention 
of the members particularly to the munificent gift of one hundred dollars towards preserving and protect - 
ing Cabinet specimens by one of our well-known citizens, an alumnus of this College, and one who has 
ever felt a great interest in assisting in the work of increasing her resources^Frederick Gutekunst, of 
Philadelphia. 

Respectfully submitted, JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, Curator. 

March 31st, 1879. 

Prof. Remington announced the arrival of two cases of drugs for the College 
from Dr. Dymock, of Bombay, which have not yet been unpacked. 

The following letter addressed to Charles Bullock, acknowledging the receipt of 
the specimens of drugs sent to Japan by the College, was read. 



■zjo Minutes of the College. { ^ay^C^T** 

Central Sanitary Board, Home Department, ) 
Tokio, Japan, March, I879. J 
'CHARLES BULLOCK, Esq., 1st Vice-President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.. U S. A. 

Dear Sir — I duly received your letter, dated December 2d, 1878, together with bill of lading for four 
boxes containing specimens of American medicinal artic'es. 

The 140 specimens (in duplicate) arrived here quite safe on the 9th of January, and I feel great pleas- 
ure to receive such co.nplete and va uable collection from your College in exchange for the set of Japan- 
ese medicinal artic'es I sent you before. One set is kept in the office of the Central Sanitary Board and 
a duplicate was sent to the Medical Department of the Tokio University. 

Please be kind enough to acknowledge the safe reception of the collection and to accept my best 
thanks for it. 

Very respectfully yours, SENSAT NAGAYO, 

Chief of the Central Sanitary Board in the Home Department of Japan. 

Professor Maisch read his report as Editor of the "Journal of Pharmacy," giving 
many interesting facts connected therewith, some of which will be of interest to the 
contributors to its columns. The following is an abstract of the report: 

The Editor respectfully reports that, as heretofore, the "Journal " has been regularly issued about 
the first of each month, with the exception of ihe December number, 1878, the publication of which was 
■deferred, with the consent of the Publishing Committee, so that lastyear's volume might contain a report 
of the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association which, on account of the yellow fever, 
had been postponed from September to November 26th. 

It was again found necessary to issue several numbers consisting almost exclusively of original essays 
and translations, and to increase the size of the volume closing last December, from the promised 576 to 
-624 pages. It is gratifying to state that, with few exceptions, the original papers contributed to the 
"Journal" have been republished, or translated, entirely, or in abstract, by other journals. 

During the year closing with the March number, thirteen members of the College contributed to 
the "Journal" twenty-two papers, and there were fourty-four contributors against forty-seven during the 
preceding year, who are not members of the College ; the contributions from this source were fifty-two. 

The abstracts from theses, which the Editor deemed worthy of publication, have diminished from 
twenty-six during the preceding year to thirteen, a falling off of one-half. 

Perhaps the time may noi have arrived yet when the thesis should be considered in graduation, but 
m the Editor's opinion it would not be asking too much if each thesis, pretending to be based on original 
■experimentation, should be accompanied by a full line of specimens, including the crude material and 
all the finished products, such specimens to be subject to verification and to be incorporated with the 
collections of the College. 

Of the original papers published in the " Journal " twelve were read at the Pharmaceutical Meet- 
ings and at the meetings of the Alumni Association, and four before other colleges of pharmacy. Sixteen 
papers related to subject! of materia medica, twelve to chemistry, thirty-four to pharmacy and twelve to 
other subjects of interest. Forty-six authors contributed each one paper ; seven each two papers ; two 
each three papers, and two authors contributed four papers each. 

Respectfully submitted, JOHN M. MAISCH, Editor. 

The report of the Publishing Committee was read by the chairman, and was, on 
motion, accepted. 

To the members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

The Committe respectfully report that they have attended regularly to the duties of their appoint- 
ment for the year ending at this date. 

The " Journal" of the College has been promptly issued on the first of each month as usual, and 
is, we think, a true record of the progress of Pharmaceutical Science for the period intended to be 
covered. 

The list of subscribers has continued reasonably good, considering the long oontinued depression of 
business throughout the country, and which pharmacy has felt as much as any other occupation. 

The reporis of the Treasurer and of the Business Editor, which accompany this, will give in detail' 
all the receipts and expenditures of the year. 

HENRY N. RITTENHOUSE, 

Philadelphia, March 31st, 1879. Chairman Publication Committee. 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
May, 1879. 



Minutes of the College. 



271 



The report of the Business Editor to the Publishing - Committee was read for 
information and approved. 

The Treasurer of the Committee's report, exhibiting the usual prosperous condi- 
tion of this department of the College, was also read and, on motion, accepted. 

Thomas S. Wiegand read a report on the condition of the sinking fund, which 
was of a satisfactory character. It was, on motion, accepted. 

The Treasurer of the College reported the names of six members who are each five 
years in arrears of payment of their annual dues. In accordance with the usual 
•custom, their names were, on motion, ordered to be stricken from the roll of mem- 
bers. 

A communication from J. Campbell Harris, Esq., executor of the estate of the 
late Thomas H. Powers, acknowledging the receipt of the resolutions sent to the 
family of the deceased by the College, was read and directed to be recorded on 
the minutes. 

Wm. B. Thompson alluded in fitting language to the distinguished services ren- 
dered the College for a long period of time by Dr. Robert Bridges as Professor of 
Chemistry, and as a member of the College ; and as the minutes of the Board of 
Trustees which had just been read recorded his resignation as Professor of Chem- 
istry in the College, he suggested the propriety of some action being taken by this 
meeting which would show in a proper manner our appreciation of his services. 
Mr. Thompson thought he well deserved the title of Emeritus Professor of Chem- 
istry in the College, as a compliment for the faithful manner in which he had devoted 
his time and talents to its interests. Professor Remington and others coincided with 
this opinion, and, on motion, the following preamble and resolution were unani- 
mously adopted, and referred to the Board of Trustees to carry into effect : 

•* Whereas, Dr. Robert Bridges, Professor of Chemistry, on account of failing 
health, presented his resignation at the last meeting of the Board of Trustees of 
the College j 

"Resolved, That the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, in accepting the resig- 
nation, desire to testify their sense of regret at their loss, and it is therefore 

"Resolved, That the title of Emeritus Professor of Chemistry be conferred upon 
Dr. Robert Bridges by this College, expressive of our regard for one who has labored 
so faithfully for the best interests of this institution." 

Daniel S. Jones alluded to the illness of the President of the College at the present 
time, and offered the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted: 

"Resolved, That this meeting learns with sincere regret of the illness of our 
esteemed President, Dillwyn Parrish, and hereby tenders our expression of sym- 
pathy, with the earnest hope for his early and permanent recovery." 

Professor Remington, on behalf of the Committee on Deceased Members, called 
attention to the death of Dr. George B. Wood, which occurred on the 30th inst., 
and alluded to the fact of his having filled a professor's chair in this College from 
1822, when the College was incorporated, until 1835. His interest in the College 
•was always great, and did not abate when he was called to fill the chair of Materia 



272 



Minutes of the College. 



Am. Jour. Pharm- 

May, 1879. 



Medica in the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Remington moved that a 
committee of three be appointed by the chair to prepare suitable resolutions for the 
occasion, and report at an adjourned meeting to be held on Monday, the 7th inst., 
at 4 o'clock P. M. The motion was adopted, and the Chair appointed Messrs. 
Alfred B. Taylor, Joseph P. Remington and Daniel S. Jones the committee. 

Professor Maisch called the attention of the meeting to the death of Dr. Jacob 
Bigelow, of Boston, and of F. L. M. Dorvault, of Pari*, the former an honorary 
and the latter a corresponding member of the College. Dr. Bigelow died in Boston 
on the 10th of January, 1879, a g e d ninety-one years, and is widely and honorably 
known as the author of the "American Medical Botany" which bears his name. 

Professor Remington, on behalf of the Committee on Deceased Members, gave 
notice of the death of Christopher Henry Kolp, Ph.G., who died in Philadelphia,, 
Pa., Feb. nth, 1879, in tne 2 9^ year of his age. He was a graduate of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, of the class of 1869, an active member of the Col- 
lege, of the Alumni Association, also of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
He was engaged in the retail drug business in Philadelphia at the time of his death,, 
which was sudden and unexpected to his many friends. 

This being the annual meeting, an election for officers, trustees and the standing 
committees was ordered. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Wm. B. Thompson and Alfred Mellor tellers,. 

who upon counting the vote announced the following gentlemen elected to the 

respective positions enumerated below, viz. : 

President— Dillwyn Parrish. 

First Vice President — Charles Bullock. 

Second Vice President — Robert Shoemaker. 

Treasurer — Samuel S. Bunting. 
Recording- Secretary — William J. Jenks. 

Corresponding Secretary — Alfred B. Taylor. 

Board of Trustees — for one year — John M. Maisch, Daniel S. Jones, Andrew Blair; for two years — 
Joseph P. Remington, T. Morris Perot, James T. Shinn ; for three years — Dr. Robert Bridges, Thomas 
S. Wiegand, William B. Webb. 

Publication Committee — John M. Maisch, Henry N. Rittenhouse, Thomas S. Wiegand, James T. 
Shinn, Charles Bullock. 

Sinking Fund Committee—Thomas S. Wiegand, T. Morris Perot, James T. Shinn. 

Editor— John M. Maisch. 

Librarian — Thomas S. Wiegand. 

Curator — Joseph P. Remington. 

There being no further business, then, on motion, adjourned to meet at the hall 
on Monday, April 7th, 1879, at 4 o'clock P.M. Wm. J. Jenks, Secretary. 



Philadelphia, April 7th, 1878. 
An adjourned meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this 
day at the hall, Charles Bullock, Vice-President, in the chair 5 twelve members 
present. 

The meeting convened pursuant to adjournment to hear the report of the committee 
appointed on the 30th ultimo to draft resolutions expressive of the sentiments of the 
members of the College, relative to the death of our esteemed fellow member,. 
Dr. George B. Wood 



Am May r ; I 879 arm '} Minutes of the College. 273 

Joseph P. Remington, on behalf of his colleagues, read the following resolution 
and memoir, which the committee had prepared : 

" Whereas, The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy have learned, with feelings 
of sorrow and regret, of the death of our esteemed and greatly honored member, 
Professor George B. Wood, M. D., and although the memory of his great services 
to the cause of pharmacy cannot be readily effaced, we still desire to record our 
sense of the loss which has been sustained by his death ; and, whereas, it is fit and 
proper that the actions, character and services of the illustrious dead should be por- 
trayed and commemorated, and, whereas, we wish to put on record an expression 
of our sense of the great private worth which characterized our late fellow member^ 
no less than his public virtues, 

"Resolved, That in the death of Dr. George B. Wood, the College of Pharmacy 
has lost one of its most revered and distinguished members ; the pharmaceutical 
profession one of its most hearty and earnest well wishers j the profession of medi- 
cine one of its most able leaders ; our country one of its most celebrated authors, 
and the world one of its truly great men. 



" Whilst it is not the intention of your committee to rehearse, at length, the ser- 
vices of this remarkably laborious author (as able writers have already in hand the 
preparation of a suitable biography), it would seem proper to bring to the recollec- 
tion of his fellow members some of the more prominent points in connection with 
his interest in our college and the pharmaceutical profession. 

" The chair of chemistry was first occupied in the College of Pharmacy by Gerard 
Troost, M. D., who served from 1821 to 1822. 

" He was succeeded by Dr. George B. Wood in 1822, who held the chair until 
1831, when on the death of Dr. Benjamin Ellis he was elected Professor of Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy; this position he held until 1835, wnen ne resigned to accept 
the Professorship of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

"It was during his official connection with the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
that the "United States Dispensatory" first saw light, and the title page of the first 
edition of the most successful work of the kind the country has ever seen bears the 
following imprint : 

4< 'The Dispensatory of theJJnited States of America.' By George B. Wood, M. D., 
Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
member of the American Philosophical Society, etc., etc., and Franklin Bac'he, M. D., 
Professor of Chemistry in the^Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, one of the Secre- 
taries of the American Philosophical Society, etc., etc. 1833. 

"In the preface, in setting forth the reasons for publishing this work, these words 
occur : 

" It appears due to our national character that such a work should be in good 
faith an American work, newly prepared in all its parts, and not a mere edition of one 
of the European dispensatories, with here and there additions and alterations which, 
though they may be useful in themselves, cannot be made to harmonize with the 
other materials so as to give to the whole an appearance of unity, and certainly 
would not justify the assumption of a new and national title -for the book. The 

18 



Minutes of the College. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1879. 



authors may be permitted to observe, in relation to themselves, that they have 
expended much time and labor in the preparation of the work; have sought dili- 
gently for facts from every readily accessible source ; have endeavored by a compar- 
ison of authorities and a close sciutiny of evidence to ascertain the truth, whenever 
practicable, and have exerted themselves to the extent of their abilities to render the 
* Dispensatory ' worthy of public approbation both for the quality and quantity of 
its contents and the general accuracy of its statements. 

"The immense sale that this work has enjoyed for forty-six years is the best proof 
as to how far these aspirations were realized. 

" Whilst holding the chair of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in our College, he 
was appointed delegate to the first convention held for revising the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, and thus was begun a connection which lasted for four decades and 
through five revisions. A notable incident occurred in connection with the labors of 
the Revision Committee of 184.O; this committee had prepared their report and it 
was ready by October, 1840, but concluded to defer all action until the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy should present their report $ this communication was sent to 
them near the end of the year 1841, and the preface to the Pharmacopoeia of 1840 
refers to it as folllows : A committee of that body (the College of Phamacy), charged 
with the work of revision, had, in the mean time, been zealously engaged in prose- 
cuting the object of their appointment, and the result of their labors having received 
the sanction of the College, was transmitted to the committee of the convention. 
This contribution from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy consisted of a revised 
copy of the Pharmacopoeia, elaborated with ability and great industry, and present- 
ing, along with numerous individual additions and alterations, some new features in 
the general plan. It, therefore, required close attention and deliberate examination 
on the part of the committee, who found themselves under the necessity of going over 
the whole ground which they had recently traversed. This caused a delay in the 
publication of over a year. 

" From that time invitations were regularly issued to colleges of pharmacy to send 
delegates to the Revision Convention, and amongst all of the physicians who served 
upon the revision committees, none were found who appreciated to a greater extent 
the services of the pharmaceutical section than Dr. George B. Wood. 

"In May, 1850, he was transferred to the Professorship of Theory and Practice 
of Medicine, to take the place formerly held by Dr. Chapman. He held this posi- 
tion until i860, when he resigned and was appointed Emeritus Professor, since which 
time his labors have been principally confined to revising his works and in managing 
his property, which gradually assumed larger and larger proportions. 

"Although removed of late years by failing health from active interest and parti- 
cipation in the affairs of our college, he was ever ready to lend a listening ear when 
improvements were suggested, and assist in many ways by substantial aid. 

" The 30th day of March, 1879, ls an eventful one in the annals of pharmacy, 
marking, as it does, the closing of the earthly career of one whose name has ever 
been a tower of strength in both the medical and pharmaceutical professions. 
" Signed, on behalf of committee, 

" A. B. Taylor, 

" Joseph P. Remington, 

" Daniel S. Jones." 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
May, 1879. / 



Minutes of the College. 



2 7S 



On motion of Mr. Wiegand the resolutions were unanimously accepted. 

Charles Bullock called the attention of the members to the fact that, in the year 
1838, Edward B. Garrigues, one of the original members of the College, had ten- 
dered his resignation as a member, in consequence of his discontinuance of the drug 
business, and that the same had been accepted ; but as Mr. Garrigues was now again 
in the business, and one of the founders of the College (of which there are but three 
now living), Mr. Bullock thought that he ought to be again a member, and, there- 
fore, moved that the resignation of Edward B. Garrigues be reconsidered and that 
he be reinstated a member of the College with all the rights and privileges of 
membership. 

The motion was seconded by Joseph P. Remington, and, after being united with 
by a number of others, was unanimously adopted. 
Then, on motion, adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 



Philadelphia, March 1 8th, 1879. 

In the absence of the President, Mr. Gaillard was called to the chair. The 
minutes of the last meeting were read, and the Registrar noted the fact that there 
was no record of the remarks of Mr. C. W. Hancock upon a variety of orange 
now grown in Florida, which is much prized for its flavor and possesses 
also the peculiarity of separating into the various divisions which are natural to 
it without any rupture of the different sections occurring, thus being eminently 
adapted to use on occasions where dress mast be considered. 

Mr. Gaillard presented for the Secretary a copy of Paris' " Pharmacologia," 
Thatcher's "Dispensatory" and Dr. Benj. Smith Barton's treatise on "Materia 
Medica." 

The Registrar presented to the CoMege, on behalf of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, the volume of the report for 1877 and three volumes of miscellaneous con- 
tributions of the Institution. The Registrar was directed to return the thanks of 
the College for the same. 

Justus Liebig's treatise on " Organic Chemistry," in three volumes octavo, 
was presented to the library by the Registrar. 

Dr. R. V. Mattison read a paper upon opium smoking as practiced in the 
Chinese quarter of San Francisco. The paper was referred to the publication 
committee. During the reading of the paper a pipe such as is used in smoking 
was exhibited, and in the discussion that ensued it was stated that as much as 
420 grains of a soft extract of opium were used in one session of seven to nine 
hours. 

Mr. Charles L. Mitchell exhibited specimens of purified taltoiv, which, for 



276 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, {^^S^T* 

many uses in pharmacy, he had found to be very desirable. The same gentle- 
man also exhibited medicated gelatin cylinders for treating diseases of the ear. 
These as first introduced to the notice ot the medical profession by Dr. Joseph 
Gruber, of Vienna, were of an almond shape, but, consequently, could only be 
introduced in one way, and that sometimes was a cause of unnecessary pain y 
while the cylindrical form permitted their introduction in any way convenient,. 
Vaginal suppositories of gelatin were also exhibited. These were hollow and con- 
tained cotton, which prevented the medicating components from flowing away. 
Gelatin cylinders, similarly prepared and medicated, having a piece of silk thread 
attached to them to prevent their displacement, were exhibited and their use in 
treating diseases of the nasal fossae explained. All of these appliances have been 
used with great satisfaction in the Jefferson Medical College clinics. 

The question of the propriety and legality of the special patent medicine tax of 
Pennsylvania was brought before the attention of the meeting, and it was thought 
that, as it was a matter which concerned the great body of the trade at large, if a 
meeting of the druggists should be called, it would be generally responded to; the 
discussion was widened, ancl the question of the United States alcohol tax was 
introduced as unjust, but the Internal Revenue Commissioner, in his interview with 
a committee of the American Pharmaceutical Association some years ago, had 
shown that it would be impossible to frame a different law without giving permission 
to large numbers to open stores under the guise of pharmacies which would be 
only liquor saloons. 

Prof. Sadtler alluded to uranine which was exhibited at the last meeting. Since 
then he learned that Prof. Remsen, of Baltimore, had analyzed this substance, and 
found it to consist of a sodium compound of resorcin-phthalein (fluorescein). The 
following structural formulas explain the composition of pher.ol, and of the 
several derivatives alluded to : 

C 6 H 5 — OH Phenol. 

1 OH 
C e H 4<oH Resorcm - 

C 6 H 4<coOH Phthalic Acid 

C 6 H 4<CO>° Phtha!ic Anh Y drid - 

C e^<CaC 6 6 H;oS Phenol-Pl thalein. 

CO.C 6 H 3 <OH 
C 6 H 4 < O Resorcin-Phthalein 

CO.C 6 H 3 <OH (Fluorescein). 

Two gas stoves, made by the Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Company, were exhib- 
ited. By simple changes, very great variations in temperature were attainable ; one 
of them, by aid of small bellows worked by the foot, was capable of fusing several 
ounces of cast iron in a short time. 

Prof. Sadtler described a safety gas stove he had constructed, somewhat after the 
plan described some years since in " Sillima'n's Journal," by means of which ether, 
benzin or even gasolin could be distilled with safety ; but he cautioned the members 



Am '£y r ,'^9 tm '} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 277 

present not to distill carbon disulphide, as the sulphur would deposit in the wire 
gauze and burn, from which the vapors of the liquid would ignite. 
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S. Wieg and, Registrar. 



Philadelphia, April 15th, 1879. 

In the absence of the President, who has been confined to the house by serious 
illness, Mr. Wm. Mclntyre was called to the chair The minutes of the last meet- 
ing were read and approved. 

Prof. Maisch presented a copy of the National Dispensatory for the Library, and 
for the Cabinet a remarkably fine specimen of Angostura bark, which had been sent 
to him by Messrs. Lehn & Fink, of New York. Its unusually fine quality at first 
raised doubts as to its authenticity, but close inspection and microscopic examina- 
tion proved it to be genuine; it is in long quills and curved pieces, nearly all of 
which have the whitish soft and and almost mealy cork attached 5 its appearance 
indicates that it has been dried and preserved with the utmost care. 

Prof. Remington exhibited an improved distillatory apparatus in full operation, 
which was highly approved of by those present 5 a written description of it may be 
found on page 225. 

Mr. H. C. Archibald exhibited the improved apparatus for making suppositories 
without fusing the ingredients together, thus rendering the dispensing of supposito- 
ries, even in warm weather, an easy matter, an inexperienced person, even, being 
able to turn out a dozen suppositories in less than ten minutes It was stated that 
the apparatus had been tested by a number of persons who had given it their 
approval. A full description may be found in the April number of the " Journal," 
page 184. 

Some discussion took place as to the best method for preparing suppositories, and 
the usual difference of opinion was noticed, some members preferring to make them 
by fusion, others by the cold process. Mr. Mclntyre stated that he had followed 
Mr. Archibald's plan for some years, using a dividing mould and pressing the mixed 
material by means of a cork, instead of a plunger. 

At the pharmaceutical meeting in February Prof. Maisch alluded to what is called 
Chinese rice paper. In further illustration of this subject, Dr. F. V. Greene, U.S.N., 
had sent a specimen of Chinese art, consisting of paintings upon this kind of paper; 
accompanying it was a note descriptive of the plant, and drawings illustrating the 
position of the pith in the stem, the external markings from the pressure of the 
woody fibre, and the lenticular cavities found in the centre of some specimens. 

Prof. Maisch asked if any of the members were aware of the wood of the root of 
Nyssa being used to make tents for surgical purposes in place of the Laminaria digi- 
tata, and exhibited specimens of the wood of the root of Nyssa uniflora and N. 
multiflora, which were sent by Messrs. Wallace Bros., of Statesville, N. C. 

Mr. Biddle exhibited a specimen of leaves sold in large quantity as Jaborandi, 
which attracted attention by their odor, and examination showed them to be laurel 
.leaves [Laurus nobilis). 

There being no further business, on motion, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



278 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am i£^ x S£! 

PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.— The chair of chemistry made vacant by 
the resignation of Prof. Bridges has been filled by the Board of Trustees by the 
unanimous election of Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Prof. Sadtler is a native of Pennsylvania, and studied chemistry at the Lehigh Uni- 
versity, at Yale College, and at Heidelberg, Germany. After his return to this 
country, he was for three years Professor of Chemistry at Gettysburg College, when 
he was called to the scientific department of the University of Pennsylvania. During 
the past winter he has been assisting Prof. Bridges, and lectured to the junior class 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy on physics and the non-metallic elements,, 
and to the senior class on organic chemistry. He brings to his new position a large 
amount of practical experience in the laboratory and lecture-room ; he is the author 
of a very valuable work entitled " Chemical Experimentation, 1 ' and is the American 
editor of the latest edition of Attfield's " Chemistry." 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. —The twelfth annual commencement was 
held at the College Hall, April 23d. The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was 
conferred upon the following gentlemen : 

Thomas Trefethen Goodale (Malt Extract), Francis Mason Harris (Pepper),. 
Edward Mark Lowell (Monobromated Camphor), Edgar Henry Luce (Purified Ani- 
mal Charcoal), John Alexander McDonald (S-iveet Spirit of Nitre), Charles Naylor 
( Caffeina), William Herbert Pierce (Purified Aloes), Francis Alexander Schouler 
(Fluid Extract of Podophyllum), Charles William Wells (Goa Powder). 

An andress on the late Pror. J. M. Merrick was delivered by Prof Markoe, and 
valedictory addresses by Mr. Thos. Doliber on behalf of the faculty, and by Mr.. 
T. T. Goodale on behalf of the class. 

Pharmacy in Rhode Island.— The State Board of Pharmacy, in their ninth, 
annual report to the General Assembly, regret that in the condition of pharmacy 
there has been little of progress or improvement in the past year. The general busi- 
ness depression has been severely felt by the pharmacists, and their time and thought 
have been occupied at the counter rather than in the study and experiments of the 
laboratory. The Board state that during the year six persons applied for registration 
as pharmacists, only one of whom gave satisfactory evidence of his qualifications for 
registration. These applicants were men who had not been in the business or had 
wasted their time as assistant pharmacists in States where there was no regular 
apprenticeship required by law, and, consequently, were deficient in the practical 
knowledge of pharmacy which can only be obtained by study and earnest applica- 
tion. Twenty persons applied for registration as assistant pharmacists, fourteen of 
whom passed the examination and were duly registered. The remaining six were 
remanded to their studies. The Board remark that many of the disappointed appli- 
cants for registration and their friends complained that the examinations were too- 
rigid. The Board, however, believe that they have placed the standard of efficiency 
where it could be easily attained by a proper use of the term of apprenticeship.. 



Am Ma°y, r i8 P 7 J arm } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 279 

Although the examinations were not so rigid as those required by the colleges, yet 
they were such as would warrant to the citizens a safe dispensing of medicines. The 
Board commends the action of the Rhode Island Medical Society in deciding to 
adopt the metric system of weights and measures after Jan. ist, 1880. The Phar- 
maceutical Association, they say, had adopted, a resolution to co-operate with the 
doctors in the matter, and hereafter tne Board would require a knowledge of the 
system by all applicants for registration. 



New York Pharmaceutical Association. — We are pleased to learn that during 
the present month, May 21st, the initiatory meeting will be held at Utica. We hope 
that the new association will at once be established upon a firm basis. 



Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. — As will be seen from the announce- 
ment on page 1 1 of our advertising sheet, the second annual meeting will take place 
in Pittsburg, on the second Tuesday of June. All who desire to become members 
should address the Chairman of the Executive Committee, Chas. Cressler, Cham- 
bersburg, Pa. 



Maryland College of Pharmacy. —The twenty-seventh annual commencement 
was held at the Academy of Music, Baltimore, on the evening of March 24th. 



National College of Pharmacy at Washington, D. C— The annual meeting of 
the National College of Pharmacy was held April 7th, at the lecture-hall of the 
College, with a good attendance of its members. The address of the retiring Presi- 
dent, Mr. John A. Milburn, reviewed the progress made during the year in a very 
able and interesting manner, and was full of valuable suggestions for the future. The 
reports of the Secretary, Treasurer and the various committees showed the College 
to be in a prosperous condition, and that the institution had become self-sustaining. 

The election of officers for the ensuing collegiate year resulted in the choice of 
Messrs. J. D. O'Connell as President, John R. Major and G. G. C. Simms as 
Vice-Presidents, Chas. Becker as Secretary, W. G. Duckett as Treasurer, and Karl 
Kullberg, J. S. Jones, J. W. Drew, R. B. Ferguson, Z. W. Cromwell, John A. 
Milburn and W. S. Thompson as additional Trustees. 

The graduates who successfully passed the examination and received the degree of 
the College are Messrs. S. W. Bower, Nelson Head, H. W. Hodges, T. A. T. 
Judd, Harry Standiford and W. E. Shaffer. 



Chicago College of Pharmacy.— At the annual meeting, held April ist, the insti- 
tution was reported in a flourishing condition. The regular examinations have been 
held, and sixteen candidates have passed them with credit. The following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year : President, Prof. C. G. Wheeler ; Vice-Presi- 
dents, George Buck and Prof. F. M. Goodman; Recording Secretary, G. H. 
Ackerman 5 Corresponding Secretary, H. Biroth 5 Treasurer, A. G. Vogeler ; and 
the following Board of Trustees : Messrs. Sargent, Whitfield, Mills, Jacobus, 
Borland, Bartlett, Cowdrey, Coffin, Somers and Harting 



280 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { km £y%l^ Tm ' 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The annual commencement took place at 
College Hall, on the evening of March 19th. The degree of Graduate in Phar- 
macy was conferred on thirteen candidates. An address was delivered by Judge 
Jos. Cox. Prof. Judge delivered the valedictory address on behalf of the faculty, 
and Mr. J. M. Long on behalf of the class. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britian. — At the Pharmaceutical meeting 
held February 5th, President John Williams in the chair, Mr. E. M. Holmes read a 
paper on Myrtus Cbekan, Spreng., an evergreen shrub of Chili, the oval-lanceolate 
and entire leaves of which have recently been sent to London ; they have an aro- 
matic, pungent, slightly bitter and astringent taste, and are considered by Dr. 
Dessauer, of Valparaiso, to possess tonic, expectorant, diuretic and antiseptic pro- 
perties, and to be particularly useful in cases of bronchitis, catarrh of the bladder and 
other affections of the mucous membranes. 

Mr. William A. Tilden read a paper on distilled oil of lemon. The oil had been 
prepared by Mr. John Moss, and on examination proved to consist, 1, of a terpene, 
C 10 H 16 , boiling below i6o°C, a small qnantity 2, of a terpene called citrene, boil- 
ing at 176 , the chief constituent ; 3, of an oxygenated substance of alcoholic proper- 
ties, probably formed by the combination of one of the hydrocarbons with the ele- 
ments of water; and 4, of minute quantities of several less important substances which 
do not contribute appreciably to the fragrance of the oil, this being chiefly due to 
the association of the first three principles. In the discussion following the reading 
of the paper surprise was expressed at the statement that this distilled oil was supe- 
rior in odor to that ordinarily obtained. 

At the pharmaceutical meeting held March 5th two papers, by W. R. Dunstan 
and A. F. Dimmock, were read. One of the papers treats of the estimation of dias- 
tase, which the authors effect by ascertaining the amount required for completely 
converting the jelly of a given weight of starch into maltose and dextrin, by mace- 
ration for three hours at a temperature not exceeding iao°F. The second paper 
gave the results of an examination of 14 samples of extract of malt, the variation of 
which is shown by the following figures: Water, 190 to 86*3; ash, 0*3 to 1:6 j 
maltose, 4'6 to 59*05 dextrin, 2-5 to 9*8 ; albumenoids, 0*5 to 8*2 ; phosphates, as 
phosphoric pentoxide, — to 6. One sample contained 41 per cent, of alcohol, 
and of three samples, 17 3, 29 and 34 grams were required to convert one gram 
of starch ; the remaining samples did not affect starch. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Adulteration of Food and Medicine.— Of the various products which are sub- 
i ret to adulterations and sophistications, to a greater or less extent, those which aie 
used for food or medicines are doubtless of greatest importance, for obvious reasons} 
mot so much, perhaps, on account of the dangerous qualities of the diluents and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1879. 



Editorial. 



281 



adulterants, but because the nutritive or the medicinal value of the articles are 
thereby reduced. Adulterations and sophistications emanate chiefly from two 
causes 5 on the one hand it is the sordid desire of rapid pecuniary gain, and on the 
other hand, the wish to meet the demand of the consumer for cheap goods. In 
these respects we believe that the people of the United States fare no better and no 
worse than the inhabitants of other countries; but in the legal protection of the 
public against such frauds, there is doubtless room for improvement, if we consider 
that the only remedy of the victim is at common law, with its expensiveness, delays 
and uncertain results, since the conviction and punishment of the offender would 
largely depend upon the amount of damage done to the purchaser by the adulterated 
article. That legal enactments are desirable, covering such offences, and providing 
for their adequate punishment, with the view of lessening, if not eradicating the 
evil, we believe few will dispute ; the difficulty is rather in the drafting of a law 
which may be readily carried into effect, and which should be free from those uncer- 
tainties and other objections that have been experienced in the " Sale of Food and 
Drugs Act," of 1875, of Great Britain. For such purposes a law for the United 
States is evidently inadmissible, and it remains for the different States to make such 
enactments as may be deemed proper. 

Such a plan — it is called a " rough draft " by its author — has been proposed by 
Dr. E. R. Squibb, at the recent meeting of the Medical Society of the State of New 
York, and has been published in pamphlet form by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York, as No. xiv of the serial entitled "Economic Monographs. 11 The proposed 
Jaw defines the terms " food" and " medicine," lays down the standards by which 
adulterations shall be judged, and then explains the different kinds of offences 
regarded as adulterations. The proposed penalties are a fine not exceeding $200 
for the first offence, and imprisonment with hard labor not exceeding six months for 
subsequent offences. The organization of a State Board of Health is contemplated, 
which is to be composed of two physicians, one chemist and physicist, and one 
lawyer, to be appointed from nominations made by the proper societies. This board 
is to select, by competitive examination, a Board of Inspectors of Food and Medi- 
cine, consisting of not less than one for each half million of inhabitants, and also 
a Board of Prosecution, consisting of not less than four persons, for the State of 
New York. The inspectors are required to examine weekly not less than ten arti- 
cles, and for a moderate charge, all complaints of suspected adulterations. The 
salaries are proposed as follows : President of the State Board of Health, $3,000 
other members, $2,000 per year; deductions to be made for all inattentions to their 
prescribed duties. The members of the boards of inspectors and of prosecution are 
to receive an annual salary of $4,000, provided that they shall be prohibited from 
entering into any other business or occupation, and that no other compensation of 
any kind whatever shall be received by them. All fines and moneys received are to 
be paid into the State treasury. 

The "rough draft," of which we have given in brief only the features for its exe- 
cution, is well adapted for inviting the careful consideration of all interested in the 
suppression of adulterations ; it certainly appears to be one way by which that desir- 
able end may be reached, and with some modifications might be adapted to other 



282 



Editorial. 



\m Jour Phartcu 
May, 1879. 



States. In our opinion, the duties of the State Board of" Health might advantage- 
ously be extended to ail the important sanitary interests of the State, as .indicated by 
the author in a note appended to the "draft." In such an event, it would doubtless 
be desirable to modify the formation of the board so as to give a fair representation 
to those whose interests might naturally fall to its supervision. 
The pamphlet contains also a copy of the British law of 1875. 



The introduction of the metric system, we believe, is merely a question of time, 
and since the experiment of its practical introduction into the United States Marine 
Hospital Service has been successfully made, there seems to be a greater incentive 
for its more general use by physicians and pharmacists. The rules elaborated by 
Prot. Oldberg, to which we have referred on a previous occasion (" Amer. Jour. Phar ," 
1878, p. 365), are so simple as to be easily comprehended and remembered, and 
may be practically used without difficulty or serious inconvenience. Several medical 
journals published in the United States are now using the metric system to the entire 
exclusion of the old apothecaries' weights and measures, and several medical associ- 
ations require its use in all communications presented to them. For the introduc- 
tion of the system into medicine at the present time, the initiatory steps probably 
rest with the medical profession, who may prescribe in the metric system and require 
the prescriptions to be thus properly compounded. But the pharmacists may very 
materially further the movement, not only by procuring the necessary implements^ 
but also by directing the attention of physicians to the simplicity of the system, and 
by practically employing it in all those officinal preparations in which it may be used 
with advantage. 

From "metric notes" leceived a short time ago we learn that, among others, the 
following propositions have recently been before the Medical Society of the County 
of New York; 

"Resolved, That the metric system shall henceforth be used in the minutes of 
this Society, and in all the papers published under its authority. 

"Resolved, That the Medical Society of the County of New York request the 
Medical Boards of the Hospitals and Dispensaries to adopt the Metric System in 
prescribing, and that the Faculties of the Medical Colleges be also requested to 
order its adoption in their didactic and clinical departments." 

The society invites the co-operation of kindred societies interested in the move- 
ment, and has for this purpose appointed a Committee on the Metric System, con- 
sisting of Drs. E. Seguin, M. D. Mann and T. A. McBride, to whom communica- 
tions may be addressed. 

We would also invite contributors to the "Journal" to employ the metric system 
in formulas and other communications wherever practicable. 



A Call For Help. — The following letter has been received from the President of 
the Pharmaceutical Society in Hungary : 

The dreadful deluge of the river Theiss has destroyed all the country bordering 
its shores in lower Hungary, with Szegedin, the second town of the kingdom, and 



} Editorial. 28 j 

many other smaller places like Dorozsma, Algyo, Tayse. Nine chemists' shops 
were destroyed by the flood. 

According to telegraphic despatches from the burgermaster of Szegedin only two 
pharmaceutical chemists, out of eight formerly existing in this town, are in proper 
condition to answer the numerous calls for physics. 

The former possessors of their once flourishing, now totally destroyed, business,, 
have been temporarily provided with articles the most necessary (thanks to the lib- 
eral charitable collections of the whole country), but they are in the most extreme 
need of help for the re-opening of their shops. To lend a willing hand towards 
this duty is keenly felt by the Board of the United Pharmaceutical Societies in 
Hungary; each of those have done their duty to the extent of their ability. How- 
ever, the misery is so great that, although the chemists of our country do help with 
all their force, it is not enough for the suffering occasioned. The Board of the 
United Pharmaceutical Societies in Hungary, therefore, most fervently request 'the 
kind help of their profession elsewhere for our poor ruined brothers in Hungary,, 
and trust not to do so in vain, as the evidence of English Christian charity is known 
all over the world. 

Contributions of any kind, in money or in physics, will be most thankfully 
received by Your thankful Colleague, 

Gustav Jarmay, 

Pharmaceutical Chemist in Budapest, Hungary, and President of the Pharmaceutical 

Society in Hungary. 

Contributions for the relief of the sufferers by the flood in Hungary will be 
received by H. H. Wolle, Business Editor of this Journal, and forwarded to the 
President of the Pharmaceutical Society in Hungary. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRA PHICAL NOTICES. 

The National Dispensatory, containing the natural history, chemistry, pharmacy,, 
action and uses of medicines recognized in the Pharmacopoeias of the U. S. and 
Gr. Br. By Alfred Stille, M.D , and John M. Maisch, Ph D. Philadelphia: H. C. 
Lea. 1879. 8vo, pp. r628. Price, in cloth, $6.75, or in leather, $7.50, or bound 
in two parts, cloth, $7.00, leather, $8.25. 

The American pharmacists have looked with an anxious interest for the appear- 
ance of this work, the result of the conjoined labors of men of known repute as 
writers in their respective fields of therapeutics and pharmacy. This is not sur- 
prising, considering that since the last fifteen years they have been almost left with- 
out a guide to which they could refer when confronted by one of the multitude of 
new subjects which have appeared in the course of the rapid progress of science 
made during that time with their claims as remedial agents. To gain the necessary 
information about them involved a search through a voluminous periodical literature, 
a task difficult for all and impossible for many. To meet the wants of the phar- 
macist and the physician of the present day in a " manner concise and complete by a 
work of reference to which the inquirer might turn with the certainty of finding 
everything which experience has stored up as worthy of confidence in connection 
with pharmacy, the action and uses of medicines," was the aim of the authors. It 
cannot be our object to give a full critical account of a work of such a wide scope 



284 Editorial,— Reviews, etc. { km 'A°^T m 

m our attempt of a condensed review of the plan upon which it has been con- 
structed and the manner in which the overwhelming mass of matter has been 
-digested and made available. We intend to draw the attention of our brother 
pharmacists to this publication, which cannot fail to exercise a wide-spread and marked 
Influence upon the discharge of the duties of their vocation. It is from this stand- 
point that we shall endeavor to enable the reader to form an idea of how the authors 
have succeeded in their arduous task. 

The material embodied in the work is truly immense, as shown alone by the 
almost countless number of subjects treated. All of the officinal crude drugs, 
pharmaceutical preparations and chemicals recognized by the U. S. P. and B. P. are 
fully considered, and also those of the G. Ph., and many of the French Codex are 
mentioned to a greater or less extent. The number of unofficinal articles treated of is 
very large, receiving in every case that attention deserved by their interest in connec- 
tion with pharmacy and medicine. The many new articles which have been brought 
sto notice as remedial agents within the last ten or fifteen years are embodied, with a 




Solanum Dulcamara, Lin. Branch and section of stem. 



due consideration of their already established or promised merit. Each article is 
headed by the Latin name, if officinal, as adopted by the U. S. P. and B. Ph., fol- 
lowed by Latin synonyms employed in the different standard works or used by 
earlier writers, also the French and German names and proper English appellations. 
The natural history, chemical properties and uses are treated under the separate 
headings of Origin, Description, Properties, Constituents, Composition, Impurities, 
Adulterations, Uses in Pharmacy and Medicine, and closing with a consideration 
of the doses in which the drug is administered. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1879. J 



Reviews y etc. 



285 



Turning our attention to the crude drugs, and more particularly to those derived 
from the vegetable kingdom as the most important, we find after a brief description 
of the drug and name of the natural order whence it is derived, under the head of 
Origin a concise description of the plant from which it is obtained, the mode of 
production, the general appearance as found in the market, followed by an account 
of all the different varieties of the same article as produced in different localities as 
commonly met with in commerce. Detailed botanical descriptions of the plants 
have been omitted, thus giving more space for the introduction of a new feature 
headed Descriptions, where are found dttailed exhibits of the striking character- 
istics of the drug, heretofore greatly missed in all the works of reference generally 
at the disposal of the pharmacist. These pharmacognostic-diagnoses, founded upon 
the external appearances resulting from peculiar morphological features and pecu- 
liarities of structure characteristic of each drug, and by these readily distinguished 
from every other, however nearly allied, afford thus the means for their identifica- 
tion. Here, to aid the reader, many of these descriptions are illustrated by well- 
executed figures, either of the full plant in flower, as, for example, in the case of 




Transverse sections of Russian, Chinese and European Rhubarb. 



Aristolochia serpentaria, Hyoscyamus, Dulcamara and Ci Ichicum, or of the drug 
itself as found in the market, as excellently shown in the representation of the dif- • 
ferent kinds of cinchona barks and the sarsaparillas, rhubarbs and numerous other 
roots and barks, of which sections are given as seen under the magnifying power of 
the lense or compound microscope to show their structural features or histological 
character, as in Lycopodium, Rottlera and Calisaya bark. 

It is with regret that we do not find similar instructive illustrations more fre- 
quently attached to the drugs derived from our indigenous plants which we have 
found oftener subjected to fabrications, designedly or through ignorance and 



\ 




286 Reviews, etc. { Am ^^ I ? 7 h 9 arm 

want of care, and with whose characteristics the druggist, pharmacist and manu- 
facturer seems to be less acquainted than with 
the majority of drugs of foreign origin. 

We would gladly dwell upon some of the articles 
which have particularly attracted our attention, 
but want of space deters us, though we cannot 
leave the subject without referring to the masterly 

V^C. manner in which, under the article of Cinchona. 
<^=^ .... 

^=S^ the intricacies of quinology are unraveled before 
Gland and hairs of Kamala. the reader, at once lucid and comprehensive, 

embracing the results of the latest researches. 
Under the heading Constituents, a critical account of the proximate principles, 
wherever such is recognized, from the time of their discovery to the present state of 
our knowledge, is given. The difficulties arising from the encounter of conflicting 
statements of facts, the differences of views in regard to the composition of many 
of these compounds, the doubts surrounding their identity and the uncertainty about 
the role assigned them as the active agents, upon which the physiological effects of 
the drug depend, rendered this task a most formidable one. Any one consulting, 
say the article Ergot, or the chemical constitution of cinchona bark, or of opium, 
will not fail to admit that the task has been indeed successfully accomplished in the 
light of the rapid strides of progress made in organic chemistry during the last ten 
years. 

Under the heading Allied Drugs, a number of substances not deemed of sufficient 
interest to require separate articles, are briefly described in connection with those of 
greater importance, to which they are allied either by origin, natural affinities or 
analogous uses. Under adulterations, an accurate description is given of the sub- 
stances which serve as adulterants or are found as incidental admixtures, as, for. 
example, in the case of senna, with the means pointed out for their detection, in aid 
of which, in some cases, figures are added. 

Considering the pharmaceutical and chemical preparations, we find the processes 
for those officinal in the United States and British Pharmacopoeias literally given as 
laid down in those works, besides others employed in different methods of prepara- 
tion, with critical remarks, particularly valuable to those who find it a duty or an 
economical advantage to prepare many of these products themselves. The needs 
of the working pharmacist, in that respect, have been kept constantly in view by the 
authors. This appears evident from the manner in which the explanation of the pro- 
cesses and the directions for the manipulations involved are given with the descrip T 
tion of apparatus and utensils, which are frequently accompanied by illustrations. 
In that respect our attention was particularly attracted in looking over the articles, 
Extracta and Ext, Fluida. We may safely assert that many, after finding themselves 
so clearly and concisely instructed in the preparation of the products belonging to 
these important groups, will find themselves induced to bestow their time and care 
upon them, and thus secure the surest guarantee for dispensing articles of unexcep- 
tionable quality and the desired uniformity. It is not to be expected to find room 
given to the large number of extra officinal preparations, and of that class which parade 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1879. 



Reviews, etc. 



287 



as novelties in the list of manufacturers, and mostly with doubtful or not suffi- 
ciently established claims, but there are several of the preparations, which we miss, 
as having sufficient confidence of the medical profession to be frequently prescribed 
and for which one naturally would look in a book of reference, like the one under con- 
sideration, as e.g., fluid extracts of Triticum repens, Viburnum prunifolium, Hamame- 
lis, Oenothera, Grindelia, of some of which, however, brief mention is made under the 
head of the respective crude drugs. To the formulas of the tinctures and other 
galenical preparations are invariably added those of the G.Ph., and often those of 
Fr. Codex, with comparison of strength of the more heroic remedies. 

Under the heading Liquores, we find inserted, whenever of importance, the tables 
showing relation between Sp. Gr. and per cent, of dissolved matter in the solution. 
Chemical formulae are stated in the new notation. This is as it should be, inconvenient 
as it will appear to those of the older school. Those who have not followed the 
conflict of theories going on in later years must find it difficult to familiarize them- 
selves with the new aspect under which old facts present themselves. For the younger 
generation, accustomed to view them in the light of the prevailing theories, the 
retention of the old formulas, the rationale of which to the majority could have 
none but historical interest, would have been a constant source of vexation. 

In chemicals, under the head of tests, close attention has been given to the 
methods for the detection of impurities and estimation of adulterations. Under 
phosphoric acid we miss Hager's test for the detection of arsenic and phosphorous 
acid, which recommends itself by its readiness and simplicity. 

In turning our attention to the articles connected with the chemistry of the alkaloids, 
we find a striking example of the success achieved in presenting comprehensive and 
often complicated subjects in a manner at once concise and exhaustive, and fully in 
accordance with the advanced state of science. In support of this we need only to 
point to the articles : Cinchona, with the latest methods for assay of the cinchona 
barks; opium, with its valuable contribution under the heading Morphometry; or 
any of those treating of the various cinchona alkaloids. Of omissions we noticed 
but few. We miss quinias hydrobromas and quinise hypophosphis as articles not 
unfrequently prescribed. Considering that the completion of such a comprehensive 
compendium as this work has involved years of labor, and that the multitude of 
subjects within its compass had to be gathered from fields of unlimited extent, fields 
where new seeds are daily sown, bringing forth constantly new harvests of facts 
affecting the interests of pharmacy, it is only to be wondered at that the number 
of omissions to which a close criticism might point is so small. 

The work closes with an appendix containing tables of weights and measures, 
tables showing the relation between apothecaries' weights and their equivalents in the 
metric system — this last subject having particular attention bestowed upon it — com- 
parisons of scales of the different hydrometeis, alcoholometers and thermometers; 
the list of leading reagents will be found of particular interest, as also as a new 
feature to the American pharmacist, the addition of volumetric test solutions 
expressed in the values of the metric system. A complete general index directs the 
student to 10,400 references. The therapeutical index will be regarded as a conve- 
nience to the practitioner. 



288 



Reviews, etc. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1879 



As not belonging to our province, we have refrained from commencing upon ail 
that in the work which is connected with therapeutics and pharmacodynamics, treated 
under the headings Physiological Action and Medical Uses, to which a fully equal 
share of the pages of the work is given, so as to render it of not less importance to 
the practitioner than to the pharmacist. 

We congratulate the authors upon their success in having brought to a close a 
work which must inevitably take its place as one of the most important contributions 
to medical and pharmaceutical literature. The publishers have done full justice to 
the work in the material and typography of the book, which leave nothing to be 
desired. Chas. Mohe. 

Mobile, Ala , April, 1879. 



Chemistry, General, Medical and Pharmaceutical, including the Chemistry of the if. S. 
Pharmacopeia. A Manual of the General Principles of the Science, and their 
Applications in Medicine and Pharmacy. By John Attfield, M. A., Ph.D 
Eighth edition. Revised by the Author. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea. 1879. 
i2mo, pp. 697. Price, cloth $2.50, leather $3.00. 

We have repeatedly expressed our favorable opinion of this work, and on the 
appearance of a new edition of it, little else remains for us to say, except that we 
expect this eighth edition to be as indispensable to us as the seventh and previous 
editions have been. While the general plan and arrangement has been adhered to, new 
matter has been added covering the observations made since the former edition. 
The present differs from the preceding one chiefly in these alterations, and in about 
ten pages of useful tables added in the appendix. 

We observe that on page 395, where the preparation of resin of podophyllum is 
described, the author forgot to strike out the incorrect sentence, " No acid is ordered 
in U. S. P." On p. 419 the composition of jalap resin is not correctly stated. 
Mayer's jalapin was obtained from Ipomoea orizabensis, and the resin of scammony 
was pronounced identical with it by Keller. Kayser's rhodeoretin is Mayer's con- 
volvulin, and obtained from true jalap, Ipomoea purga. That portion of crude 
jalap resin which is soluble in ether is stated by Kayser and Sandrode to be soluble 
in alkalies, from which solutions it is reprecipitated by acid ; this resin connot there- 
fore be identical with jalapin. 



The following pamphlets have been received : 

The Treatment of Genito-urinary Organs y etc. By J. J. Caldwell, M. D. 

Ttventy-sixth Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble-minded 
Children, Media, Delaware county. 8vo, pp. 23. 

Circular of Information Relating to the Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble- 
minded Children, 1879. 8vo, pp. 35. 

An Address upon the Life and Character oj Lunsford Pitts Yandell, M.D. By Rich, 
O. Cowling, A.M., M.D. 1879. vo - PP- IO - 

Opium as a Tonic and Alterative, and Its Hypodermic Use, etc. By B. A. Pope 
M.D. vo. pp. 14. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JUNE, 1879. 

GLYCERIN — ITS EARLY MANUFACTURE IN THIS 

COUNTRY. 

By Robert Shoemaker. 

I have thought it might be interesting to the readers — especially 
the younger portion — of the " Journal," to be told something of the 
introduction of this manufacture in the United States. 

I claim to have made the first glycerin, produced for sale, or as an 
article of commerce, in this country, and it came about in this wise. 

In the year 1837 I commenced, in this city, the preparation of the 
plasters of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and sold them (chiefly in rolls of 
half a pound) to the druggists in this city, first, and afterward through- 
out the country. Machine spread plasters (except adhesive, on cloth) 
came later, and I may have something to say of these in a future 
paper. 

The base of all, or nearly all, of these plasters was emp. plumbi, of 
which I manufactured large quantities. 

About the time my late much-esteemed friend, Wm. Procter, Jr., 
was preparing the matter for his " Mohr, Redwood and Procter's Phar- 
macy," he asked permission to examine my apparatus for the manufac- 
ture of lead plaster, with a view of writing an article for his forthcom- 
ing book. This request I freely granted, and the result of his visit to 
my laboratory may be found on page 420, etc., of that book, edition 
of 1849. At the time of the visit of Mr. Procter we were busily 
engaged in dipping out the newly made emp. diach,, and cooling it by 
kneading and pulling in cold water. This water, when it became 
warm, was allowed to run to waste, carrying with it what glycerin it 
had extracted from the plaster. 

Mr. Procter asked me if I could not make him some glycerin, "at 
least enough for a specimen for the class," adding, "here is a great 
waste." I had often tasted the water sweetened by the glycerin, but 

J 9 



n^o Glycerin^ its Early Manufacture. { Am jS%g^ 4te ' 

as there was at that time no demand for the article, this " waste" was 
allowed. 

I at once set about producing the specimen for Prof. Procter. As 
near as I can remember, taking about five gallons of water in which 
lead plaster had been kneaded and cooled, 1 turned it into an evaporat- 
ing pan (jacketed), passed on the steam, keeping it below the boiling 
point, evaporated the fluid to the consistence of a thin syrup. Trans- 
ferring this to a glass'vessel, a current of sulphuretted hydrogen was 
passed through it, to precipitate the oxide of lead held in solution, then 
filtered it, and my glycerin was completed. Of this, my first effort, I 
sent Mr. Procter a part, retaining the balance, which was often shown 
as a curiosity. 

This was about the year 1846. Although glycerin had been discov- 
ered by Scheele more than 60 years before that time, it had not come 
into use (at least in this country), and there was no demand for it. 

After this (about 1848) I made a larger quantity, it having been 
recommended in a French medical journal as a curative in pulmonary 
affections. The paper was translated, and appeared in one or more of 
our medical journals ; it came to be prescribed by some of our physi- 
cians. 

Looking back over my books, I find, the first entry charging glycerin 
under date of " 6th mo. 1st, 1848," and this was to Edward Parrish, 
then at the northwest corner of Chestnut and Ninth streets. The quan- 
tity was small, only \ lb., and the price charged was $4.00 per lb. The 
next sale was to a New York house, at same price, and for a larger 
quantity. The entire product sold in 1848 was about 15 lbs. In 1849 I 
reduced the price to $3.00 per lb., and it remained steadily at this figure 
until near the close of 1850, when it fell to $2.75. The quantity sold 
in 1849 was aDout 200 lbs. The demand rapidly increased, and in 
1850 the quantity sold was much larger, but I find no charge at a less 
price than $2.70 per lb. 

I find sales entered to druggists (beside those in this city) in New 
York, Boston, Providence, Baltimore, Louisville, New Orleans, etc. 
The greatest demand, however, came from our own wholesale houses, 
the manufacturing chemists being the largest buyers. Glycerin now 
began to be imported from England (Price's), and sold at a price below 
what it cost me to produce it, and so I gradually ceased to make it. 
This English article was made from "soap liquor.'* 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1879. J 



Chloroform and Ether. 



291 



When I first commenced making glycerin, the quantity of lead 
plaster manufactured gave me for one or two years all that I needed ; 
but soon I made the plaster for the sake of the glycerin alone ; and I 
remember at one time I had many hundredweight of plaster, in mass, 
from which I had taken the glycerin, and for which there was no sale, 
so that the plaster and not the glycerin became the refuse product. 

In looking over my books for facts connected with this article, my 
mind was saddened by reading the names of many who thirty years 
since were actively engaged in the prosecution of their profession, but 
who now " sleep the last sleep." Referring to a few in our city alone, I 
meet such names as Charles Ellis, Edward Parrish, Wm. Procter, Jr., 
Elias Durand, Frederick Brown,' Tristram Needles, Joseph and John 
Reakirt, Frederick Klett, John K. and George K. Smith, Edward 
and Charles Yarnall, Geo. D. Wetherill, the Roberts, Lennigs, Cres- 
sons, and many others. 

It is an interesting study, comparing the small beginnings as related 
above (only a generation back) with the immense production of glyce- 
rin at the present day. So far as I am informed, all that I made and 
sold was used medicinally, either internally administered or in form of 
iotion or unguent. 

At this day, vast quantities are used in the manufacture of nitro- 
glycerin, dynamit, duallin and other explosives. The perfumers are 
large consumers, also the confectioners. Large quantities are used for 
the preservation of fruits and meat, as well as in the preparation of 
chewing tobacco. 

But the greatest demand comes, perhaps, from the brewers. It is 
estimated that over 40,000 pounds is drank annually in beer in this 
country alone ; and instead of my old price of $4.00 per lb., an article 
quite as good can now be produced for 18 cents per lb. 
Philadelphia, April, 1879. 

I 

ON THE MIXTURE OF CHLOROFORM AND ETHER. 

By Wm. H. Greene, M.D. 
A mixture of chloroform and ether has long been employed as an 
anaesthetic, and discussion has frequently arisen as to the proportions 
which should be employed and the properties of the mixture. The 
second of these questions may be decided by experiment. 



2 9 2 Preparation of Ethyl- Bromide. { Am J ^^J 7 h 9 arm ' 

When ether and chloroform are mixed there is an elevation of tem- 
perature, and the greatest heat is produced when the mixture is made in 
equi-molecular proportions. 43 grams of ether at 20°C. being mixed 
with 60 grams of chloroform at the same temperature, the temperature 
of the mixture rises to 35 . The ether should be anhydrous, other- 
wise the mixture will be turbid. There is but little contraction in- 
volume, and it may be supposed that molecular combination take& 
place between the ether and chloroform. 

The mixture may, however, be separated into its constituents by 
fractional distillation. It begins to boil at 50 to 51 , and several fractio- 
nations are necessary. When it is allowed to evaporate spontaneously,, 
both substances pass into vapor together, and the composition of 
the mixture does not sensibly change. It burns with a smoky .flame,, 
the chloroform burning with the ether. These facts seem to show 
that an unstable molecular compound is formed, as suggested by the 
late Dr. Atlee, who preferred the mixture to all other anaesthetics in his- 
practice. 

ON THE PREPARATION OF ETHYL BROMIDE. 

By Wm. H. Greene, M.D. 

As bromide of ethyl has recently attracted some notice as an appar- 
ently safe and agreeable anaesthetic, having all of the advantages of 
chloroform without producing the nauseating effects which render ether 
unpleasant, an easy process for its preparation may be acceptable to 
pharmacists, for the compound is not now in the market. 

Most cheaply prepared by the action of bromine on alcohol in 
presence of amorphous phosphorus (Personne), ethyl bromide so made 
possesses a slightly garlicky odor, almost impossible to get rid of j this 
is possibly due to a trace of ethylphosphine or a phosphinic ether, but 
however this may be, the product has been objected to on account of 
the odor. 

The process recommended by de Vrij, the action of a mixture of 
strong sulphuric acid and alcohol on potassium bromide yields a product 
contaminated with ordinary ether, and as ethyl bromide and ether boil 
at 40 and 35 respectively, the ether cannot be removed. This con- 
tamination is avoided if the sulphuric acid be dilute, and the following, 
process gives satisfactory results in the preparation not only of ethyl 
bromide but of other alcoholic bromides : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1879. 



On Abietene, 



2 93 



Twelve parts of coarsely powdered potassium bromide and eleven 
parts of sulphuric acid, diluted with its volume of water, are heated in 
a retort or flask fitted to a condenser; as soon as hvdrobromic acid 
begins to be disengaged, twelve parts of alcohol are allowed to flow 
in slowly, as in the preparation of ether. Ethyl bromide distills over 
with a small quantity of water and some alcohol. The distillate is 
agitated with water to remove alcohol, the ethyl bromide separated and 
dried by potassium carbonate, which at the same time neutralizes any 
free acid. It needs no further purification. About eight parts of ethyl 
bromide should be obtained. It should be kept in the dark like all 
other etherial compounds containing chlorine, iodine or bromine. 



ON ABIETENE. 

By Samuel P. Sadtler, Ph.D. 

In the April number of this journal I gave a short preliminary notice 
of a hydrocarbon that had been given me as coming from Pinus ponde- 
rosa. It seemed to be the same as WenzelPs abietene, from Pinus sabiana, 
described in this journal (March, 1872, p. 97), agreeing with it in all 
the tests applied. I therefore took steps to procure a larger portion of 
the abietene, meaning to investigate it fully. In the meantime Prof. 
Thorpe has given the results of a study made by him upon the same 
material. These results are summarized below. I will therefore aban- 
don my proposed examination of the abietene, as the subject has been 
sufficiently and thoroughly settled by Prof. Thorpe's investigation. 

Extract from " Chemical News," April 25TH, 1879. 
" On Heptane from Pinus Sabiana" by T. E. Thorpe. In the 
111 Pharmaceutical Journal," March 30, 1872, W. Wenzell described, 
under the name of Abietene, a new hydrocarbon obtained by distilling 
the exudation of the Pinus sabiana^ a tree indigenous to California, 
known locally as the nut pine, or digger's pine. To procure the exu- 
dation, the tree during winter is notched and guttered at a convenient 
height from the ground. The resin on distillation yields the liquid 
hydrocarbon. The crude oil is met with in San Francisco as an arti- 
cle of commerce under the names of abietene, erasine, etc., as a sub- 
stitute for benzolin, for removing grease spots, etc. It is a nearly col- 
orless mobile liquid, of a powerful aromatic smell, resembling that of 



Minim Pipettes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( June, 1879. 



oil of oranges. Wenzell contrasts its characters with those of tere- 
bene from P. Sylvestris. Abietene, sp. gr. 0-694, boils at 101 , dis- 
solves but a small quantity of hydrochloric acid gas, and is but little 
attacked by cold nitric acid, Terebene, sp. gr. 840, boils at 160% 
absorbs HC1 with avidity, and is violently attacked by nitric acid. From 
a consideration of the general properties and behavior of this hydro- 
carbon the author of the present paper concluded that it was likely to 
be a paraffin. The occurrence of a paraffin playing the part of oil of 
turpentine in the vegetable kingdom was. hitherto unheard of, the only 
natural sources of this hydrocarbon (heptane) being petroleum and fos- 
sil fish-oil. The author, therefore, obtained from Mr. Wenzell two 
gallons of the abietene, and has subjected it to a most exhaustive chem- 
ical and physical examination, the details of which are contained in the 
paper. The crude oil is slightly contaminated with a resinoid matter* 
to which its smell is due. The pure oil boils at 98*42°C. at 760 mm. 
It has the composition of heptane, containing 83 85 per cent. C, 16*03 
per cent. H (C 7 H 16 requires C 83 97, and H 16*03). Vapor density — 
found, 49*94 ; calculated, 50*07 ; sp. gr. at o° 0*70057. The rate of 
expansion by heat has been carefully determined ; its volume at the 
boiling-point is 1*1411. Its specific volume 162*54; refractive index 
for D, 1*3879 ; its molecular refractive energy, 56*4. Rotates in a 
tube 200 mm. -{-6*9'. Its viscosity and surface tension were also 
determined. The author has compared the heptane obtained from P. 
Sabiana with the heptane from petroleum and that obtained by heating, 
azelaic acid with baryta. The sp. gr. of the heptane from petroleum 
is 0*7301 ; that from azelaic acid has a sp. gr. of 0*700 These hep- 
tanes are believed by Schorlemmer to be identical. The author is at 
present engaged in an investigation of this point. 



MINIM PIPETTES. 

By E. R. Squibb, of Brooklyn. 
In the last number of the "Journal" Mr. Drew controverts the 
statements of this writer in the preceding number by skillfully dividing, 
the subject of the devices for minim pipettes, and claiming only that 
which he figured. This subject would not be at all worth discussing 
for itself alone, or for any credit involved. But as there is a moral 
principle involved, it seems necessary for this writer to say again, more 



Ara yr^879. rm "} Mercurial Ointment. 295 

distinctly, that it is the very device figured and described by Mr. Drew 
which does not belong to him in any sense whatever, except that lie 
was the first to think it worthy of being made the subject of a pub- 
lished note. 

Had this been the first time that Mr. Drew had overlooked mention- 
ing in his published papers what was due to others, no notice would 
have been taken of it ; but while he was employed by this writer, Mr. 
Charles Rice drew our attention jointly to the foreign notices of phenol- 
phtalein as an indicater in acidimetry, and gave to this writer a specimen 
of phenol-phtalein for trial. One of the results of this was a paper 
by Mr. Drew, published in this journal for November, 1878, in which 
the previous use of phenol-phtalein as an indicater is alluded to, if at 
all, in so equivocal a manner that in the republications of Mr. Drew's 
article he gets credit for what does not belong to him, while the com- 
mon courtesy of acknowledging our joint indebtedness to Mr. Charles 
Rice, of Bellevue Hospital, for his information and his supply of 
phenol-phtalein is entirely omitted. 

Again in this journal for December, 1878, is an article by Mr. Drew 
on Sodium Salicylate, the whole substance and value of which, if there be 
any, belongs to this writer. Mr. Drew asked this writer for permission 
to publish this working process, and permission was willingly and cheer- 
fully given him. But his moral sensibility should have guarded him 
from publishing it entirely as his own, when it was not his own in any 
other sense than in being permitted to publish it. 

Brooklyn^ May 9th, 1879. 

Note. — With the above communication we consider this contro- 
versy closed. — Editor Amer. Jour. Phar. 



MERCURIAL OINTMENT. 

By Phil. Hoglan, Ph.G. 
During the month of April I had occasion to make some mercurial 
ointment, and, being in a hurry, had resort to the following process : 
First, extinguished the mercury by triturating with about one-tenth of 
its weight of old mercurial ointment and a small quantity of the lard. 
During the trituration allowed the suet and the remainder of the lard to 
melt, and then strained. By the time the mixture became almost stiff 



2 g 6 Valuation of Blistering Beetles. 

with cooling, the mercury was extinguished, and, to complete the pro- 
cess, it was only necessary to add the mixture of fats to it and 
thoroughly mix. The above process gave a smooth, uniform oint- 
ment of proper consistence. We would just say that the idea of 
rubbing the mercury with the old oinment is not original with us, hav- 
ing tried it on the authority of the U. S. Dispensatory ; but we believe 
the plan of melting the fats together, straining, and adding to the 
extinguished mercury when they are almost stiff, has never before been 
mentioned. It certainly facilitates the process and gives a very fine 
preparation. 1 



VALUATION OF BLISTERING BEETLES. 

By Levi Fahnestock, Ph.G. 
{Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 

In undertaking a series of experiments on this subject, old Chinese 
blistering beetles were first treated by the process of Prof. Procter, as 
modified by Fumouze. 200 grains of powdered Mylabris cichorii were 
exhausted with chloroform by maceration and expression, from the solu- 
tion thus obtained most of the chloroform was distilled off, the residue 
was poured into a dish, and the retort rinsed out with a small quantity 
of chloroform and this added to the balance. The solution was allowed 
to evaporate spontaneously to the consistance of a thick extract, which 
was treated with bisulphide of carbon ; a large quantity of fatty matter was 
taken up by the solvent, but a considerable quantity of foreign matter was 
left behind with the cantharidin. This impure cantharidin was then 
dissolved in a small portion of alcohol, the solution passed through a 
filter, in order to remove a little dust, and allowed to evaporate spon- 
taneously ; the cantharidin was obtained in slightly purer crystals, but 
still of a dark-brown color, and weighed 2*8 grains. 

This strange insolubility of a portion of the fatty matter in bisulphide 
of carbon is entirely at variance with the experiments of Prof. Maisch, 
conducted by the same process and on the same lot of beetles about six 
years ago, at which time he obtained the cantharidin almost white with- 
out purification It was concluded, therefore, that the solubility of the 
fatty matter had become impaired by the age of the beetles, as no par- 
ticular precaution had been taken to preserve them. 200 grains of the 



1 The process described is that of the German Pharmacopoeia. — Editor. 



Am jine r *i87 9 a . rm } Valuation of Blistering Beetles. 297 

powder were now exhausted with acetic ether by displacement, about six 
fluidounces of percolate being obtained. The greater part of the acetic 
ether was distilled off and the balance allowed to evaporate spontane- 
ously. The residue was treated with bisulphide of carbon, which dis- 
solved a portion of the fatty matter, but a considerable quantity 
remained undissolved, as in the former case. The residue was dis- 
solved in hot alcohol, from which, on cooling, 1*3 grain of much 
purer cantharidin crystallized, while that remaining in the alcohol could 
not be freed by simple solvents from the contaminating foreign matter. 

200 grains of the powder were, according to Dragendorff's process, 
digested in hydrate of potassium for about fifteen minutes, the mixture 
treated with hydrochloric acid in excess, dried and treated by displace- 
ment with petroleum benzin, with the view of removing, if possible, 
the fatty matter beforehand. A dark-colored solution was obtained, 
from a portion of which the benzin was evaporated off, leaving the oil 
of a dark-brown color and of a butyraceous consistence. This was 
tested for cantharidin by applying a small quantity to the arm, but no 
effect was produced, proving the insolubility of cantharidin in petroleum 
benzin. The powder was then exhausted with chloroform and treated 
in the same manner as in the first experiment. The cantharidin 
obtained by this process was of a much purer form, crystalline and of 
a light-yellow color, and weighed 2 5 grains. 

The yield and purity of the product being most satisfactory by this 
last process, it was adopted in the following experiments : 

Cantharis vittata, the potato bug, was next examined, 150 grains of 
the powder being used, yielding two grains of almost pure cantharidin 
in rather large crystals, which, when obtained, along with the fatty 
matter, were long and needle-shaped, but after purification assumed a 
square and tabular form. This leads to the conclusion that the presence 
of the fatty matter changed the shape of the crystals. 

Three specimens, 200 grains each of Cantharis vesicatoria, were next 
examined. The first was a sample of the fresh, two of old beetles, 
one consisting of the soft, the other of the hard parts of worm-eaten 
cantharides, the portions being separated by a sieve of ten meshes to 
the inch. The result was less successful, as a considerable amount of 
fatty matter could not be removed by the petroleum benzin, but remained 
intimately associated with the cantharidin, being insoluble in bisulphide 
of carbon and other solvents, except those which also dissolved the can- 



298 



S mi lax Glauca. 



{Am Jour. Pharnx. 
June, 1879 



tharidin. Filtering through animal charcoal also failed to separate it. 
In fact the presence of cantharidin was at first doubted altogether, as 
there was no appearance of crystallization. It was, however, tested 
by applying a small quantity to the arm, and although vesication was pro- 
duced, it took a much longer time to produce the effect. It was evi- 
dently very impure. 

The portion obtained from the soft parts of the worm-eaten variety 
weighed 5*9 grains, and that from the hard parts of same sample 29 
grains. The fresh cantharides did not yield crystallized cantharidin^ 
either by this or by Procter's process, and it was, therefore, concluded 
that the insects were really old, notwithstanding their fresh and undam- 
aged appearance. 

In summing up the results, the following points are presented: 

1st. Old Mylabris cichorii yield 1-25 per cent., and fresh Cantharis 
vittata 1*3 per cent, of cantharidin. 

2d. By age the virtues of the beetles are impaired and less effectual 
for vesication, and a portion of what appears to be fatty matter becomes 
insoluble in bisulphide of carbon, petroleum benzin, etc., rendering the 
isolation of cantharidin much more difficult. 

3d. By the treatment with hydrate of potassium and hydrochloric 
acid the yield of cantharidin is increased, probably from the decompo- 
sition of ammonium and magnesium compounds of cantharidin con- 
tained in the beetles. 

4th. By exhaustion with petroleum benzin a large quantity of the 
fatty matter, but no cantharidin, is removed, thus facilitating the subse- 
quent operations. 

SMILAX GLAUCA. 

By John Blankenhorn, Ph.G. 
[Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 
With the view of ascertaining the constituents of the long cylindri- 
cal light-colored rhizome, a sample furnished by Prof. Maisch was 
submitted to the following treatment : Two pounds of the ground 
rhizome were exhausted by a mixture of two parts alcohol and seven 
parts water, and the percolate concentrated at a low temperature. After 
cooling, the whole was treated with acetate of lead until no further pre- 
cipitate occurred, then filtered. The filtrate, thus deprived of nearly 
all coloring matter, was subjected to the action of sulphuretted hydro- 



AB ju , °°, r -.8 P 79 arm '} Smilax Glauca. 29^ 

gen, in order to free it from lead, and again filtered. The sulphide of 
lead, after thorough washing with water, was treated with boiling alco- 
hol, filtered, the filtrate concentrated and spread on glass to scale j, 
attempts were made at crystallization, but without success. 

The precipitate with acetate of lead was thoroughly washed, sus- 
pended in water and decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, then 
filtered. The liquid was now evaporated ; at first the color was dark- 
red, and the color of blue litmus was changed to red. Both characters 
became greatly augmented as the process of evaporation went on. A 
small quantity diluted with water gave the following reactions : With 
alkalis, the color was deepened ; with ferric chloride, a greenish-black 
color ; with Mayer's test, a yellowish color ; with subacetate of lead* 
gelatinous precipitate ; with soulution of gelatin, gelatinous precipitate. 
These reactions showed the presence of tannin. After concentration 
to a small bulk, and setting aside for a few days, crystals of what 
appeared to be a magnesium compound were deposited. The filtrate 
from these crystals was now treated with twice its bulk of alcohol* 
filtered, and then found to be free from tartaric, citric and malic acids. 
After having been treated with ammonia and solution of alum, no pre- 
cipitate was obtained with salts of iron, calcium, mercury and copper* 
but lead acetate occasioned a white precipitate. 

The sulphide of lead remaining after the decomposition of the lead 
precipitate by H 2 S was thoroughly washed and treated with boiling 
alcohol, filtered and allowed to evaporate spontaneously, then spread 
on glass to scale. The product was of a beautiful red color, perfectly 
transparent, taste slightly bitter, wholly soluble in alcohol and partially 
so in water, but insoluble in ether and chloroform. Ammonia dis- 
solved it, deepening the color, and on the addition of an acid the color 
was discharged. A small quantity dissolved in water with the aid of 
alcohol, and agitated, produced copious foaming, and was precipitated 
by acetate of lead. On digesting with water, a portion was dissolved,, 
and on being evaporated was left behind as a red transparent mass ; the 
portion insoluble in water dissolved in alcohol, and after evaporation 
left a brown transparent mass, both portions foaming on being agitated 
with water. 

The filtrate, after precipitation by acetate of lead, left, on evapora- 
tion, an amorphous dark red-brown mass, with a tint of green, and 
perfectly transparent ; the taste is very bitter and slightly acrid. It is 



30O Tully s Powder, {^^igf* 

freely soluble in alcohol and water, insoluble in ether and chloroform. 
With strong sulphuric acid it produces an orange-red coloration chang- 
ing to brown. 

The presence of starch, sugar, albumen, resin and pectic compounds 
was also incidentally noticed. 



TULLY'S POWDER. 

Manlius, N. Y., May 12th, 1879. 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

I was a private pupil of Dr- William Tully at New Haven, Conn., 
in the years 1846, 1847, 1848, and personally know that the formula 
given on page 230, May number of the " American Journal of Phar- 
macy," is the one he commonly employed, except that instead of 31 
he wrote £j. The whole amount of the three substances added to the 
morphia is a drachm. 1 Although commonly using the sulphate of 
morphia in this powder, Dr. Tully considered the acetate or hydro- 
chlorate of morphia equally advantageous. He was very particular to 
direct that the ingredients should be thoroughly mixed by passing them 
several times through a sieve after they had been incorporated in a 
mortar. I may say that I have used Tully Powder (as it is called in 
this vicinity) largely in my medical practice, and have been well satis- 
fied with its diaphoretic qualities. It has this advantage over Dover's 
Powder, that it is very much less liable to produce nausea, and that, 
except to the few who have a decided distaste for camphor, it is much 
more palatable than Dover's Powder. Children take it very readily. 

No doubt the substitution of precipitated calcium carbonate, for pre- 
pared chalk, results in a somewhat hondsome powder and probably does 
not change the medicinal effect of the combination. 

Tully powder should be kept in a well-stopped bottle and in a uni- 
form (rather low) temperature, to prevent the sublimation of some of 
the camphor on the sides of the bottle. Of course, doses of it, if long 
left in paper, are liable to lose the greater part of the camphor. 

I hope to see it introduced into the next U. S. Pharmacopoeia, under 
the name of pulvis morphiae comp., or, as Dr. Tully often prescribed 
it, under the name of pulvis camphorae comp., this latter designation 

1 Mr. Wood has also called our attention to the typographical error alluded to 
above. — Editor. 



Am jiae!'i87 9 arm ' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 3 o r 

not giving the patient any intimation of its containing morphia, and 
hence sometimes securing its favorable reception when it otherwise 
would be rejected. I should like also to have ct Tully powder " given 
as its English synonym, as a perpetual tribute to one who had made 
greater attainments in materia medica, perhaps, than any other Ameri- 
can physician of his day. 

Yours, Wm. Manlius Smith, iM.D. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

Vinum Cinchonae. — Hager suggests the preparation of cinchona 
wine with a menstruum consisting of 100 parts of white wine and 1 or 
\\ part of hydrochloric acid, and claims that all alkaloids will be 
obtained in solution, while the cinchona-red will be combined in such a 
manner that there will probably be no sediment whatever in the vinous 
macerate. Wine thus prepared augments the appetite and is an excel- 
lent tonic. — Pharm. Centralh., April 3, 1879, p. 141. 

Green Fluorescence of Quinidia Sulphate. — A solution of quini- 
dia sulphate in chloroform, made by O. Hesse, possessed an exceed- 
ingly weak fluorescence at the expiration of several months ; four 
months later it had increased considerably, and continued to do so 
until it became almost fully as strong as that noticed by Schaer in an 
old cinchonidia sulphate solution in chloroform. The quinidia had not 
changed to any extent. If this solution is shaken with cold water, the 
latter dissolves the fluorescing substance and the quinidia (as sulphate),, 
which then can be determined by potassium iodide. — Ber. d. Deutsch, 
Chem. Ges., xii, p. 425. 

Determining the Specific Gravity of Solid Fats, Paraffin 
Resins* etc. — Hager melts 3 to 5 grams of the fatty substance, at a 
temperature not exceeding that of boiling water, in a porcelain dish 
having a capacity of 20 to 30 cc, and supplied with a lip, and then 
drops the fat carefully from a height of 2 to 3 centimeters into a layer 
of alcohol \\ to 2 centimeters in depth, contained in a glass vessel 
having a perfectly straight (not concave) bottom. Tallow, butter and 
lard solidify before they reach the bottom of the alcohol, and collect 
there as round globules, uniform in size if the dropping is manipulated 



302 Gleanings from the German Journals. {^'J™'^™' 

■carefully, while cacao oil solidifies at the bottom in hemispheres ; wax 
and paraffin also solidify less regularly. Fats soluble in strong alcohol 
are dropped into diluted alcohol. Resins are not melted, but merely 
broken into small fragments. A liquid is then prepared, either alcohol, 
diluted alcohol, water, glycerin or diluted glycerin being used, in which 
the solidified drops of fat or paraffin, or the fragments of resin float, 
and its specific gravity is determined. — Pharm. Centralh., March 27, 
1879, P. !3 2 - 

Is White Wax a Rancid Fat?— In opposition to the assertion that 
white wax is always rancid, K. Lauteschlaeger states that neither 
recently bleached nor old white wax has undergone considerable change 
in odor, color, taste or consistence, that it yields no ozone reaction, nor 
possesses any of the characteristic properties of rancid fats, and, there- 
fore, ought neither to be classed with them nor to be discarded in favor 
of yellow wax, since it possesses the decided advantage of presenting 
a more elegant appearance. — Pharm. Ztg., April 9, 1879, p. 220. 

Adulteration of Bees-wax with Ceresin. — Buchner boils in a 
test-tube the wax, for a few minutes, with concentrated alcoholic 
potassa-lye (1 part potassium hydrate to three parts 90 per cent, alcohol), 
■and allows the tube to remain for some time in a water-bath to prevent 
the contents from hardening. If the wax is pure, the solution remains 
clear ; if it contains ceresin, this will float as an oily layer on the 
potassa solution, which is usually then very dark colored. The ceresin 
may be recognized even after congealing, it being much lighter colored 
than the saponified mass. — Ztsch. d. Allg. Oest. Ap. Ver., April 1, 1879, 
p. 154, from Ding. Poly tech. Jour. 

Adulteration of Sesame Oil with cheaper oils can be detected as 
follows : Put 10 cc. of the oil, previously heated to 15 or 20°C. in a 
graduated cylinder, add carefully 4 drops sulphuiic acid, shake well for 
several minutes, add 4 drops pure nitric acid, and shake again. Pure 
sesame oil is soon colored dark-green, which turns quickly into a cur- 
rant-red color ; if adulterated with poppy oil, cotton-seed oil or mus- 
tard oil, this coloration does not take place. — Pharm. Ztschr.f. Russl., 
Feb. 1, 1879, p. 79. 

Coffee adulterated with the Ground Seeds of Cassia occident- 
alis. — A lot of ground coffee recently offered at a very low figure to a 
military department of Berlin was examined under the microscope and 



Am june"'i87 9 arm ' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 303 

found to be adulterated with the ground seeds of Cassia occidentalis *, 
this adulteration is frequently found in coffee. — Pharm. Ztschr. f.RussL, 
Mar. 13, 1879, p. 116, from Chem. Ztg. 

The Fresh Bark of Myroxylon Peruiferum, Lin. fil., was sub- 
mitted by Theod. Peckolt to analysis, who found in 1000 grams: 



Ethereal oil, . . 0*900 gram 

Myroxylin, . . . 4*660 

Balsamic extractive sub- 
stance, . . . 20*000 

Bitter extractive substance, 10 290 

Tasteless and odorless sub- 
stance, . . . 1*840 

Substance resembling wax, 5 530 

•Substance resembling albu- 
men, .... 12.120 



Resin, . . . 151*970 gram 
Cinnamic acid, . . 9 770 
Benzoic acid, . . a trace 
Tannic acid, ' . 5*940 

Glucose, . . . 16 120 
Pectin substances,Dextrin ) e 

T 1. \ \ 26 - 040 

Inorganic salts, etc. j 
Fibrous substance, mois- 
ture, . . . 691*300 



— Ztschr. Oest. Ap. Ver., April 1, 1879, p. 145. 

Genuine Volatile Oil of Eucalyptus Globulus hardly ever 
appears in the market, the oil being almost invariably distilled in Aus- 
tralia from the leaves of £. amygdalina, which contains more oil than 
any other known species of Eucalyptus. E. globulus, of which 100 
pounds of leaves yield about 6 ounces of oil, grows in not easily 
approachable districts. The two oils resemble each other very much; 
that of E. globulus possesses, however, more therapeutical efficacy, and 
is alone used for making eucalyptol. — Pharm. Ztg., April 9, 1879, p. 
220, from Chem. Ztg. 

Use of Pyrogallic Acid as a Haemostatic. — Prof. Husemann calls 
attention to the excellent results obtained by Dr. Vesey with pyrogallic 
acid administered in 0*05 doses, at intervals of one or several hours, as 
a haemostatic in cases of hemorrhages of the lungs and stomach, and 
suggests clinical experiments with it used internally, as Vesey recom- 
mends it ; the author considers it a probably reliable substitute for ergot. 
— Pharm. Ztg. y April 2, 1879, p. 204. 

Determination of Carbolic Acid. — E. Hoffmann places over 1 to 
2 cc. pure concentrated H 2 S0 4 , in a test-tube an equal volume of diluted 
carbolic-acid solution, containing not more than 1 part in 500 parts of 
water, and drops several grains of powdered saltpetre into the liquid, 
when the presence of as little as 1 milligram of carbolic acid will be 
indicated by the immediate appearance of violet streaks ; on shaking, 
the whole liquid acquires the violet color. If concentrated HCI is 



304 Gleanings from the German Journals. { ^ m ){™\^* rm ' 

used in the place of H 2 SO^, the same color appears, but soon turns 
yellow. If commercial H 2 S0 4 (frequently containing HNO s ) is used 
in place of the pure acid, the violet color appears, of course, without 
adding the saltpetre. The color is very constant, but is changed into 
reddish orange on the addition of water, because the yellow color of 
the nitro-derivatives appears and combines with the violet. — Pharm^ 
Ztg., March 19, 1879, p. 173. 

Estimation of Free Acid in Aluminium Sulphate. — The 
presence of free acid in aluminium sulphate — frequently used in the 
arts in the place of alum, because it contains more aluminium — is very 
objectionable for some purposes. It may be determined, according to 
Wittstein, by treating the finely-powdered salt with absolute alcohol, 
which dissolves the free acid only. — Ztscber. d. Allg. Oect. Apoth. Ver., 
April, 1879, p. 152. 

Poisoning by Dynamite. — A case of poisoning of a couple, indi- 
cated by violent vomiting, sudden burning pain in the head and stomach 
and bloody evacuations, followed by the death of the woman in two 
and a half and of the man in three days, was due to the presence of 
30 grams dynamite in the soup and coffee, which caused severe inflam- 
mation of the stomach and bowels. Free nitric acid and traces of arsenic, 
the latter as an impurity of the acid, were found in the bowels. — Apoth. 
Ztg , March 22, 1879, p. 50. 

Estimation of Arsenic in Golden Sulphur [Sulphur auratum anti- 
monii). — Triturate well equal parts by weight of the chemical and of 
sodium bicarbonate (about 1 gram of each); shake the mixture for a 
few minutes with cold distilled water, filter and add to the filtrate hydro- 
chloric acid in slight excess. If arsenic is present there will be yellow 
precipitate. — Pharm. Ztg. f. Russl., Feb. 15, 1879, p. 116, from Polyt.- 
Notizbl. 

Phosphorus pills for poisoning mice are made by soaking cheap 
small peas in warm water until they swell, when they are stirred well 
in a wooden vessel into a previously-prepared soft confection of phos- 
phorus until a uniform mixture is obtained; flour is then added, stirring 
continually with a wooden spatula, or working the mass up with the 
hands until every pill appears dry and does no longer adhere to the 
others. Several hundred pounds of reliable pills, of uniform size, can 
be made thus in one hour after a little practice. — Pharm. Ztg. April 9, 
1879, p. 220, from Pharm. Wochenbl. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1879. / 



On Copaibic Acid. 



305 



ON COPAIBIC ACID. 

By Warren B. Rush, Ph.G. 
{Abstract from a Thesis.) 

In preparing copaibic acid the volatile oil must first be removed, 
which is usually done by distillation with steam. The oil is, however, 
much more readily separated on a small scale by one of the following 
processes : First, by dissolving ten parts of copaiva in ten parts of 
benzin, adding an equal part of caustic soda solution, sp. gr. 1*30, and 
agitating well ; or, secondly, by mixing ten parts of copaiba, ten parts 
of alcohol and four parts of soda solution, when the mixture wiil 
separate into three layers. A third and most economical way for sepa- 
rating the volatile oil is to shake together three parts of the soda solu- 
tion with one of the copaiva. After separation, pour off the volatile 
oil, decant the alkali solution, pass a stream of water over the resin, to 
wash off" adhering particles of alkali, and let it dry. Next, dissolve the 
resins in benzin, and agitate the solution with very diluted hydrochloric 
acid until the aqueous liquid remains slightly acid to litmus. Let the 
mixture rest until the resin and water have separated, decant the water 
and evaporate the benzin solution to a thick syrupy mass, and let cool. 
The same resins are thus obtained which are left on the distillation of 
the volatile oil. 

I have observed that if the percentage of oil is below 55 then the 
oil does not separate, there being sufficient resin to hold the'volatile 
oil combined, and in this condition some of the latter is oxidified or 
altered. It may be separated from the resin by dissolving in benzin or 
alcohol and treating as above. 

The resinous residue left after the separation of the oil contains an 
acid, a neutral and a soft resin. The following are among the processes 
for the isolation of the different resins of copaiva : Liquefy the resins 
by the heat of a water-bath, pour into about twice the weight of petro- 
leum benzin, stir until dissolved, filter, and let evaporate spontaneously. A 
few particles will remain on the filter, consisting of the usual impurities. 
Warm the residue left by evaporation over a water-bath and pour it into 
three times its quantity of alcohol ; or heat the alcohol to boiling, mix 
thoroughly, and while hot filter. The portion left on the filter is the 
neutral resin. Set the filtrate aside for several days to crystallize. 
Treat a portion of the neutral resin with hot alcohol, and if it colors 



20 



3o6 



On Copaibic Acid. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm* 
t June, 1879. 



the alcohol there is left behind some of the acid resin, and may be 
obtained by treatment with hot alcohol, and adding the filtrate to the 
first. 

The neutral resin is a yellowish powder, without taste or odor, neutral 
to test paper, softens in hot alcohol and is soluble in ten times its weight 
of hot chloroform. 

After crystals have formed in the alcoholic liquid, filter, and dry 
on the filter paper under glass. On distilling off the alcohol from the 
filtrate, the soft resin is left behind. Copaivic acid may also be obtained 
from the resin by dissolving it in benzin, filtering and evaporating. The 
residue is heated to 200°F., dissolved in pure naphtha, filtered while 
warm and set aside to crystallize, after which the crystals are dried 
tinder glass. 

Of the other processes which have been tried, the following deserve 
to be briefly mentioned : 

Dissolve the oleo-resin in caustic ammonia (sp. gr. 95), and expose 
this in a shallow dish at a temperature below 6o°F., until hardened ; 
then dissolve in wood naphtha, crystallize and filter. Expose copaiva to 
the air in shallow dishes until it has become hard and brittle, dissolve 
it in ammonia water and leave to evaporate in a cool place ; then dis- 
solve in hot alcohol, filter and set aside to crystallize. Dissolve the 
resins left after the distillation of volatile oil in caustic ammonia, let 
evaporate, dissolve in hot alcohol, filter and set aside to crystallize. 
The alcohol may be partly recovered in these different processes by 
distillation. 

The crystals cannot be easily obtained without the previous separa- 
tion of the volatile oil, the acid being soluble in fixed and volatile oils. 
Doubtless the copaiva yielding the largest amount of resins will pro- 
duce the most acid. 

Copaibic acid forms soft prismatic crystals, which are soluble in strong 
alcohol, ether, fixed and volatile oils. Its alcoholic solution reddens 
litmus, is not precipitated by potassa or soda, yields with an alcoholic 
solution of acetate of lead a crystalline precipitate ; but, on adding it 
to an alcoholic solution of nitrate of silver, no precipitate is occasioned 
until a little ammonia is added. A white crystalline powder falls, which 
is with difficulty soluble in alcohol but readily soluble in ammonia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1879. J 



Chemical Notes. 



3°7 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Saml. P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry. — New Elements. — L. F. Nilson, of Upsala, 
Sweden, in response to Marignac for chemists having in their posses- 
sion large amounts of erbia to examine it for ytterbium, has treated 
some 63 grams of erbia according to Marignac's method. The mole- 
cular weight of the oxide at starting was 129*25, while the molecular 
weight of ytterbia, according to Marignac, should be 131. At first, by 
modifying Marignac's method in the application of heat to the mass of 
fused nitrates, he succeeded in raising the molecular weight- to 130*57, 
but had only a small quantity brought to this degree of purity. He 
then carried out Marignac's method exactly, and obtained 3*5 grams of 
a white earth, with only the slightest trace of rose color. But this gave 
a molecular weight of 127*6, instead of the 131 expected, pointing to 
the presence of an earth of lower molecular weight. He, however, 
afterwards succeeded in getting a white earth that was undoubtedly 
pure ytterbia, having a molecular weight of 132*17. 

From the white earth before alluded to, with the molecular weight 
of 127*6, he then succeeded in separating the oxide of a new element 
possessing a molecular weight of not more than 105*8. This new 
element he proposes to call scandium, because of its occurrence in 
gadolinite and euxenite, characteristic Scandinavian minerals. The 
spectroscopic characters of this element were studied, at his request, by 
Thalen, the eminent spectroscopist. It is characterized especially by a 
number of strong lines in the yellow and green of the spectrum. Its 
solutions show no absorption bands whatever. Taking its oxide as 
ScO, with a molecular weight of 105, its atomic weight would be less 
than 90. — Comptes Rendus, 88, pp. 642-648. 

The Iodine Production of the province Tarapaca (Peru) has 
assumed large dimensions within the last few years, as a result of higher 
prices established by a combination of Scotch, French and Peruvian 
producers. At present 8 chemical factories extract the iodine from the 
mother liquors left after the nitre crystallization, producing 2800 cent- 
ner (138 tons) of iodine, and 3 new iodine factories are building, so that 
the production for 1879 will probably be from 3500 to 3800 centner 
(182 to 187 tons). An additional factory now building in the Bolivian 
port Auto-Lagesta will, judging from the richness in iodine of its 
raw material, put on the market some 2000 centner (98 tons) more. 



3 o8 



Chemical Notes. 



Am. Jour. Pharos 

June, 1879. 



The methods for the separation of the iodine from its combinations 
in the mother liquors may be divided essentially into three classes. 
I. The mother liquors, after the crystallization of the saltpetre, without 
further concentration, are treated with a solution of sodium sulphite,, 
of strength corresponding to the amount of iodine present ; the iodine 
thus separated from the sodium iodate is filtered through linen cloth,, 
washed, pressed and sublimed. 2. The mother liquors are treated with 
sodium sulphite or bisulphite until the precipitated iodine is converted 
into HI, and this is precipitated as copper iodide by a solution of copper 
sulphate and sodium sulphite. 3. The percentage of iodine is increased! 
by fractional evaporation and crystallization of the mother liquors, and 
then, after adding the calculated amount of sodium bisulphite, the iodine- 
is distilled off from the acidified liquor. — Dingier' s Journal, 231, p. 375. 

In many of the hand-books reference is made to the existence of 
bichromates of baryta, lime, and some of the heavy metals as well 
as those of the alkalies. Ludwig Schulerud has examined this 
question, and has studied the precipitates, or salts, obtained with potas- 
sium chromate and bichromate respectively, in solutions of barium, lead, 
mercurous, silver, thallium and lithium salts. His results are as follows : 
With barium salts — The precipitate obtained with potassium bichro- 
mate was slightly darker in color than that obtained with the neutral 
chromate, but on analysis both yielded figures corresponding to the 
formula BaCr0 4 . 

The precipitate obtained by potassium bichromate in calcium salts 
was not analyzed, but appeared to be only a mixture of calcium chro- 
mate and free chromic acid. 

With lead salts — The two precipitates showed almost no difference 
in color, and on analysis both corresponded closely to the formula 
PbCr0 4 . 

With mercurous salts — Only the precipitate obtained with potassium 
bichromate was prepared for analysis. It showed a composition 
Hg 2 Cr0 4 . 

With silver salts — Bichromate of potassium produced a precipitate of 
dark-red crystalline silver bichromate. Hot water extracts from this 
chromic acid, leaving silver chromate. The precipitate obtained showed 
the composition Ag 2 Cr 2 O r , and after the washing gave results nearly 
corresponding to the composition Ag 2 Cr0 4 . 

With thallium salts — Potassium chromate precipitates clear yellow 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1879. j 



Chemical Notes. 



thallium chromate; potassium bichromate precipitates from neutral 
solutions a mixture of thallium chromate and bichromate, and from 
acid solutions exclusively orange-yellow thallium bichromate. The 
two salts have the formulas Th 2 Cr0 4 and Th 2 Cr 2 7 , respectively. 

With lithium salts — The lithium chromate and bichromate were both 
obtained by adding the calculated amounts of lithium carbonate to 
chromic acid solution, and allowing the solution after concentration to 
stand over sulphuric acid until the crystals separated out. Lithium 
chromate forms transparent yellow prisms containing two molecules of 
water of crystallization. The bichromate forms hard, nearly black 
plates, which show a red color on the edges. These crystals also con- 
tain two molecules of water of crystallization. The results, when 
summed up, seem to show that bichromates are only formed with 
monad metals, and not with dyad or tetrad elements. — 'Journal fur pr. 
Chem., 19, p. 36. 

Organic Chemistry. — Dr. Erwin von Sommaruga has succeeded in 
carrying out what might be considered a difficult undertaking, viz., a 
determination of the vapor density of indigo. The formula of indigo is 
frequently written C 8 H 5 NO, while the formulas of many of its deriva- 
tives demand 16 atoms of carbon in the molecule. Sommaruga has 
now shown that the formula of indigo must be taken as C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 , 
instead of the half of this. Carefully purified and sublimed indigo was 
taken, and Habermann's modification of Dumas' vapor-density method 
was used, the glass globe being heated in sulphur vapor, and, at the 
same time, nearly exhausted of air, so that the tension was only 30 to 
40 mm. The figure gotten for the vapor-density was 9*45, while the 
formula C 10 H 16 N 2 O 2 demands 9 06, and C 8 H 5 NO demands 4*53. — 
Annalen der Ch. und Ph., 195, p. 302. 

The chemical study of the Quebracho -bark has engaged several 
chemists within the last year. These results have been transferred in 
part already to these pages (this Journal, 1879, PP- I 5 2 ana * 1 9 2 )- 1° 
neither of these articles, however, has its growing importance as a tan- 
ning material been alluded co. At the late Paris Exhibition it attracted 
considerable attention in this connection. 

According to Jean (" Bulletin de la Societe Chimique," 1878, No. 
28, p. 6), it contains 157 per cent, of a tannic acid, which, however, 
is not identical with querco tannic acid, and in addition 2 8 per cent, of 
another astringent acid, which does not act upon the animal hide, and 
which behaves with reagents like gallic acid. 



Chemical Notes, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 June, 1879. 



Arnaudon (same journal, p. 524) has also found in the quebracho- 
bark a coloring matter which colors fabrics a beautiful yellow. The 
aqueous decoction of the wood is slightly acid, of reddish yellow color 
when concentrated, becomes turbid on cooling, and deposits a reddish- 
brown substance. On boiling with dilute sulphuric acid no gallic acid 
is separated from the quebracho-tannic acid. 

At the late Leather Exhibition in Berlin, quebracho tanned leather 
of different qualities was shown. Quebracho is said, under circum- 
stances', to be quite as well adapted as sumac for the manufacture of 
morocco leathers, especially for such as are to be of a dark color.. 
— Dingier 's ^Journal, 231, p. 451. 

' M. Fileti has obtained, by the action of bromine upon cinchonia, in- 
sealed tubes, a number of products, the chief one of which seems to 
be perbromanthracene, C u Br 10 . The analytical figures at least corres- 
pond very closely to this formula. Perbromanthracene has not as yet 
been obtained direct from anthracene, the highest brominated com- 
pound so obtained being C 14 Br g H 2 . Fileti thinks that the anthracene 
group of atoms may constitute the nucleus of the cinchonia molecule 
and possibly also of quinia and other alkaloids. He promises to con- 
tinue the study of this most interesting derivative, and to extend the 
same experiments to the alkaloids associated with cinchonia.— Ber. d.. 
Chem. Ges., xii, p. 423. 

Analytical Chemistry. — F. Beilstein and L. Jarvein have described 
a method for the accurate determination of zinc in the electrolytic way*. 
The nitrate or sulphate solution is treated with sodium hydrate until a 
precipitate remains, and then with potassium cyanide until a clear solu- 
tion results. The platinum electrodes are now dipped into the fluid^, 
and the current from four Bunsen cells is passed through it. If the 
amount of liquid is small, it becomes quite warm, in which case the 
beaker-glass can be cooled by placing it in a dish of water. On an 
average, about "i gram of zinc will be precipitated per hour under these 
circumstances. When all the zinc is supposed to be precipitated, the 
electrodes are lifted out, which can be done without any danger of loss,, 
the zinc is washed with water, then with alcohol and finally with ether, 
and dried in a dessicator. 

The zinc obtained in this way can be heated for hours in an air-bath 
at ioo° without oxydizing in the slightest degree. 

After weighing, the zinc is dissolved off the electrode with hydro- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1879. / 



Saligenin Test. 



chloric or nitric acid, and the cleansed and weighed electrode is again 
dipped into the solution in order to see if the precipitation was com- 
plete. 

The authors give an analysis of zinc sulphate, and one of brass, to 
show the exactness of the method. — Ber. d. Chem. Ges., xii, p. 446. 



THE SALIGENIN TEST FOR SALICIN. 

By Dr. A. Senier, F.I.C., F.C.S., 
Demonstrator in the Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Society. 
It is stated in text-books of chemistry that when salicin is boiled 
with water, acidulated with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, it assimi- 
lates a molecule of water and is converted into glucose and saligenin. 
The conversion is expressed thus: C 13 H 18 7 + H 2 0— C 7 H 8 2 +C & 
H 12 O e . This reaction is usually commended as a test for salicin, the 
glucose to be detected by its well known reducing action on cupric 
potassium tartrate solution, and the saligenin by neutralizing and adding 
solution of ferric chloride, with which it gives an intense blue or pur- 
plish blue color. 

The production of glucose and its detection as just indicated is a 
simple and certain analytical operation, but not so the formation of 
saligenin and the color which it gives with ferric chloride. I have 
experimented repeatedly under what appeared to be the most favorable 
conditions, but have failed to obtain a color with ferric chloride at all 
corresponding to that described in the text-books. Using a tempera- 
ture of 8o°C. instead of ioo° a somewhat better result was obtained, 
but the color was so indistinct and its production so uncertain as to be 
useless in analysis. 

Upon reference to the original memoir upon this reaction, I was 
surprised to find my experience both anticipated and explained. Piria^ 
in 1845, sa y s tnat although saligenin is formed together with glucose 
when salicin is boiled with dilute acids it is nearly as soon transformed 
into a resinous substance, saliretin. Saliretin is insoluble in the acid 
solution, and is not colored blue by ferric chloride. It is formed from 
saligenin by the separation of a molecule of water, thus : C 7 H 8 2 = 
C 7 H 6 + H 2 0. . 



1 "Ann. de Chim. et de Physique, 1 ' 1845, 2 59> 2 ^°* 



3 I2 



Note on Plasma. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1879. 



In order to obtain saligenin Piria directs salicin to be fermented with 
synaptase. By this method I have obtained it in beautiful white tabu- 
lar crystals. These at first appeared in the fermented mixture, from 
which they were separated by agitation with ether and crystallization 
from the ethereal solution. Prepared in this way saligenin gives the 
color with ferric chloride most distinctly even in dilute solution. The 
preparation of the synaptase and subsequent fermentation requires too 
much time to render this method often useful in analysis. 

It appears then that the saligenin test for salicin as given in chemical 
text-books is untrustworthy, and that the fermentation method, though 
it yields saligenin, is impracticable, except when there is much time at 
ihe disposal of the analyst. — Phar. 'Jour, and Trans., April 19, 1879. 



NOTE ON PLASMA. 1 

By W. Willmott. 
Rather more than twenty years ago, Mr. G. F. Schacht, at the sug- 
gestion of Dr. William Budd, of Bristol, prepared for trial as a sub- 
stitute for oils and fats in ointments a combination of glycerin and 
starch, to which, after due consideration, he gave the name of " Plasma." 
In an admirable paper, published in the "Pharmaceutical Journal" for 
February, 1858, Mr. Schacht points out the advantages of this com- 
bination, and claims for it a superiority in many respects over the ordi- 
narv unguent bases. 41 1 must, however," he states, "mention one 
imperfection to which these preparations (plasmas) are liable, namely, 
a tendency after three or four months' existence to lose more or less 
their original fine consistence and become softer. This is an unfortu- 
nate quality, but I think it is one for which experience will be able to 
suggest a remedy." About nine years later, we find Mr. T. B. Groves 
writing as follows: "The chief objection to plasma, of which I know 
little, and therefore shall say little, is that it is dear. I have heard that 
in use it is troublesome in consequence of its proneness to deliques- 
cence " Nevertheless, at the same date (1867), plasma had acquired 
a sufficiently important position to rank with preparations of a some- 
what similar character in the British Pharmacopoeia, and consequently 
it is there introduced under the name of "Glycerin of Starch," the only 

1 Read as an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
April 2, 1879. 



Am june, r 'I8 P 7 h 9 a^I^ • } Note on Plasma. 3 1 3 

difference being that 54*68 grains of the latter ingredient are ordered to 
each fluidounce of glycerin instead of 70, as in the former case. 

Up to the present time plasma, or glycerin of starch, has not, I 
believe, come largely into use, owing, no doubt, in some measure, 
though not entirely, to its tendency to soften by deliquescence, as 
already referred to; no remedy, that I am aware of, having as yet been 
effectually applied or suggested. 1 It may here be stated that it is to 
this point that the present note more especially refers. 

If plasma be kept in an air-tight stoppered bottle it will retain its 
firm consistence indefinitely. It owes its softening property, therefore, 
to the large extent to which the glycerin it contains is capable of sub- 
tracting moisture from the atmosphere, the starch playing no part what- 
ever in the change thus brought about. This property of glycerin is 
exercised exactly in relation to the two following conditions, namely — 
the amount of superincumbent moisture, and the extent of surface that 
may be exposed thereto. The behavior of glycerin in a very moist 
atmosphere is both curious and interesting. The moisture in the form 
of water collects and floats on its surface, and taking up or dissolving a 
considerable proportion of the subjacent glycerin (probably more than 
half its own weight), attracts more moisture, which, in turn, exercises 
its solvent power and acquires a capability of still further absorption. 
Thus the action goes on, not necessarily, as may be thought, in a con- 
stantly decreasing ratio as the water increases in amount, but at an 
almost uniform rate from week to week. The mixture of glycerin and 
water is not so actively hygrometric as the glycerin alone, but the com- 
bination once effected the action continues with singular uniformity. 
The following table will serve, in some measure, to illustrate this. 

Hygrometric Action of Glycerin in Atmosphere Charged with Excess of 

Moisture. 

Increase in Weight. 

Surface Area. ist week. 2d week. 3d week. 4th week. Total 1 month. 

3-1416 square inches, 56 grs. 44 grs. 48 grs. 47 grs. 195 grs. 

9-6211 " 156 119 113 102 490 

28-2744 " 504 341 310 315 1470 

It will be seen that in each case there is a diminution of the increase 



1 The glycerin of starch of the German Pharmacopoeia is a step in this direction, 
but the water therein contained (about 1 in 12) is not nearly sufficient to rectify the 
hygroscopic character of the resulting mass. 



3H 



Note on Plasma. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 

\ \ June, 1879. 



of weight during the second and following weeks as compared with the 
increase during the first, owing, as I have said to a lessening of the 
intensity of absorption by the presence of the water. All this goes on 
without stirring or disturbing the fluids in any way. If, however, the 
water be kept stirred into the glycerin instead of being allowed to remain 
on its surface, there will be no appreciable difference in this increase of 
weight between the first and following weeks. 

But at what point is there a pause in this process? Where does it 
end ? In whatever proportionate quantity water may be added to 
glycerin, from a single drop upwards, absorption will take place in a 
moisture-laden atmosphere until the proportion reaches three parts by 
measure of the former to one of the latter. At this point the glycerin, 
so to speak, gives up the contest, and succumbs to the influence which 
the water exerts in the opposite direction. In this mixture, therefore,, 
namely, 3 fluidounces of water to I fluidounce of glycerin, there will 
be neither attraction nor evaporation, the weight scarcely varying from 
week to week either in one direction or the other. 

If, now, we conduct our experiments in a moderately dry atmos- 
phere, say in the atmosphere of an ordinary working or sitting-room in 
which a fire is kept burning during the day, the action will be the same, 
but to obtain similar results the proportions will be widely different, and 
in fact almost reversed. Instead of 3 parts of water to 1 of glycerin 
we shall require nearly 3 parts of gl\cerin to 1 of water to reach the 
neutral point. Where, in one case, there is absorption and augmenta- 
tion, in the other there is evaporation and consequent loss; so that in 
order to maintain a uniform condition in the mixed liquids the propor- 
tions must be adapted to the exact state of the atmosphere in which 
they are intended to be kept. In a general way, we may consider two 
and a half parts by measure of glycerin to one of water well adapted to 
meet the end in view. Bearing in mind, then, that in plasma the starch 
has no effect in preventing the absorption of moisture (the mass being 
by such means gradually undermined and softened through), we take 
advantage in preparing this substance of the peculiarity herein notified, 
and proceed accordingly. Five fluidounces of glycerin are mixed with 
three fluidounces of distilled water in a porcelain dish, or, preferably, 
transferred thereto from a vessel in which they have been previously 
well stirred or shaken together. The starch is then added secundum 
artem, and heat gradually applied, with constant stirring, until a trans- 



Am june, r i87 h ^ rm '} Mist . Guaiaci in Clear Solution. 315 

lucent jelly is formed. 1 In this process the loss of weight by evapora- 
tion will be from half to one ounce, according to manipulation, thus 
leaving the desired proportions of glycerin and water in the resulting 
product. 2 In this way a plasma is obtained that will resist the action of 
moisture and retain indefinitely its firm and plastic condition. The pres- 
ence of the water, so far from being objectionable, will be a decided 
advantage, since, in application, there will be less proneness to smarting; 
and irritation. 

The value of plasma as a substitute for fatty substances in oint- 
ments, etc., I do not now discuss, but it may be stated that Mr. Schacht 
continues to favor its use as a medium for the exhibition of such topi- 
cal remedies as are soluble in glycerin. 3 This being the case after 
twenty years' trial, so useful a combination should scarcely be allowed 
to fall into desuetude through the absence of any suggestions as regards 
those special properties which may tend to preserve it at all times in a 
suitable condition for use. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. , April 5, 1879- 



A MISTURA GUAIACI IN CLEAR SOLUTION. 

By Balmanno Squire, M.B., Lond. 
Surgeon to the British Hospital for Diseases of the Skin. 
The unpleasant taste of guaiacum and its uninviting appearance when 
made into a draught are inconveniences which have long hampered a 
valuable remedy and are worth attempting to remove. With these im- 
pressions I paid a visit to my neighbor, Mr. Martindale, to try what 
could be done. The " Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia " had 
told me that the resin was soluble in alkaline solutions, so I asked for 
a mixture made by rubbing down a dose of guaiacum (ten grains) with 
not more than a dose of liquor potassae (n^ xx). The resin was at 
once dissolved almost completely, but when the solution came to be 
mixed with an ouce of water I found that I was baffled by the milky 
precipitation of probably all of the guaiacum. I then asked for a solu- 

1 The stirring should be continued while the mass cools. 

2 In an unusually dry atmosphere the proportions should be arranged, and the pro- 
cess conducted so that the glycerin may exist in the plasma to the extent at least of 
three-fourths of the entire weight. 

3 This statement is made on the authority of a communication very kindly for- 
warded by Mr. Schacht in reply to the writer's inquiries. 



3 1 6 Mist. Guaiaci in Clear Solution. { km jl™%t£ rm ' 

tion of ten grains of guaiacum in a drachm of glycerin, which I was 
assured could not be supplied, but I pressed the experiment and so it 
was tried, but failed completely. I next begged a mixture of tincture 
of guaiacum with glycerin in equal parts; I was assured that the gly- 
cerin would act to the tincture as water would do and would at once 
precipitate the guaiacum, and it was pointed out to me that since the 
glycerin had proved its incapacity for dissolving guaiacum I might take 
the result for granted. However, the experiment was tried. It resulted 
in a perfectly clear solution. More glycerin was added, and the solu- 
tion still remained perfectly clear. It therefore appears that it is pos- 
sible to have a perfectly clear " mistura guaiaci," if glycerin be added 
to the tincture instead of water. But then, it may be asked, is the 
flavor any better ? To this I am in a position to reply encouragingly. 
The pungent and nauseating flavor of the guaiacum is rendered con- 
siderably softer and altogether less objectionable. However, it might 
be urged that an ounce of glycerin is not quite such a trifle to swallow 
as an ounce of water, but this only leads me to point out another con- 
venience of my device, and that is, a diminution of the necessary bulk 
of the dose, which may conveniently be reduced within the capacity of 
a liqueur-glass. The spirituous sweetness of the compound suggests 
the allusion, and the flavor of the mixture is not very distasteful. Yet 
another objection may arise, namely, that even if its flavor be rendered 
milder the remedy must nevertheless be contained in this diminished 
bulk of fluid in a higher state of concentration, so that when the com- 
pound gets mixed with the fluids of the stomach this fact will become 
manifest. But no drawback of that kind occurs. The action of a 
glycerin solution on the tissues is much more gradually exerted than 
that of an aqueous one, as any one may know who has compared the 
effect on a sore throat of painting it at one time with the glycerin of 
tannic acid, and at another with an equivalent aqueous solution of the 
acid, or who has tried on a patch of slightly raw skin an aqueous as 
against a glycerin solution of iodine of corresponding strength. I 
would, therefore, propose the admixture of half a drachm or a drachm 
of the tincture of guaiacum with one or two drachms of glycerin for 
a dose, and I must explain that I made use of a rectified spirit tincture 
and not the ammoniated tincture of the Pharmacopoeia. Furthermore, 
I must add that the mixture of the tincture with glycerin will not bear 
dilution with water, which renders it turbid. If it is to be diluted it 
must be diluted with glycerin. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans , May 3, 1879, 
p. 894. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

June, 1879. 



Note on Liberian Drugs. 



FURTHER NOTES ON LIBERIAN DRUGS. 

By E. M. Holmes, F.L.S., 
Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

During the last few months further specimens of the plants used in 
medicine in Liberia have been forwarded to this Museum from Dr. 
Roberts through the kindness of Mr. T. Christy. Several of these 
specimens I have been able, by the assistance kindly afforded me at 
Kew and the British Museum, to identify, and appear to me to be worthy 
of placing on record, although probably none of them are possessed of 
very powerful properties. 

It may be here noticed as a curious fact that the majority of the rem- 
edies hitherto enumerated are equally well known in the West Indies, 
although not always used for the same purposes in Liberia. 

Erysipelas plant. — This plant is evidently Tiaridium indicum, Lehm. 
(Heliotropium indicum, L.^a native also of tropical Asia and America, 
and is one of the plants whose medicinal use seems common wherever 
it grows. 

According to Dr. Roberts the plant is used in Liberia in the follow- 
ing manner : The inflamed part is fomented with an infusion of the 
leaves, and some of the fresh leaves are steamed or bruised into a pulp, 
and are applied to the part or bound round it. This is repeated twice 
a day and is said soon to reduce the inflammation and heat. 

In the Mauritius the leaves, bruised and mixed with common salt 
and applied in the form of a poultice, are said to have a diuretic effect. 

In Bouton's "PI. Med. de Maurice," p. 101, a case is related of a 
soldier who, on account of badly ulcerated wounds, was to have had 
his leg amputated, but who was cured by the external use of this plant 
in the form of a poultice and fomentation, the juice of the plant being 
at the same time administered internally. Ainslie, in his Materia 
Medica, speaks of the plant being used by the native practitioners of 
India as an application to gum boils and to repel pimples on the face, 
also in certain forms of ophthalmia. In Cochin China it is used for 
similar purposes, and in Jamaica, where it is called clary, it is used for 
cleansing and healing wounds and ulcers. Martius also speaks highly 
of its medicinal properties. 

" Dysentery plant." — This plant is also called " Kackeis." It is a 
rubiaceous plant, Oldenlandia globosa, Hiern apparently somewhat sim- 



j 1 8 Note on Liberian Drugs. { Am jE£- I f£ rBU 

ilar in properties to ipecacuanha. By some the heads of small pale 
lilac flowers are chewed, or the leaves eaten like a potherb ; others, 
however, make a strong decoction of the plant, of which two table- 
spoonfuls are given three times a day. 

The use of other plants of this genus is somewhat similar in other 
countries. Thus in Brazil one species is used for colic ; in the East 
Indies the fresh juice of another is used in diarrhoea. 1 

"Abortive plant." — This is the Stachytarpheta Jamaicensis^ Vahl. 
{Verbena jamaicensis, L.), a native of Jamaica. This plant is said by 
Dr. Roberts to be used by the natives in the form of tea for procuring 
abortion, but he does not corroborate this statement from personal 
knowledge. 

The plant is also a native of Jamaica, where it is used, according to 
Barham, under the name of vervain, as an emmenagogue, the decoc- 
tion of the root being used, while the expressed juice is administered 
for worms in children and as a purgative. In Brazil, according to 
Martius, it is used for healing ulcers and internally for rheumatic affec- 
tions. In that country it is known as jarbao, urgevao, or orgibao. 
According to St. Hilaire it is taken by some people as tea, and was at 
one time sent to Europe under the name of Brazilian tea. He 
expresses the opinion that it probably is about equal in medicinal value 
to the common vervain, Verbena officinalis ; it is nevertheless largely 
used as a household medicine in Brazil. 2 

Polypodium phymatodes. — Under the name of "male fern" for 
the fronds bearing fructification, and " female fern " for those without 
sori, this plant is used in Liberia for nephritis, dysuria and other kidney 
complaints. It is used either in decoction or tincture, the dose of the 
decoction being two tablespoonfuls three times a day, and of the tinc- 
ture a teaspoonful every three hours. The female fern is used for 
leucorrhoea and prolapsus uteri by the native women. 

Cream of Tartar plant. — This is Osbeckia rotundifolia, Sm. (Dissotis 
plumosa^ Benth.), a plant belonging to the Melastomaceae. It is used 
by the natives as a diuretic and alterative in the same way that cream 
of tartar is used in this country. 3 

1 Ainslie, " Materia Medica," vol, ii, p. 414 5 Martius, " Nat. Med. Brasil," p. 6 ; 
Barham, " Hortus Americanus," p 42 ; Oliver, " Fl. Trop. Africa," vol. iii, p. 56. 

2 St. Hilaire, "Ph. usuelles des Brasiliens," pi. xxxix. 

3 Oliver, "Fl. Trop. Africa," vol ii, p. 452. 



# !j£?«8S , . nB "} -Discovery of Mineral Wax in Utah. 3 1 9 

Curcas purgans. — The seeds of this well-known plant are used as 
a purgative and emetic, under the name of physic nut. 

Anacardium occidentale. — This is called by the natives the caus- 
tic plant, the oily secretion in the pericarp being used for destroying 
warts, etc. 

Icica species. — This resin was received from Liberia under the name 
of copal, but it is evidently a kind of elemi, possibly identical with the 
African elemi presented to the Museum by the late Dr. Ure. 

Externally, the Liberian elemi seems of very inferior quality, pre- 
senting a dirty, blackish appearance, the white opaque porous resin only 
showing here and there. The odor closely resembles that of elemi ; it 
is, however, very much drier and more friable than ordinary specimens 
of that substance. At my request, Mr. E. Fielding kindly examined 
it, and reports that its appearance belies its quality. The following 
results obtained by him show that it is a comparatively pure drug. 
Resin soluble in cold Alcohol, o 845 

Resin soluble in Ether, ..... 0120 

Black insoluble residue, ..... 0*035 

The alcoholic solution is surprisingly pale in color, no darker in fact 
than a solution of sandarach of equal strength, which is the more 
remarkable when the aspect of the crude material is considered. The 
black insoluble residue which, as may be seen above, forms only three 
or four per cent, of the elemi, on incineration and subsequent heating 
in the blowpipe flame, gives to the blowpipe flame the strong purplish 
white tint indicative of potassium, and showing almost entire freedom 
from sodium. When separated by filtration from the alcoholic solution 
and examined under the microscope, the black substance is seen to be 
of vegetable origin, and to consist almost entirely of fungoid or algal 
filaments. — Phar. Jou*-. and Trans. , April 19, 1879. 



The DISCOVERY of MINERAL WAX, Ozocerite, in UTAH. 

By Professor J. S. Newberry. 

I have obtained some of the recently-discovered ozocerite in Salt 
Lake City from Professor J. E. Clayton, to whom also I am chiefly 
indebted for such information as I have in regard to its place and man- 
ner of occurrence. He writes me as follows : " The geographical 



320 



California Honey. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

June, 1879. 



position of the ozocerite deposits is in the Wahsatch Range, on the 
head waters of the Spanish Fork, east from the South End of Utah 
Lake. The material has been found saturating beds of brown and 
bluish shales, probably of Tertiary age, and in masses of various 
dimensions, more or less mingled with clay. These shales extend 
from the San Pete valley in a north-northeast direction for a distance 
of fifty or sixty miles, and the width of the area or basin which they 
occupy is at the middle point about twenty miles. The shale beds 
richest in paraffin vary in thickness from twenty to sixty feet, but 
there is no considerable accumulation of that substance on the surface, 
nor would this be possible, as it would be destroyed by the autumnal 
fires which sweep the country. I examined portions of this region two 
years ago for coal, and found in the oil shales a few thin seams, and 
saw the wax-like exudation in several places, but only in small quantity." 

Other parties in Salt Lake informed me that the paraffin itself is 
sometimes twenty feet thick, and that the quantity is enormous ; but 
Professor Clayton says that such statements are not authorized by any 
facts which have come under his observation. 

In the above remarks I have called the earth wax of Utah ozocerite. 
As it has been stated to be zietrisikite, I may say that on my return 
from the West, my son and assistant, Spencer B. Newberry, made a 
series of careful experiments in my laboratory of these hydrocarbons, 
and with authentic specimens which I have received directly from 
Galicia. He found that it had a melting point of 6i*5°C., that it was 
completely soluble in a large volume of boiling ether, and that boiling 
alcohol extracted from it twenty per cent, of a white wax-like sub- 
stance. It seems, therefore, to be certainly ozocerite and not zietri- 
sikite, the latter melting at o,o C., and being insoluble in ether. — Amer. 
Jour. Science and Arts, April, 1879, p. 340. 



CALIFORNIA HONEY. 

The report that California strained honey has been largely adulterated 
with glucose, and accordingly condemned in English markets, naturally 
causes some unpleasant feeling among the bee-keepers of the Pacific 
coast. A producer, writing to the " Pacific Rural Press," offers the 
following test for detecting adulteration : 

"Take a quantity of honey and add one part water, dissolving the 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

June, 1879. 



California Honey. 



321 



honey thoroughly by stirring. Then add alcohol of 8o° until a turbid- 
ness is formed, which does not disappear on shaking. If glucose syrup 
is present in the honey, soon a heavy deposit of a gummy, milky mass 
will form, while with pure honey there will be only a very slight milky 
appearance observed." 

The same writer says that California honey taken in May generally 
candies in a few days after it is extracted. Later in the season, when 
the air is less humid, the honey gathered is white, very thick and heavy, 
weighing 12 to 12J lbs. per gallon of 231 cubic inches, and does not 
candy so readily, as some samples have been kept three years without 
any symptom of change. A different class of pasturage comes on in 
August and continues through the fall months; the air becomes more 
humid as the rainy season approaches, and the honey gathered is thinner, 
has more color and candies very soon, differing from April and May 
honey in flavor. In the Atlantic States all honey made through the 
entire season candies upon the approach of winter; and a large dealer 
in Cincinnati says all good honey becomes candied during the winter in 
that climate. 

The San Francisco dealers rule that candied honey is reduced in 
value from 1 to 3 cents a pound; yet of samples of California honey 
sent to France, complaint was made that it was not candied, as no other 
could be readily sold there. The magnitude of the California honey 
trade may be judged from the circumstance that over 300 tons of 
extracted honey was produced last year in Ventura county alone. A 
large part of this crop was shipped direct to Liverpool for the English 
market. Of this shipment the writer above quoted says: 

" Knowing our honey to be pure and good, and knowing the char- 
acter of the shipping merchants who are transacting our business, we 
have an abiding faith that our product will be allowed to fairly compete 
in these markets with like products from other parts of the civilized 
world. We wait with patience the results. We have the climate, the 
pasturage is abundant, our bee-keepers are energetic, industrious and 
economical men; are determined to push our products into all the 
markets of the world, and we warn all men who are engaged in the 
production of honey elsewhere that if they cannot produce large quan- 
tities of the article that is first class, and do not put it up in an attrac- 
tive form, more so than we do, they had better stand aside and admit 
'the survival of the fittest' is a fixed fact." — Set, Amer., Mar. 15, 1879. 



322 



Varieties. 



f Am. Tour. Pharm. 
( June, 1879. 



VARIETIES. 

Formulas in Use in Connecticut. — 

Tully s Pon der (orignally called Tully s Dover's Powder). — Sulphate of morphia 
one part, camphor in fine powder twenty parts, precipitated chalk twenty parts, 
powdered liquorice root twenty parts. This is the original formula of Dr. Tully, 
furnished by Mr. Wood, of New Haven. 

Camphorated Dover s Powders. — Cream of tartar eight parts, powdered camphor 
two parts, powdered ipecac on part, powdered opium one part. Mix thoroughly and 
pass through a fine sieve. Originated by Dr. Eli Ives, of New Haven. 

Potter s Powders. — Powdered prepared chalk six parts, powdered camphor one 
part, carbonate of ammonia in fine powder two parts. Furnished by Mr. Wood, of 
New Haven. 

Soda Mixture. — Syrup of rhubarb (made from the root by infusion) four fluid - 
ounces, bicabonate of soda one drachm, spirit of spearmint one half fluidrachm. 
Originated by Dr. Sumner, of Hartford. Furnished by Mr. Goodrich, of Hartford. 

Knights Pills. — Powdered aloes six parts, powdered scammony three parts, pow- 
dered gamboge one part. Make into four and one-half grain pills. Furnished by 
Mr. Wood, of New Haven. 

Ox-gall Pills. — Purified ox gall thirty-six grains, blue mass six grains, powdered 
rhubaib sufficient. Make into four and one-half grain pills. Originated with Dr. 
Jewett, in 1846. Furnished by Mr. Wood, of New Haven. 

Pil. Hyoscyamus Comp. — Powdered colocynth six drachms, powdered socotrin 
aloes four drachms, extract hyoscyamus two drachms, extract conium two drachms. 
Make into two hundred and forty pills. Originated by Dr. Charles Hooker. 

Mistura Couii, Ferri, etc. — Extract conium five drachms, carbonate iron ten 
drachms, tincture cinnamon compound two fluidounces, oil of cassia eighteen 
drops, oil of wintergreen twenty drops, tincture of tolu (two ounces in one pint) 
half a fluidounce, sugar eight ounces, water sufficient to make one pint. Originated 
by Prof. William Tully. — Proc. Conn. Phar. Assoc. , 1879. 



Prof. Gross' Saline Mixture.— Having been repeatedly asked recently for the 
formula for this mixture, we publish it for the benefit of our readers : 



Antimonii et potass, tart , 


grs. iiss 


Magnesii sulph., 


. p 


Morphias sulph., 


gr- '1 


Aquas dest., 


. ^x 


Syr. zingiber, vel simplicis, 


3ii 


Acid, sulph. aromat., 


. 3ss 


Tinct. veratr. virid., 


£iss 



'M. Sig. : Saline and antimonial mixture. Average dose, ^ss, to be diminished 
in the event of vomiting or much nausea. (See " Gross' Surgery," 5th ed., vol I., 
P- 93 ) 



Am. Jour. Pnarm. 
June, 1879. 



V arieties. 



323 



The Mboundou Poison. — The following are the principal points of a recent 
memoir by M. Testut on the mboundou poison of Gaboon, Africa, as given in a 
notice in La France Medic ale : 

In the first place, the author found the action of the poison varies according to the 
way it was administered, and the dose. With small doses there were invariably 
observed convulsive symptoms, indicating increased reflex excitability. If given in 
large doses, the animal appeared as if struck down, respiration was arrested in a few 
seconds, and the frog became a passive mass, not even responding, in any way what- 
ever, to excitations ; nevertheless, he is not dead ; the heart continues to beat with 
.normal regularity. 

M. Testut therefore suspects that there may be two principles in this famous 
ordeal poison — one exciting the reflex activities and the other stupefying and paraly- 
zing them, this last acting only when large doses are given, and killing the animal 
before the convulsive phenomena have had time to appear. Whatever they or it 
may be, eliminaiion takes place through the regular channels, and, in case of the 
frog, largely through the skin. 

The abdominal lesions found after death from this poison are of a congestive 
'nature, and similar to those found after poisoning from strychnia and agaricus. 
These lesions, not being due to a direct or topical action, must be attributed to the 
vaso-motor centres in the spinal cord, disordered in their functions by the absorption 
of the poison. The mechanism of death from this poison in the higher animals is, 
probably, asphyxia by respiratory arrest, a pulmonary anhsematosis. — Journal of 
Nervous and Mental Disease, April. 



•Spiritus Nucis Juglandis. — Dr. Edward Mackey, of Brighton, England (Prac- 
titioner, Dec.), gives the results of his experience in the treatment of obstinate vom- 
iting, with spirit of walnut, a remedy almost obsolete, but for which he claims con- 
siderable efficacy as an anti emetic, useful in many cases of obstinate emesis. The 
preparation he uses he obtained from Messrs. Soiithall, of Birmingham, and is as 
follows: Fresh walnuts, 30 oz. ; spirit of wine (rect.), 12 oz. ; water q. s. Distil 
16 oz. He has had good results from its use, in drachm doses, every one to four 
hours, in a 1 ttle water, in cases of hysterical vomiting, the vomiting of obstinate 
dyspepsia, that of pregnancy, that due to anomalous causes, and even in cerebral 
vomiting. He has tried it also in septicaemia without effect $ but this result is not 
surprising. He recommends its more extensive trial by the medical profession. — 
Jour. Ner-v. and Ment. Disease, April. 



Suberin for Chapped Nipples. — (L" Union Medicale du Canada, January, 1879) 
The treatment recommended by M. Brochard for fissured nipples is so simple that 
it deserves to be popularized. When chaps exist on the nipples, whatever their 
extent, the nipple should be washed with pure water, and then dried and dusted with 
suberin, which, as is known, is impalpable cork powder. The author has used 
it for several years, and prefers it to lycopodium for infants, because it contains 



3 2 4 



Varieties. 



( Am. Jour. Pharra. 
\ June, 1879. 



tannin, and besides is much cheaper. Over the suberin is placed a piece of gold- 
beater's skin, cut star-shaped, in the centre of which several punctures are made with 
a fine needle. Every time the child is suckled, the suberin is washed off with wafer 
and the gold-beater's skin replaced, the child drawing the milk through it without 
giving pain. When the child is done, the suberin is again applied as before, and so 
on. — Chicago Med. Jour, and Examiner, April. 



Isinglass from Seaweeds.— A very interesting product, called " kanten," or 
vegetable isinglass — a species of gelose derived from either of the seaweeds Gelidium' 
corneum or Plocaria lichenoides — is made in China and Japan, and exported to 
Europe in flat and moulded tablets and in bundles of strips. It is known in Cochin 
China as " hai thao." It is soluble in boiling water only, of which it takes up about 
500 times its weight. It is manufactured as follows: 

The seaweed, called by the native name of " tengusa," is carefully washed and 
afterwards boiled, so as to form a gluish decoction, which is strained off and put 
into square boxes. When cool it forms a stiff jelly, which can easily be divided into 
squares a foot in length. The manner in which the surplus water is removed is very 
ingenious. The jelly prisms are exposed in the open air during a cold night and 
allowed to freeze. During the day the sun melts the water, which runs off, leaving; 
behind what one may term the skeleton of white horny substance, which is extremely 
light and easily dissolved in hot water; when cooled, it again forms a stiff jelly. 
This article can be applied to many purposes — for culinary uses, for making bon- 
bons and jellies, for clarifying liquids, as a substitute for animal isinglass, for making 
moulds used by the plaster of Paris workers, for hardening the same materials — in 
short, as a substitute for all kinds of gelatins, over which it has the advantage of 
producing a firmer jelly. — Confect. Jour., May. 



American Fruit Syrups.— The production of syrups has heretofore been entirely- 
in the hands of the French, who have held the control of the South American and 
West India trade, where syrups have been and still are largely used by ladies in the 
preparation of the various cooling drinks used in the tropical countries. The long 
time required to transport these goods to the tropics from Europe, and the superior 
advantages offering in the United States — not only with regard to the length of time 
for transporting the goods, but also from the natural advantages of the country — 
have induced some of our merchants to enter into competition with European mar- 
kets fcr the production of fruit syrups which shall control the trade, not only of this 
country, but also that of the West Indies and South America. 

The experiments have proved successful, by producing a better class of syrups r 
for the strawberry, raspberry and many other fruits are not only indigenous to the 
soil, and can therefore be produced cheaper, but they possess a far richer flavor, and 
are more juicy, giving them the advantage over the fruits which have to be culti- 
vated by extiaordinary efforts in countries to which they do not naturally belong.. 
These syrups have been sent to the tropics as experimental ventures, and already 



/ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1879. / 



V arieties. 



they have met with approval from the West Indies and from the Spanish islands, 
from which large orders have already been received. The trade in syrups in this 
hemisphere has heretofore amounted to millions of dollars, which amount has not 
only gone out of this country to foreign nations, but has also been taken away from 
the trade of the United States with those countries which by their near proximity 
would be supposed to have preferred commercial relations with North America than 
any other part of the world. The success of the experiment bids fair to bring to 
the United States a large trade, besides driving out of this market another of those 
foreign products, the control of the sale of which has heretofore been held abroad. 
— Confect. Jour , May. 



Manufacture of Celluloid — Celluloid is made by dissolvingpyroxylin in camphor 
■instead of ether or alcohol. A solution of one part of camphor in 8 of alcohol is 
made; pyroxylin is ground in water, the desired colors added and all water removed 
from the mixture by pressure ; the camphor solution is then added in the proportion 
of one part to two parts of pyroxylin, the mixture is stirred and allowed to stand in 
a closed vessel until the solvent has penetrated all parts, when the mass is expressed 
and formed into the desired shape by means of a hydraulic press, being heated at the 
same time from 65 to i3o°C, when a solid, uniform piece of celluloid is obtained. 



Artificial Ivory is made out of celluloid, as follows : ioo parts of pyroxylin, ground 
in water, and pressed almost dry, are mixed with 100 parts, by weight, of powdered 
ivory, and 50 parts of camphor, the moisture is removed from the mass by pressure, 
and 50 parts of nitric ether are added, when it is allowed to stand for several hours 
in a closed vessel. It is then compressed in a heated cylinder in a hydraulic press 
and rolled out between heated rollers, when it looks like ivory. — Chem. Centralbl., 
Dec. 25, 1878, p. 831, from Ind. El, 



Effect of Animal Charcoal on Salts.— The systematic researches of Leo Lieber- 
mann proved that not only many salts are retained by animal charcoal when their 
•solutions are filtered through it, but that many are entirely decomposed by it. If 
a neutral solution of these salts is poured on a charcoal filter, the filtrate consists of 
an acid liquid, the whole base and a smaller or larger portion of the acid being 
retained by the charcoal. Ztschr. f. Analyt. Chem., 1879, No. 1, p. 95, from Sitz- 
.ungsber. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. z. JVien. 



Bronzing Liquid. — Dissolve 10 parts fuchsin and 5 parts purple anilin in 100 
parts 95 per cent, alcohol, on a water- bath j add 5 parts benzoic acid and boil for 
5 to 10 minutes, until the greenish color of the mixture turns bronze-brown. This 
brilliant bronzing liquid is applied with a brush, answering well for all metals and for 
other materials, and drying quickly. — Pharm. Centralh., Oct. 31, 1878, p. 416, from 
Chem. Ztg. 



326 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, {^jfi^gj* 

Artificial Cataplasm, a Substitute for ordinary Linseed Meal Poultice. — 

Volkhausen prepares cataplasms consisting of a piece of white thick felt paper r 
which is saturated with a decoction of linseed. When intended to be used the 
paper is dipped into hot water 5 swells considerably, is then applied, covered with 
caoutchouc paper, fastened with bandages or string, and allowed to remain for 12. 
hours before a new one needs to be applied. — Pharm. Ztg., Feb. 12, 1879, P- 95- 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

May 20, 1879. 

On motion, Mr. Wm. Mclntyre was called to the chair. The minutes of the last 
meeting having been read, were approved. 

Prof. Maisch presented a number of valuable books, twenty in all, from the library 
of the late Prof. Carson, and many specimens of materia medica for the cabinet. 
They were sent by Dr.W. S W. Ruschenberger, President of the Academy of Natural. 
Sciences, as he was apprised of the* wish of Dr. Carson that our College should be. 
the recipient of a portion of his cabinet and library. The Registrar was directed to 
return the thanks of the College to Dr. Ruschenberger for his thoughtful kindness 
in forwarding the above articles. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a specimen of a root and plant sent by Mr. Atherdon, of 
Colusa, Cal., as being probably a species of angelica. The plant belongs to the 
umbelliferae, but the genus cannot be determined, owing to the immature condition, 
of the ovary. Prof. Maisch has planted one of the roots, and expects to receive the 
fruit to enable him to determine its botanical name. He also presented some fresh 
rhizomes of Maranta arundinacea (the arrowroot plant), for which he was indebted 
to Prof. Bedford, of New York. A specimen of the Raiz de China de Mexico^, 
sent by Mr. Kalteyer, of San Antonio, Texas, was exhibited. It is officinal in the 
Mexican Pharmacopoeia and there referred to Smilax rotundifolia ; but Prof. Maisch 
stated that this species is indigenous in the United States and has a cylindrical rhi- 
zome, so that the above reference is erroneous. The root is spindle-shaped, about 
18 inches long, 6 or 7 in diameter above, of a reddish brown color externally, lighter 
within, fleshy, and with numerous irregular stria? of wood bundles 5 it is nearly 
inodoious when dry, of a rather fruity odor when first cut open, and of a very 
astringent and somewhat bitter taste. Diaphoretic and purifying properties are. 
attributed to it, and it is also employed in dropsy. 

Prof. Maisch likewise presented, in behalf of Dr. F. V. Greene, U. S. N.,a speci- 
men of chloride of ammonium derived from the interior of a Peruvian guano bed- 
It has the appearance of being sublimed, is hard, fibrou*, crystalline and of a dark- 
gray color. 

The following short communication from Mr. Hans M. Wilder was read: 

Filters. — Convenient as the French round filters of different sizes are, it will be- 
found more economical to keep the 20 inch size, and cut up into smaller sizes. One 
hundred 20-inch filters yield 



An ^jlnT,'is^g rm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 327 

400 8 and 500 3 inab. 
or, 2600 3 inch. 
3600 2} inch. 
700 6 inch. 

200 io, 200 6 and 400 3 inch. 

100 13 and 600 3 (or, 200 3 and 200 4 inch). 

100 10, 200 8, 100 6 and 200 3 inch, 

And so on. 

The above has been found not by calculation but by actual measurement. The 
savings will run up from 30 cents to 70 cents or more. Small as the savings are, 
filters are used to such an extent that the savings amount to something in a twelve- 
month. 

Prof. Maisch called attention to a number of specimens of Bombay drugs recently 
received from Mr. W. Dymock, and exhibited a number of those which are to 
some extent known in this country or have recently been mentioned in pharmaceu- 
tical journals. 

Prof. Sadtler alluded to abietene, and read an extract from a paper by Prof. 
Thorpe, of Leeds, Eng. (see page 293), showing the singular identity of abietene 
with heptane, one of the derivatives of paraffin from Pennsylvania petroleum. 

There being no further business, on motion, the meeting adjourned till October. 

T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COL LEGES AN D ASSOCIATIONS. 

New York College of Pharmacy — The semi-centennial anniversary of the organ- 
ization of this College was celebrated at the College building, 209 East Twenty- 
third street, on the evening of May 15th. The spacious lower room was occupied 
by a collection of articles relating to pharmacy of the present time and of the past, 
and consisting of apparatus, utensils, preparations, and notably of books, amongst 
which were several ancient ones printed in hieroglyphics which we could not 
decipher. The large lecture room was tastefully decorated, and on one side were 
the names of all the presidents, on the other side those of all the professors of the 
College since its organization. The seats on the platform were occupied by the 
original and several of the older members of the College. On the suggestion of 
President E. Mclntyre, Mr. Henry T. Kiersted was invited to preside and Mr. G. D. 
Coggeshall to act as secretary, both gentlemen having belonged to the College since 
its organization. Professors Chandler and Day, who had been invited to address the 
meeting, were unavoidably absent. Professor Bedford gave a historical sketch of 
the organization of the College and its labors, and introduced also interesting notices 
of the first apothecary in New York, H. Kiersted, and of many of the long-established 
drug houses in that city. Prof. Maisch, of Philadelphia, being called upon, made 
a few remarks, alluding more especially to the services of the New York College in 
securing the passage of the drug inspection law, and of calling the Convention of 
Colleges, from which resulted the American Pharmaceutical Association. This 
was the second College of Pharmacy in the United States having witnessed the first 
fiftieth anniversary. May the others in the course of time follow, and may they all 



328 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { * m jl™J£ rm ' 

remain united in the objects for which they have been established : the elevation of 
pharmacy and the sound and thorough education of the tyros. 



New York State Pharmaceutical Association — This is the title of a new organi- 
zation, which was organized at Utica, May 21st. Pursuant to a call, signed by a 
large number of druggists from different parts of the State, nearly one hundred 
assembled on the day mentioned in the Common Council Chamber. Professor 
Bedford was elected temporary chairman, and Mr. Clay W. Holmes, secretary. 
Addresses of welcome were made by Judge Bacon and Dr. M. M. Bagg. Con- 
gratulatory telegrams were received from the Pharmaceutical Associations of New 
Jersey and Kentucky, then in session. The draft of a constitution and by-laws 
was presented, discussed and adopted, after which the following officers and com- 
mittees were elected : 

President, Prof. P. W.Bedford, New York} Vice-Presidents, C. M. Lyman, Buf- 
falo ; Benjamin F. Ray, Utica 5 A. J. Inloes, Binghamton ; Secretary, Charles H. 
Gaus, Albany 5 Assistant Secretary, Clay W. Holmes, Elmira ; Treasuier, William 
Blaikie, Utica j Executive Committee — Louis E. Nicol, Brooklyn; A. B. Husted, 
Albany; E. H. Davis, Rochester; Delegates to American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation — F. F. Knapp, New York ; W. H. Rogers, Middletown ; C.M.Lyman, 
Buffalo; William Blaikie, Utica; H. P. Napier, Owego. 

On the following day the President explained the advantages of, and illustrated 
the metric system of weights and measures. Mr. E. G. Bissell read a paper on 
syrup of ipecacuanha. The following committees were appointed : On Pharmacy 
Law (to draft a law and present it to the Legislature)— -Mr. Rieffenstahl of Buffalo; 
B. F. Ray, Utica; H. B. Napier, Owego ; G. M. Baker, Brooklyn; Willett L. 
Brown, Syracuse. On Trade Interests — Messrs. Inloes of Binghamton, Diehl of 
Buffalo, Bissell of Rome. On Pharmacy and Queries, Messrs. Sautter of Albany, 
De Forrest of Brooklyn, Hamilton of Syracuse. 

Connected with the meeting was an exhibition of drugs and articles of interest to 
pharmaciscs. Between the sessions a visit was paid to the State Lunatic Asylum, 
where the various departments were shown by Drs. Andrews and Brush. After 
passing sundry resolutions of thanks, the Association adjourned to meet again at 
Syracuse in May, 1880. A number of the members subsequently paid a visit to 
Trenton Falls. 



Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. — The second annual meeting of this 
Association will be held in the Select Council Chamber at Pittsburg June 10th, at 
10 o'clock A.M. By referring to page 11 of the advertising sheet, our readers will 
notice the particulars of the arrangements which have been made by the Secretary 
and by the Local Committee. The enjoyment of the trip will be materially 
enhanced if the Eastern members, with their ladies, will join the party which will 
leave Philadelphia about noon and Harrisburg at 3.35 P.M. on June 9th. It is 
expected that a number of the members will embrace the opportunity and pay a 
visit to the oil regions. 



Pittsburg College of Pharmacy. — The chair of Chemistry, made vacant by the 



Am jine r 'i87 9 arm } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 329 

resignation of Prof. F. F. Phillips, has been filled by the Board of Trustees by the 
election of Mr. Henry G. Debrunner. The newly-elected professor is known to 
the readers of our journal from several contributions which have appeared in its 
pages from his pen, and, knowing him to be active and energetic, we are convinced 
that he will use his best efforts to fill the position with credit to himself and to the 
institution. The chairs of Materia Medica and of Pharmacy are occupied by the 
incumbents of last year, Drs. Reiter and Stevens. 

Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the Annual Commencement, held March 
24th, the President, Dr. Joseph Roberts, conferred the degree of Graduate in 
Pharmacy upon Charles E. Bardwell {Oleum Morrhua), D. M. R. Culbreth [Sodium 
and its Compounds), Henry M. Fout [The Plant), Justin L. Hill [Caloric), O. Edward 
Janney [Metric System in Pharmacy), Wm. H. Koons [Water), V. Paul Lombard 
{Ferruginous Substances), Thos. E. Locke [Hemp of India), Geo. Mass [Sarsaparilla), 
J. R. Mehrteus [Ergot), F. R. Nordmann [Ammonia and its Compounds), C. W. 
Routson [Chimaphila Umbellata), Thos. S. Russell [Radix Aconiti), Geo. H. Schone 
[Polytrichum Juniperinu?n), Wm. A. Stewart [Log-wood), Geo. W. Sutton [Sulphur), 
Chas. Waldschmidt [Lactic Acid), Chas. L. Weiher [Camphor), Adolph Weilepp 
{Carbon), John B. Willis [Mesquite), Henry Weinsenger [Potash), Louis Wolf 
■■( Potassium). 

Alumni Association, Louisville College of Pharmacy. — At the fifth annual 
meeting the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, B. 
Buckle, M. D.$ Vice Presidents, W. F. Tafel and A. J. Schoettlin ; Recording Sec- 
retary, O.E.Mueller ; Corresponding Secretary, Arthur J. Elwang; Treasurer, 
Henry Buschemeyer, Jr. Executive Board — Jno. Rudell, O. A. Beckmann, J. A. 
Flexuer, Geo. Stauber and J. C. Loomis. Delegates to the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association — Otto E. Mueller, John F. Rudell and Oscar A. Beckman. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy. —At the commencement exercises, held Tues- 
day evening, March 19, 1879, at Apollo Hall, the .degree of Ph.G. was conferred 
upon the following gentlemen : J. F. Baehr, J. H. Evans, Otto Fehringcr, H. F. 
Hassebrock, E. Knoebel, G. J. Klein, Wm F. Krembs, F. J. Meyer, H. T. 
Moeller, E. H. Mueller, J Ramming, J. A. W. Sommer, C. C. Tate, E. M. Till, 
J. P. Schoenthaler, E. H. Wolff. The valedictory address, on behalf of the 
faculty, was delivered by Prof. J. M. Good, Ph.G.; on behalf of the class, by Mr. 
E. M. Till, Ph.G. The exercises were followed by a social reunion. 

The annual meeting of the college took place on Monday, April 28th, 4 P. M., 
at the lecture room. The different committees presented their reports, showing the 
institution to be in a flourishing condition. The election of officers for the ensuing 
year resulted as follows: Pi esident, Geo. Ude ; Vice President, Chas Gietner ; 
Recording Secretary, E. P. Walsh; Corresponding Secretary, G. H. Chas. Klie ; 
Treasurer, Ferd. W. Sennewald ; Trustees — Chas. Habicht, Chas. Bang, W. H. 
Crawford, Henry Braun, Gustav Koch. Professors : Chemistry, C. O. Curtman, 
M. D.; Pharmacy, J. M. Good, Ph.G.; Materia Medica, O. A. Wall, M. D. ; 
Botany, Ph. Hambach, M. D. 



33o Editorial. {^jfiSiST" 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. — On page 268 of our last 
number we have published the call for the sixth decennial Pharmacopoeia conven- 
tion, which is to meet in the city of Washington on the first Wednesday in May,, 
1880. The call is signed by Dr. James E. Morgan, whose name is erroneously given 
James M. Morgan in the Proceedings of the National Convention of 1870, as pub- 
lished in the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia. Dr. Morgan is the only survivor of 
the five officers of the convention who were charged with the duty of calling the 
sixth convention. In accordance with the resolutions passed in 1870, the notice is 
specially addressed to the incorporated State medical societies, the incorporated 
medical colleges, colleges of physicians and surgeons and colleges of pharmacy 
throughout the United States, all of which are requested to elect delegates, not 
exceeding three, to the next general convention, and in the meantime to submit the 
Pharmacopoeia to a careful revision, the result of their labors to be transmitted to 
the convention. 

It is particularly to this last clause that we desire to call the attention of our 
readers It is well known that it is much easier to find fault with a work done by 
others than to do that same work in a better manner, and it is not unfrequently the 
case that most fault is /ound by those who have made the least efforts towards 
improving that which it is desired to revise. Since the Phai macopoeia is more 
especially the law-book of the pharmacist and his guide in making those prepara- 
tions which the physician is expected to use in the treatment of disease, a duty 
evidently rests upon every pharmacist to contribute his share towards making the 
Pharmacopoeia as perfect as possible. The discussion of processes, manipulations 
and menstrua at meetings and in the journals is all very proper; but, with the view 
of lending efficient aid in the revision, the results, and not the theories merely, should 
be brought to the notice of the convention in such a manner as to make them at 
once available for the purpose for which they are intended. Or, in other words,, 
alterations and new material should be presented precisely as they are intended to. 
appear in the Pharmacopoeia, and any argumentation in favor of or against a pro- 
cess or measure should be to the point and as brief as consistent with clearness. 
All references to published papers or the expressed opinions of men can obviously 
be best available if put into the language of the Pharmacopoeia. It is doubtless fop 
such and similar reasons that the different societies are requested to submit the 
Pharmacopoeia to a careful revision. The comparison of the results will then be 
relative'y an easy task, and if a sufficient majority of the reports should favor 
any particular preparation or process, its adoption would obviously be secured. 

Have all the colleges of pharmacy applied themselves to the work expected of 
them ? We are unable to say to what extent this has been done 5 but in case the- 
preliminary labors required should have not, or only partially, been attended to, we 
would urge upon each college the necessity of commencing the work forthwith,, 
and, rather than to leave it undone altogether, to revise as large a portion ot the 
Pharmacopoeia as can be done by them during the few months left before the meet- 
ing of the convention. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1879. 



Editorial. 



33 1 



When the convention of 1870 met, we believe that there was no pharmaceutical* 
State association in existence. Daring the last ten years fifteen have been organized,, 
nearly all of which, we believe, are actively sustained. They are likely to furnish a. 
new element, at least in future revisions of the Pharmacopoeia, representing that large 
number of pharmacists who live in smaller cities and towns where they cannot be 
in active communication with the colleges. Their wishes require to be heard, like 
those of the State medical societies. We have not learned that any of these State 
associations have undertaken the preliminary revision of the Pharmacopoeia, perhaps 
because, under the rules adopted in 1870, no provision could be made for the recep- 
tion of their delegates, But, we doubt not, the result of their labor would receive 
the same consideration as if they were represented by delegations. Notwithstanding 
the difficulties in the way of unity of action when working members of a commit- 
tee live at great distances from one another, the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, which is likewise not entitled to representation in the Pharmacopoeia convention,, 
has undertaken the work,. and we feel confident that, notwithstanding the great 
difficulties, it will be accomplished, under its efficient chairman, in such a complete 
manner as can be reasonably expected. 

For State associations the difficulties are by far less, and though it may be too 
late for most of them to carry a preliminary revision successfully through, the indi- 
vidual members could attend at least to a portion of the work, and thus pave the 
way for the future. Or if that should be impracticable, they would work for the 
interest of pharmacy if they would communicate their suggestions, in the concise 
manner indicated above, to the Chairman of the Committee of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, Mr. Chas. Rice, Bellevue Hospital, New York, or to the 
nearest College of Pharmacy. In a country as extended as the United States it is 
impossible for the few to be cognizant of the wants of every section, and it rests 
with the pharmacists and physicians of those sections to make their wants felt j, 
more particularly is this the case with the Southern and far Western States, where 
many remedies are applied which are unknown in the Eastern and Middle States. 
In our opinion, no pharmacist is justified in finding fault with the new Pharmaco- 
poeia, if he has not assisted in the work of revision to the best of his ability and 
opportunity. 



State Pharmaceutical Associations.— It is with great pleasure that we announce- 
in the p-esent issue the organization of a pharmaceutical society for the State of 
New York. In addition to this, the youngest, there are now similar organizations 
in most of the New England States, in New Jer-ey, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, Tennessee, Michigan, Kansas and California. In 
September next the National Association will meet at Indianapolis, in a section of 
the country which was formerly designated the West, but has at the present time, 
perhaps, greater claim to be called the centre of the United States. The States- 
located in this portion are surrounded by those in which the pharmacists and diug- 
gists have awakened to the necessity of organizing themselves for mutual advance- 
ment and protection. We are convinced that it requires only an invitation from a 



Editorial. — Reviews, etc. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t June, 1879. 



-comparatively few to enlist the co-operation of the majority of reputable druggists 
in the organization of a State society. It is to these few that we desire to address 
ourselves, and to urge upon them now, as we have done on former occasions, to 
proceed. It is a mistake, in our opinion, to wait until steps in this direction are 
taken by the pharmacists in the large cities, who have either a college or a local associ- 
ation to unite them. We believe that the initiatory steps are best taken by those not 
connected with local bodies 5 for the great object to be attained is to bring those 
nearer to one another who at present are strangers, and to unite them in the work 
of mutual improvement. We therefore repeat the suggestion which we made two 
years ago, for the druggists and pharmacists of the different State capitals, to call a 
meeting of all interested at an early date. Pharmacists who live in other towns and 
feel an interest in the movement, should, however, not allow the object to be 
defeated through any lukewarmness that may exist in the capital, but, with the aid 
of their friends, set the undertaking in motion. We are aware that for some years 
ipast the organization of pharmaceutical associations has been contemplated in Iowa, 
Indiana and Ohio; there is no reason why it should not be accomplished now, so 
that the newly formed associations may be represented at the twenty-seventh annual 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association. And in case any of the 
older State associations should have failed to keep up their regular meetings, it is to 
be hoped that new life may be infused into them for the same cause. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at its twenty-sixth annual 
meeting, held at Atlanta, Ga, Ao-vember, 1878. Philadelphia. 1879. 8vo. 

As we go to press we learn that this anxiously expected volume is nearly ready, 
and will be distributed to those entitled in June. It makes the largest volume ever 
issued by the Association, covering over 1,000 pages. The report on the Progress 
of Pharmacy is unusually full and elaborate, and occupies 644 pages. Then follow 
the reports of the Committee on the Drug Market and of other committees, includ- 
ing that on the Revision of the Pharmacopoeia, which is accompanied by a valuable 
report on Fluid Extracts by Prof. Diehl, giving the experimental results of a num- 
ber of investigators, obtained by following a uniform previously- devised plan. The 
elaborate paper on Repercolation by Dr. Squibb, published on page 209 of our last 
volume, is reproduced, and completed by giving the results obtained from long 
experience in the preparation of fluid extracts by repercolation. 

The papers presented at the last meeting are published in full 5 in the December 
number abstracts have been given of those papers which admit of condensation. As 
usual, the minutes contain the discussion, reported by a stenographer, and are 
followed by the roll and an alphabetical list of members with their addresses, the 
usual lists and an index, which is necessarily more lengthy than those of the pre- 
vious volumes. The character of the majority of the papers, and the fulness of the 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 
June, 1879 



Reviews, etc. 



333' 



various reports, render this one of the most valuable and important ones published 
by the Association. Non-members will be supplied with copies, bound, at $7.50 
each, by the permanent Secretary, J. M. Maisch. 



Cinchona. Arten y Hjbriden und Cultur der Chininbaume. Von Dr. Otto Kuntze. 
Leipzig. Verlag von H. Haessel. 1878. 8vo, pp. 124, and three phototypes. 

Cinchona. Species, hybrids and culture of the quinine-trees. 

It is well known that the different species of cinchona, as they are usually enu- 
merated in works on Botany and on Materia Medica, present so many variations of 
the botanical characters that it is exceedingly difficult to exactly define the limits of 
these species, all of which appear to be mDre or less connected by intermediate 
forms. It is also known that when under cultivation hybrids are very easily pro 
duced. The author had occasion to make observations at the cinchona plantations 
of Java and the Himalayas, and, comparing them with those made by the directors 
and superintendents of the plantations, arrives at the conclusion that the number of 
species of cinchona must be very materially reduced, and that nearly all the species 
as hitherto recognized should be regarded as hybrids. This view is strengthened 
after a critical examination of the works of Ruiz and Pavon, Lambert, Weddell 
and others, the author pointing out in each case the typical forms, by the hybridi- 
zation of which the supposed species have been produced. The species are reduced 
to four, for which the following nomenclature is proposed : 

1. Cinchona Weddelliana. This agrees with C. calisaya of Weddell in part 5 five 
varieties, differing somewhat in the shape and venation of the leaves, are described. 

2. C. Pavoniana is C. micrantha, Weddell. 

3. C. Houoardiana is C. succirubia, Pavon. 

4. C, Pahudiana, Howard. 

The phototypes give representations of these four species with fruit, of a form 
produced bv the hybridization of all four species, and of numerous leaves from C. 
officinalis, Lin. (s. C. condaminea, Humb )=C. Pavoniani-Weddelliana, Kuntze, 
showing the gradual approaching to the leaf forms of the two parent species. 

The work is certainly a most interesting addition to the literature of the cinchonas ; 
and while it must be conceded that the views advanced by the author are calculated 
to throw light on certain obscure questions relating to the cinchonas, it is equally 
certain that the reduction of species as proposed must be left for final decision to 
future careful investigations. 



Medicinal Plants; being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants 
employed in medicine, and an account of their properties and uses. By Robert 
Bentley, F.L.S., and Henry Tiimen, M.B., F.L.S. Philadelphia: Lindsay & 
Blakiston. Price, per part, $2 00. 

This handsome work, we are glad to notice, is approaching completion. Parts 37 
and 38 before us contain colored figuies in the usual excellent style, and descriptions, 
etc., of the following plants: ^thusa cyi apium, Lin ; Cinnamomum cassia, Blume; 
Crocus sativus, Lin.; Humulus lupulus, Lin.; Lycopodium clavatum, Lin.; Peu- 



334 



Reviews, etc. 



Am Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1879. 



cedanum graveolens, Hiern (dill); Pimpinella anisum, Lin ; Pinus picea, DuRojj 
Pinus pinaster, Solander; Rosa canina, Lin.} Smilax medica, Schlecht ; Smilax offici- 
nalis, Kunthf and Spigelia marilandica, Lin. 



A Guide to Therapeutics and Materia Medica. By Robert Farquharson, M. D. 
Edin. Second American edition, revised by the author. Enlaiged and adapted 
to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia by Frank Woodbury, M.D., Physician to the Ger- 
man Hospital, Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea. 1879. Pp.498. 

The appearance of a new edition of this convenient and handy book in less than 
two years may certainly be taken as an indication of its usefulness. Its convenient 
arrangement and the terseness, and, at the same time, completeness of the informa- 
tion given, make it a handy book of reference. 

In looking over its pages, we have noticed that Pareira brava (p. 336) is still 
referred to Cissampelos pareira, while it is obtained from Chondodendron tumtn- 
tosum, Ruiz et Pa<von> as proven by Daniel Hanbury in 1873. On page 134 it is 
said of Angustura bark, that "it has fallen into disrepute from the fact that it was 
occasionally found to be adulterated with nux vomica bark." This sweeping state- 
ment is not in accordance with the facts. The adulteration was noticed in 1804 in 
angustura bark sold at and obtained from Hamburg; but the place where the 
admixture was made has not been ascertained. The adulterant was at first supposed 
to be the bark of Brucea antidysenterica, Mill. y and on this account the alkaloid 
obtained from it by Pelletier and Caventou was named brucia. The correct oiigin 
of the so-called false angustura bark was determined by Schleiden in 1857; but for 
the last seventy-five years no other case of this adulteration has been placed on record. 



Hints in the Obstetric Procedure. By William B. Atkinson, A.M., M.D. Phila- 
delphia: D. G. Brinton. 1879. iamo, pp. 121. 

This formed the subject of an annual address delivered before the Philadelphia 
County Medical Society, and has been re-vvritten by the author in response to 
demands made for it. The book before us is of the second edition. 



Hearing and How to Keep it. By Chas. H. Burnett, M.D., Consulting Aurist to 
the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, etc. Philadelphia: Lind- 
say & Blakiston. 1879. i6mo, pp. 152. Price, 50 cts. 

This is the first of a series of small volumes which will be edited by Dr. W. W. 
Keen, and issued by the publishers under the general title of American Health 
Primers. The subjects selected pertain to sanitary science and to the preservation 
of health. A number of well-known American authors have promised their 
assistance, and several additional volumes are now in press. 

The little volume before us appears in a very inviting dress, and as to its con- 
tents, they have evidently been written by a skilled hand and in such a manner that 
they will be interesting as well as useful to persons of intelligence generally. As 
the forerunner to the series, it will create an interest in those which are to follow. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1879. 



Reviews, etc. 



335 



Rhyme; of Science ; nuise and otherwise. New York : Industrial Publication Com- 
pany, 1879. PP- 66. Price 50 cents. 

These "rhymes" embrace selections from the poems of Bret Harte, Oliver W. 
Holmes, R. Barham, Prof. E. Forbes and others. It is a neat, illustrated little 
volume, calculated to amuse and instruct. 



Taschenbuch der Chemikalien- Lehre. Von Dr. G. C. Wittstein. Nordlingen : C. H. 
Beck'sche Buchhandlung, 1879. "ma, pp. 326. 

Compendium of chemicals. 

The volume before us is the third of a series of popular works giving information 
on various subjects used in the arts or for domestic purposes. The author's "com- 
pendium of secret medicines" we have noticed in 1876; his "compendium of 
articles of food and drink" in our last volume. The aim which guided the author 
in the two volumes mentioned has also been adhered to in the present one. It has 
been written as a guide for intelligent persons generally, and though it does not 
enter into the discussion of chemical problems, will be found useful and convenient 
also for those versed in chemistry. 

The articles are arranged in alphabetical order, and usually treated of under the 
subheadings: Occurence in Nature, Preparation, Composition and Properties, 
Impurities, Uses. The descriptions are clear and to the point, and all statements 
are made with that accuracy for which the author is noted. 



Proceedings of the Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association at the third annual meeting, 
held in Hartford, Conn , Feb. 5, 1879. Waterbury. 8vo, pp. 71. 

This pamphlet contains the minutes, addresses, reports, papers read, etc , at the 
meeting. Among the reports is one on local formulas, the collection of which we 
consider a very commendable undertaking by the various State Pharmaceutical 
Associations, in many cases not so much on account of the intrinsic value of these 
medicines, but more for the purpose of securing uniformity in the prescribing and 
dispensing of medicines throughout the country. We print these formulas in another 
place (see page 322). The report on the progress of pharmacy by Mr. Thos. F. 
Main covers twenty-three pages, and very properly confines itself almost exclusively 
to pharmaceutical formulas published in the American journals. We are 
aware that several Pharmaceutical Associations have adopted a similar course ; but 
we seriously doubt the propriety of it, inasmuch as a complete report on the subject can 
by no means be expected, such as is furnished by the American Pharmaceutical 
Association in its annual publications, and which covers all branches of pharmacy 
and includes the periodical literature of most civilized countries. 

Among the papers read we desire to especially refer to a few. One on proprie- 
tary medicines, by E. W. Thompson, refers to the moral side of the question in a 
commendable manner, and in discussing the financial side severely handles the 
"cutting" of prices. We believe the position of the author to be correct when he 



336 



Reviews, etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1879. 



says, " If it were my fortune (or misfortune) to be obliged to meet the competition of 
one of these would-be druggists, instead of following his lead in reducing prices,I should 
at once offer patent medicines at the bare cost of laying them down in my store, and 
trust to my reputation to carry me through on my preparations 5 I certainly believe 
that any pharmacist possessing a good reputation could keep his trade by this means. 
In large cities I can only suggest a combination which should embrace, if possible, 
all the skilled pharmacists in the place," etc. 

The manufacture and sale of pharmaceutical preparations by wholesale druggists 
and others is discussed by Nathan Dikeman. We extract only the following, which 
we think will be endorsed by all true pharmacists: " So long as the physician calls 
for these various special manufactures, to the exclusion of the regular officinal rem- 
edies, they might as well be kept in corner groceries, and sold like rum, sugar and 
molasses, and requires about the same amount of talent and responsibility to dis- 
pense them. It seems to me to savor very strongly of quackery, and is a step toward 
prescribing patent or proprietary medicines ; and in the opinion of the writer all 
reputable pharmacists should discountenance their adoption, and depend upon their 
own skill and knowledge to provide the necessary pharmaceutical and officinal prep- 
arations, as far as is posible, and not upon the skill and integrity of others." 



Proceedings of the T enth Annual Meeting of the California Pharmaceutical Society and 
College of Pharmacy, held at San Francisco, Jannary 9, 1879. 8vo, PP« 4 2 « 

Besides the matters usually contained in such publications, two papers are published 
in this pamphlet, one by Prof. W. M. Searby on Pills and pill excipients, and one by 
S. A. McDonnell, giving the results of the qualitative examination of a San Fran- 
cisco Cure of opium habit, which contained codeia, sugar, glycerin and anilin red. 



Fifteenth Annual Report of the Alumni Association oj the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, 1879. 8vo, pp. 56. 

Eighth Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy of the City 
of Ne-uj York, 1879. 8vo > PP- 6 4- 

These publications contain the minutes, addresses, reports, commencement exer- 
cises, etc. 



A Contribution to the Hamatinic Properties of Dialyzed Iron. By Robert Amory, 
M. D., of Longwood, Mass., 1879. 8vo, PP- 7> with f* ve plates, handsomely 
executed by the heliotype process. 

This is a reprint from the Boston " Medical and Surgical Journal " of April 3d, 
in which the author reports five cases of anaemia successfully treated with dialyzed 
iron. These cases are more particularly interesting, since recently diaiyzed iron 
has been often reported as worthless. The question of superiority over other iron 
preparations is quite a different one 5 perhaps the mode of administration, etc , may- 
have a decided influence on its effects, as on those of other medicines. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JULT, 1879. 



VERATRUM VIRIDE— NOTES OF AN EXAMINATION. 

By Charles Bullock. 

When the root of veratrum viride is digested in water acidulated 
with sulphuric acid at a temperature of I50°F., the mass becomes 
gelatinous and swells up to an increased bulk. When expressed and 
alcohol is added to the expressed liquor, a copious deposit of pectic 
acid is occasioned. 

The presence of pectose and the large amount of resin and fatty 
matter contained in the root makes the use of alcohol necessary for its 
exhaustion. 

Fifty-three pounds of veratrum viride — rhizome with rootlets — from 
North Carolina, in powder, was exhausted with alcohol, the alcohol 
distilled off and the resulting extract exposed to a continued moderate 
heat until all of the alcohol was expelled. During this process the resin 
separated from the soft extract. It was removed and allowed to drain 
for several weeks during the warm weather of summer. 

The weight of the soft extract was . . 6 lbs. 10^ oz. av'd. 

The weight of the hard resin was . 3 l< 4 

Total weight of extract from 53 lbs. of root, 9 lbs. 14^ 

This extract furnished the material for examination. 

In separating the alkaloids, advantage was taken of the previously- 
ascertained fact that all of the alkaloids were imperfectly precipitated 
from acid solutions by caustic alkalies or alkaline carbonates at ordinary 
temperatures, but if the solution is heated to I50°F., the precipitation 
is almost complete. 

The Soft Extract. — Eighty-six per cent, of this extract is soluble in 
water. Petroleum benzin removes 4^3 per cent, of fatty matter. 
After removal of the alkaloids, the watery solution was treated in the 
usual manner with subacetate of lead, and after separating the excess 

22 



338 



Veratrum Viride. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1879. 



of lead and neutralizing the free acid with carbonate of baryta, the 
filtered solution was evaporated to a syrup and thrown into alcohol. 
The filtered alcohol solution, evaporated and exposed to a temperature 
of 2i2°F. until it ceased to lose weight, gave a product representing 
85'5 per cent, of the extract. 

This product has a transparent red color, a saccharine taste, with 
some bitterness, and acts energetically as a reducing agent with salts of 
copper and silver. In chemical character it appears to be almost 
entirely glucose. 

The amount of alkaloids contained in this extract was determined 
for the portion soluble in water and for the resin separately. . 

880 grains of the extract, representing the yield from one pound of 
root, was exhausted with water, the washings were evaporated to reduce 
the volume and carbonate of soda added to alkaline reaction. After 
separating the precipitate, the solution was heated to I50°F. and a 
little caustic soda added. The precipitate occasioned was removed 
while the solution was warm. 

The weight of the first precipitate by carbonate of soda was i6-j grains. 
The second, by caustic soda, Was . . . 2*6 

Total, * i9"3 

These alkaloids contained a large amount of coloring matter, from 
which they were purified by re-solution in acetic acid, filtering and pre- 
cipitation from a warm solution. The precipitate, when dry, weighed 
10*7 grains. 

All of the mother-waters were made acid and evaporated, then made 
alkaline and treated with ether. The ether product was dissolved in 
acetic acid, filtered and precipitated as before. Weight of product, 
17 grain ; total weight of mixed alkaloids, 12*4 grains. 

The jervia was separated by precipitation, as a nitrate, from an acetic 
solution representing 3 grains in each fluidounce, by addition of an 
equal volume of a saturated solution of nitrate of potassium. After 
standing 6 hours, the nitrate of jervia was collected on a filter and 
washed with a solution of nitrate of potassium, pressed between folds 
of bibulous paper and dried. Weight of nitrate of jervia, 7*9 grains. 
After the separation of the jervia the solution was evaporated, heated 
to I50°F. and precipitated by soda. Weight of other alkaloids, 3*2 
grains. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1879. J 



Veratrum Viride. 



339 



Resin from the Soft Extract. — To prevent any change which might be 
caused in saponifying the resin with lime, the following process was 
adopted with this, as also, subsequently, with the hard resin : 

The fatty matter was removed by petroleum benzin. The resin, 
rubbed to a fine powder, was made into a smooth paste with water, 
introduced into a bottle and a solution of carbonate of soda containing 
a little caustic soda added until the resin was dissolved. It was then 
agitated with ether and the ether removed. The washing with ether 
was then repeated. The product left on distillation of the ether was 
dissolved in acetic acid, filtered and precipitated by carbonate of soda 
containing a little caustic soda. Weight of product, 9*3 grains. 

The mother-water was made acid, evaporated, and after being made 
alkaline, treated with ether. The product, dissolved in acetic acid, 
filtered and precipitated, gave 0"j grain more of alkaloids. Total 
weight of mixed alkaloids from the resin, 10 grains. 

The alkaloids separated by nitrate of potassium gave 

Nitrate of jervia, .... 8*4 grains. 

Other alkaloids, . . . i*6 

Hard Resin. — 429 grains, representing the yield from one pound of 
root, was powdered and digested in petroleum benzin. The loss of 
weight, representing fatty matter, was 847 grains. After removal of 
the benzin by evaporation, the resin was reduced to a fine powder and 
treated as in the previous experiment, by dissolving it in an alkaline solu- 
tion and treating the solution with ether. The weight of mixed alka- 
loids obtained was 22*5 grains. The mother-water was made acid, 
evaporated, and, after addition of caustic soda, treated with ether. The 
product obtained weighed 0*8 grain. The alkaloids, separated in the 
manner preceding, gave 

Nitrate of jervia, . . . . 14*1 grains. 

Other alkaloids, . . . . 6'i 

The resin from the soft extract and the hard resin were then 
precipitated from their alkaline solution by hydrochloric acid, and 
dried. The solution was made neutral with soda and evaporated to 
dryness. This product was added to the precipitated resin and the 
whole mixed with an equal weight of lime previously slaked, and the 
mixture boiled for a few minutes, then evaporated to dryness by steam 
heat. The dry mass was powdered and exhausted by hot alcohol. The 
product left on distillation of the alcohol was dissolved in diluted acetic 



34Q 



Veratrum Viride. 



Am. Jour. Pharnu 
July, 1879. 



acid, filtered and precipitated. Weight of mixed alkaloids obtained^ 
C9 grain. The alkaloids, separated as before, gave 

Nitrate of jervia, . . . . o*i grain. 

Other alkaloids, .... 0.8 

The total amount of alkaloids obtained from the extract representing 
one pound of root, was 

From soft extract, .... i2'4 grains. 

Resin from soft extract, . . . 10 

Hard resin, ..... 24*2 

Total yield of mixed alkaloids, . . 46-6 

When separated, the alkaloids represented 

From soft extract. Resin from soft extract. Hard resin.. 

Nitrate of jervia, 79 grains. 8*4 grains, 14.9 grains*. 

Other alkaloids, 3*2 i*6 6 - 2 

Total amount of nitrate of jervia, . . . 31*2 grains. 

" other alkaloids, . . ii'o 

422 

Loss, ..... 4.4 

46-6 

The loss of over 10 per cent, which occurred in separating the- 
alkaloids is due both to separation of foreign matter and loss in manipu- 
lation. 

An examination under the microscope of the alkaloids, after separa- 
tion of the jervia, was made by allowing a drop of their alcoholic 
solution to evaporate on a glass slide. Crystalline forms were found, 
differing in form from jervia, indicating the probable presence of another 
alkaloid which crystallizes from its alcoholic solution. When further 
purified by solution in ether, dissolving the ether product in acetic acid 
and precipitating by nitrate of potassium until a solution containing 1 
part in 200 of acetic solution was no longer disturbed by addition of 
the nitrate, then precipitating the solution at I50°F. by caustic soda, a 
product representing five per cent, of the mixed alkaloids was obtained. 

Saponification of the Resin by Lime. — One pound avoirdupois of the 
hard resin was powdered and rubbed into a smooth paste with 1 pound 
of lime previously slaked. Sufficient water was added and the mix- 
ture boiled for a few minutes. After evaporation and drying on a 
steam-bath, the mass was powdered and exhausted with three gallons, 
of hot alcohol. The product left on distillation of the alcohol was 



Am ji?y, r *x8 P 7 9 arm *} Veratrum Viride. 341 

treated with warm diluted acetic acid, 1 filtered and precipitated while 
warm by caustic soda. The precipitate was purified by drying, re-solu- 
tion and precipitation. The weight of mixed alkaloids obtained was 
485 grains. 

A better result was obtained from a second pound of the resin, by 
iirst removing the fatty matter with benzin and using two pounds of 
lime. The yield of alkaloids by the process of saponifying with lime 
was 20 per cent, greater than by the ether process. 

Volatile Principles. — 300 grains of the hard resin, deprived of fatty 
matter, was dissolved in water by addition of carbonate of soda mixed 
with a little caustic soda. The alkaline solution was submitted to dis- 
tillation, collecting the product in a receiver containing water acidu- 
lated with acetic acid. The distillate was evaporated to reduce its 
volume, made alkaline and treated with ether. The result was negative. 

Note. — After concluding the examination recited in this paper, I have 
seen the abstract of a paper read by Dr. Wright before the Chemical 
Society, London, May 15th, " On the Alkaloids of Veratrum Viride," 
in which the able and exhaustive examinations made by him contribute 
greatly to our knowledge of the constituents of this interesting drug. 
The name " rubijervine " has been given by him to the alkaloid which 
has claimed my attention, a name which is very appropriate to the 
reactions of the alkaloid. The alkaloid which I found to crystallize 
from solution in alcohol along with " rubijervine " is probably his 
* c pseudojervine." 

The large amount of alkaloids which are associated with the resin, 
and removed from it only by saponifying with lime, render it probable 
that by his process of obtaining the alkaloids a considerable amount 
escaped his notice. 

The approximate yield of the bases which I obtained from one 
pound avoirdupois of the root by the ether process was 46*6 grains = 
6*6 1 2 grams per kilo. The amount obtained by Dr. Wright was 
o*8o gram per kilo. 

The amount obtained from the hard resin alone by sapjnifying with 
lime represented 29*7 grains for one pound of root = 4*21 grams per 
kilo. 

1 Repeated treatment with hot water containing acetic acid until two gallons were 
used was necessary to exhaust the product. 

Philadelphia, June 6, 1879. (To be continued.) 



34 2 Analysis of Eupatorium Perfoliatum. { Am, / u < 5y"' I 8 7 ^ m,> 

ANALYSIS OF EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM, Lin. 

Reported by Peter Collier, Chemist, to Hon. Wm. G. LeDuc, Commissioner,, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, June 5th, 1879. 

I have the honor to report the following result of the examination of 
" Boneset," Eupatorium perfoliatum. This plant has long had the repu- 
tation in domestic medicine of being a good tonic, especially valuable 
in the spring. Physicians also have attributed to it virtues as a diaphor- 
etic, expectorant, emetic and anti- intermittent. Whether all claimed 
for it is true must be settled by the physician, but the present chemical 
examination has been undertaken with the hope of throwing some light 
upon the proximate principles to which are due the medicinal effects of 
the herb. Partial analyses have been made by W. Peterson ("Amer. 
Jour. Pharm.," 185 1, xxiii, p. 206) and by M. H. Bickley ("Amer.. 
Jour. Pharm.," 1854, xxvi, p. 459s 

Probably the bitter principle is the only one of medicinal importance. 
It is a brown uncrystallizable substance, soluble in water and alcohol,, 
insoluble in ether. It was impossible to purify this substance well. 

Upon evaporation of an alcoholic extract of the drug a few white 
prismatic crystals were deposited. These crystals were difficultly solu- 
ble in hot alcohol, and insoluble in ether, water, dilute -acids and 
dilute alkalies. They seem, therefore, to be neither acid nor alkaloid, 
but rather of an indifferent character. 

The drug appears to contain very little volatile oil, although its odor 
may be accounted for by this small amount present. 

Starch is not abundant. The tannic acid found gave the usual reac- 
tions, except that it failed to precipitate tartar emetic from its aqueous, 
solution. The albuminoids were calculated from total nitrogen, mul- 
tiplied by 6*25. 

It is impossible to say whether sugar was present in the substance,, 
since the bitter principle would probably give similar reactions. 

The following analysis is regarded as an approximation only, but 
care has been taken to eliminate all preventable errors. The analysis, 
was made by Mr. Parsons, who also submits the. above reports 



^ju?y, r, i87 h 9 arn ''} Lactucarium from Lactuca Canadensis. 



343 



Analysis of " Boneset" Eupatorium Perfoliatum. 

Water, . . . 9*17 per cent. 

Ash, .... 7-51 

Albuminoids, .... 13*30 

Resins and chlorophyll, . . 15*15 

Indifferent crystalline substance, . . 2*87 

Tannic acid, ... 5*04 

Bitter extractive, . . . 18*84. 

Gum and coloring matter, . . 7-23 

Starch isomers, .... 12*47 
Cellulose, . . . . 9-32 

Humus substances, . . . traces 

Volatile oil, . . . traces 



100-90 per cent. 



LACTUCARIUM FROM LACTUCA CANADENSIS. 

By Hiland Flowers, Ph.G. 
[Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 

The milk-juice, which exudes almost at the commencement of the 
plant's career, is perfectly inert, though a large quantity is produced. 
As collected up to July 20th, the exudation has a strong narcotic odor, 
while the palate perceives no bitterness, but simply a flat sweetish taste. 
Up to this time the plant has borne its reproductive organs, but 
failed in giving the requisite bitterness. A change, however, occurred 
about the 25th of July, when we find that the laticiferous vessels are 
yielding a large supply of juice with a slightly bitter taste and a stronger 
and more lasting odor. As the season advances, both the bitter prin- 
ciple and the narcotic odor increase. 

The milk-juice collected during the latter part of the season dried 
in irregular masses, crumbling into minute fragments when rubbed 
between the fingers, and was of a blackish-brown color, a strong odor 
and very bitter taste. If kept in a closely-corked bottle it remains 
soft and is capable of being moulded into cakes. The odor is slightly 
stronger in the fresh state, and the color of a grayish-brown. 

Aubergier, in 1843, experimented upon this plant, while investi- 
gating the subject to ascertain from which lactucarium might be most 
advantageously obtained ; he stated that the milk-juice of Lactuca canaden- 



344 Lactucarium from Lactuca Canadensis. \^ m ^]^ xm ~ 

sis, or e.longata, had a flat, sweetish taste and contained mannit, etc., but 
no bitter principle. 

In September, 1867, Prof. Maisch commenced a series of experi- 
ments upon the plant, and upon the personal observation then made, as 
well as the reports of Doctors DaCosta and Muller, of this city, 
rested convinced that the plant did contain a bitter principle and did pos- 
sess decidedly medicinal properties, and that Aubergier had perhaps 
improperly conducted his experiments, possibly using the expressed 
juice of the plant, which, according to Prof. Maisch (vide "American 
Journal of Pharmacy," 1869, page 145), has a flat, sweetish taste. 

Four drachms of the milk-juice collected in September and October 
were exhausted upon a filter with boiling alcohol. Eight ounces of 
filtrate were obtained, passed through animal charcoal and concentrated 
by spontaneous evaporation, when inodorous and tasteless needles were 
obtained, which melted at about I75°F. and on cooling congealed to 
a granular mass. They were evidently lactucerin On still further 
evaporating the mother liquor and adding to it water, a whitish precipi- 
tate was produced, from which the aqueous liquor was thoroughly 
drained. On dissolving the precipitate in boiling alcohol and evaporating 
the solution spontaneously, more of the tasteless needles were obtained, 
and pale-brownish bitter scales, which were evidently impure lactucin. 

The aqueous mother liquor was precipitated by basic acetate of lead, 
and both the precipitate and the filtrate were freed from lead by sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. On evaporating the solutions, brownish amorphous 
masses, having a bitter taste, were left, corresponding to the lactucic 
■acid and lactucopicrin of the European lactucarium. 

Lactucerin is in colorless needle-shaped crystals, either united in 
stellate groups or crossing and overlapping each other ; tasteless, solu- 
ble in boiling alcohol, petroleum benzin, ether, chloroform, and slightly 
soluble in cold alcohol ; insoluble in water. If heated to above its 
melting point (i75°F.), it volatilizes slowly. Sulphuric acid chars it ; 
nitric acid has no effect unless heated. 

Lactucin is insoluble, or nearly so, in water ; soluble in alcohol and 
acetic acid. When pure and not exposed to much heat, the lactucin 
is in scales of a dull-white cast ; under the microscope presents a rug- 
ged surface, slightly tinged with a reddish-brown color. From my 
experience, I am inclined to think that if the scales are heated in solu- 
tion for some time, they will not form again very readily and are 



Am jJ?y i r ' I 8 7 9* rm } Lactucarium from Lactuca Canadensis. 345 

deprived of some of their bitterness. Ammonia will not precipitate it, 
but rather tends to alter the taste. It is, however, precipitated from 
alcohol by water, and may thus be purified by repeated precipitation 
and crystallization. Nitric acid will not dissolve it, nor will the addi- 
tion of alcohol facilitate this end. The characteristics given by 
Kromayer, Ludwig and Walz are in accordance with these results. 

Lactucic acid is precipitated by basic acetate of lead, care being 
taken that an excess is not used, for it is soluble in that salt when in 
excess. It changes blue litmus paper to red, proving its acidity ; has 
an acrid, bitter taste ; is soluble in alcohol, both hot and cold, insoluble 
in petroleum benzin, bisulphide of carbon, ether and chloroform, and 
has a brownish-green color. 

Lactucopicrin is a brown amorphous mass, and may be purified by 
repeated treatment with ether, chloroform or alcohol, filtering and 
evaporating. It has a strong and purely bitter taste, is soluble in alco- 
hol, chloroform, ether and water, and is not precipitated by lead salts 
from its solution. 

The residue of the lactucarium, left after the above principles had been 
removed by hot alcohol, was treated with bisulphide of carbon, which 
dissolved a large amount of caoutchouc (gum elastic), but there yet 
remained a residue, which was treated with ether, removing a pale- 
yellowish granular powder ; with chloroform, removing the remaining 
caoutchouc and some of the coloring matter, and with alcohol, which 
yielded, on evaporation, a brownish, bitter, amorphous mass resembling 
lactucopicrin. Water extracted a large amount of coloring matter. 
The residue which was now left defied the solvent powers of carbon- 
disulphide, ether, chloroform, alcohol, water and acetic acid. 

The yellowish powder obtained on the evaporation of ether in the 
above treatment closely resembles lactucerin, but the identity of the 
two was not proven. When heated it will melt, and volatilize if the 
temperature is increased. On cooling it forms a resinous mass. It is 
soluble in hot alcohol, petroleum benzin and chloroform ; insoluble in hot 
or cold water. Sulphuric acid dissolves it, but does not char it. Nitric 
acid has little or no effect. Muriatic acid dissolves it slightly. Acetic 
acid and ammonia have no effect. It is precipitated from the alcoholic 
solution by water. 

1 he statement of Aubergier regarding the worthlessness of this 
plant is undoubtedly wrong, as there exist, beyond question, several 



346 The Products of Ricinus Communis. { Am j^ l8 p ^ nnt 

bitter principles with decided physiological action. It is very likely 
that he collected the juice before the plants were sufficiently matured 
and the bitter principles developed. 



THE PRODUCTS OF RICINUS COMMUNIS, Lin. 

By Ernest P. Raab, Ph.G. 
[From an Inaugural Essay.) 

After describing the plant, its culture in the United States and the 
processes adopted in different countries for obtaining the fixed oil, the 
author followed Boerner's experiments ("Am. Jour. Phar.," 1876, p. 
481), with a few modifications, using the residuary oil-cake after the 
second expression. 

Having reduced the bean to the proper degree of fineness for perco- 
lation, I percolated four ounces each respectively with the following 
menstrua : benzin, ether, alcohol and bisulphide of carbon. The ben- 
zin percolate divided into two strata, the upper being clear benzin, the 
lower a light-brown oil of spec. grav. '95. Having dissolved a part of 
the benzin, 11*4 per cent, oil was obtained. The oil was saponified 
with pure caustic potassa, giving a soft brown soap, and, upon filtra- 
tion, nothing but brown extractive was left behind. The portion 
percolated with benzin was again percolated with bisulphide of carbon, 
furnishing a light-brown oil, but no crystals were perceptible on evapo- 
ration, and also, when the bisulphide of carbon residue was treated 
with benzin, the product was only a light-brown oil. 

The three other percolates, varying in color — that of alcohol dark- 
brown, that of ether somewhat lighter and that of bisulphide of carbon 
still lighter — were put into a Florence flask connected with a Liebig's 
condenser. The three solvents came over clear, and, on spontaneous 
evaporation, left a slight greasy spot in the evaporating dish. The 
residuary portion was shaken up with ether, which dissolved the oil - 9 
the remainder was shaken up with alcohol, filtered and concentrated. 
The bisulphide of carbon and ether residue left a brown extract, but 
the alcohol extract was soon studded with prismatic, needle-shaped 
light-brown crystals. Upon dissolving these in boiling alcohol, filter- 
ing, concentrating and evaporating, white prismatic crystals were left 
having a burning taste, insoluble in cold water and alcohol, soluble in 



Am jSy, r ;8 P 79 arm } The Products of Ricinus Communis. ^7 

boiling alcohol and water, slowly soluble in hot and cold ether, readily 
soluble in hot or cold benzin, insoluble in benzol. 

Next Tuson's process was followed. Half a pound of the bean was 
boiled with successive portions of water. The decoction had an acid 
reaction, was strained and evaporated. The soft extract was dissolved' 
in boiling alcohol. As soon as the alcohol was added a brown deposit 
was thrown down. This was partially soluble in cold, more so in hot 
water, sparingly soluble in acetic acid and acetic ether, insoluble in 
alcohol, diluted alcohol, benzin, chloroform, bisulphide of carbon and 
benzol. Upon examining the deposit, it proved to be gum, pectin, 
sugar, extractive, etc. In order to ascertain whether or not it contained 
any purgative properties, five drachms were given to a cat, without any 
perceptible results. Filtering the solution, condensing and allowing it 
to evaporate, no crystals were obtained. Again dissolved in boiling 
alcohol, a brown extract remained. This was separated by filtration, 
the filtrate evaporated, and, as no crystals were deposited, the filtrate, 
mixed with magnesia, was evaporated to dryness, exhausted with boil- 
ing alcohol, filtered and allowed to evaporate. A few tabular crystals 
were left; the yield was very small, only 12 or 13 grains. Thinking 
the second boiling with alcohol was the cause of the small amount, the 
experiment was repeated with three pounds more of the bean. The 
yield this time was almost 2 drachms of tabular prismatic crystals. The 
crystals obtained corresponded with those obtained by Boerner in regard 
to solubility in hot water, acidulated solution with phosphomolybdic 
acid, tannic acid and iodohydrargyrate of potassium, proving the pro- 
duct not to be an alkaloid. 

A portion of the decoction was neutralized with bicarbonate of 
sodium, which immediately changed the color from dark-brown to port- 
wine red. To the red solution bicarbonate of sodium was added in 
excess, but no further results were obtained. A hot alcoholic solution 
of the extract previously obtained was mixed with one ounce of ether, 
which immediately deposited a white amorphous powder mixed with 
extractive. The powder, though white when deposited, changed to 
brown on standing several days. It proved to be insoluble in cold 
water, alcohol and in cold or hot ether, but soluble in hot water and 
alcohol to a limited extent, sparingly soluble in benzin and bisulphide 
of carbon. In order to ascertain whether this contained sugar or not^ 



348 The Products of Ricinus Communis, {^]^;^ rm ' 

Trommer's test was applied, but only a ropy, dark-brown deposit 
•ensued, changing ,to black. 

A portion of the alcoholic extract was treated with six ounces of 
acetic acid, which dissolved some of it ; boiling caused more of it to 
be taken up. This solution was filtered; the filtered liquid was 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously. In a few days needle-shaped 
crystals were produced having a brown color, probably from an admix- 
ture of extractive matter. But the crystals were very deliquescent, 
had a burning, bitter, acrid taste and were readily soluble on the tongue. 
Crystals closely resembling the former, but not deliquescent, were 
obtained by treating another portion of the alcoholic extract with acetic 
ether. The brown extract left on the filter was partially soluble in 
alcohol, ether and chloroform, but not soluble in benzin, benzol and 
bisulphide of carbon. The three pounds of bean which had been used 
for the production of ricinin were lastly boiled with one and one-half 
gallon of water and placed into an earthenware jar for four weeks. 
After the fourth day a peculiar odor, resembling that of foul fecal 
matter, was developed, not like the infusion of Boerner, recalling that 
of decayed cheese. Day by day this odor grew more intense. On 
the fourth day, also, a marked acid reaction was perceptible. On the 
twenty-eighth day it was neutralized with bicarbonate of sodium and 
evaporated. The product, resembling crystals of butyrate of sodium, 
amounted to 9 ounces and 2 drachms. One pound each of alcohol 
and sulphuric acid were mixed, allowed to cool and then poured 
upon the butyrate of sodium previously placed into a copper still. Heat 
being applied, vapors having the characteristic smell of butyric ether 
were observed. The vapors were followed by drops of an alcoholic 
solution of butyric ether. The yield was 19J ounces. On shaking 
2 drachms with an equal weight of water, the pure butyric ether 
floated on top. To estimate the exact yield, 20 cc. of the liquid 
obtained and 20 cc. of water were placed into a graduated tube and 
thoroughly shaken. Taking in consideration the 10 per cent, of ether 
dissolved in the water, the result was 27*3 per cent of pure butyric 
ether. 

Following the experiments of Prof. Wayne ("Amer. Jour. Phar.," 
1874, p 85), the leaves of two plants were dried, ground and sifted, 
yielding 8 troyounces. On percolating 4 troyounces of these with 95 
per cent, alcohol, a grass-green (not brown) liquid was obtained. After 



A ™'ju°y%87 h " n '} Preparation of Syrup of Ipecacuanha. 34^ 

adding a solution of lead acetate, sulphuretted hydrogen was passed 
through the liquid, the light-green filtrate was evaporated to a soft 
extract and exhausted by boiling alcohol. This, when allowed to evapo- 
rate spontaneously, left merely green extract. The extract was again 
treated with boiling water, allowed to cool and then passed through 
animal charcoal to separate coloring matter. On evaporating, tabular 
crystals were produced, corresponding in appearance and behavior to 
those obtained from the beans. The green coloring matter was 
extracted from the charcoal by boiling alcohol and allowed to evaporate. 
The extract left was insoluble in cold and boiling water, in ether and 
sparingly soluble in cold alcohol. The remaining 4 ounces of the 
leaves were boiled with water. The greenish-brown decoctions were 
strained and evaporated to a soft extract. This was exhausted by boil- 
ing alcohol, which immediately caused a deposit of a green extractive 
matter similar to that obtained from the beans and having the same 
solubilities. The light-green alcoholic filtrate was condensed and 
allowed to evaporate. As no crystals appeared, the extract was treated 
with cold alcohol and the filtrate heated to the boiling point and allowed 
to evaporate spontaneously, when beautiful tabular prisms were obtained 
of a greenish hue. After solution in alcohol, filtration through animal 
charcoal and subsequent concentration, the substance was deposited in 
white needle-shaped crystals. 

Applying the tests enumerated by Prof. Wayne to these crystals, 
identical results were obtained in every case. 



ON THE PREPARATION of SYRUP of IPECACUANHA. 

By E. G, Bissell, Ph.G. 
Read before the Ne-iv York State Pharmaceutical Association, May 22, 1879. 

Having long been dissatisfied with the syrup of ipecac, produced by 
the present officinal formula, I have made an attempt to so modify the 
process as to produce a better result, and take pleasure in presenting 
my experiments in the hope that I may call out discussion and further 
experiment by others. 

There seem to be two great objections to the present article : First, 
soon after making it separates quite a large flocculent precipitate, giving 
the syrup a very inelegant and suspicious appearance, and, secondly, this 
precipitate carries down with it a portion of emetia, thus materially 



35o Preparation of Syrup of Ipecacuanha. {* m jl?ZJ 7 h 9 * rm 

impairing the efficiency of the preparation, unless it is always well 
shaken before being administered, a precaution very likely to be neg- 
lected by the average consumer. I have even known drug clerks to 
•omit shaking the bottle before dispensing the syrup. 

About the only recommendation the present formula seems to have 
is that the article is easy to make ; this is certainly a very insufficient 
reason for retaining the formula when one can be di.vised which, with 
but a reasonable amount of trouble, produces much better results. 

When fluid extract of ipecac is mixed with water a precipitate of the 
resinous portion of the drug takes place, carrying down with it a por- 
tion of emetia ; the precipitation of the entire amount of resinous por- 
tion, however, does not at once take place ; to accomplish that result 
the mixture must stand at rest two davs, or thereabouts. Now in 
order to produce from the fluid extract a syrup of ipecac, free from the 
objections of the officinal article, we must first entirely free the fluid 
extract used in the process from that portion insoluble in water, pro- 
ducing the objectionable precipitate in the syrup. And, next, in order 
that the syrup may fully represent the emetic properties of the drug, we 
must dissolve the emetin, which is unavoidably carried down, and add it 
to the syrup. 

The writer thinks the above conditions are complied with, and an 
unobjectionable article is produced by the following process : One 
fluidounce of fluid extract of ipecac is mixed with four fluidounces of 
distilled water, and the mixture allowed to stand at rest 48 hours. Put 
13 troyounces of best white granulated sugar into a flask of not less 
than one pint capacity, then pour off as much of the aqueous solution 
of ipecac as can be turned perfectly clear and add it to the sugar within 
the flask, introduce into the neck of the flask a funnel .containing a 
double paper filter previously well wetted with water and drained. 
This double filter is made by introducing one plain filter, folded in the 
usual way, into another in such a manner that the three thickness side 
of each shall coincide with the one thickness side of the other. Next 
thoroughly shake up the remaining dregs left after pouring off the clear 
solution of ipecac, and put it, a little at a time, upon the filter and 
allow it to drain into the flask; then rinse the vessel, from which the 
dregs have been poured, with two fluidounces of hot distilled water in 
several small portions, and pour the rinsings one after another upon the 
precipitate in the filter, wash the precipitate with the remaining two 



Am ji\y%^ 9 &rm '} Preparation of Syrup of Ipecacuanha. 351 

Huidounces of hot water, allowing the washings to mingle with the con- 
tents of the flask, then warm the flask until the sugar is all dissolved, 
and when cold add sufficient distilled water to make the syrup measure 
one pint. 

Two fluidounces of hot water are quite sufficient to remove all the 
cmetia from the precipitate, provided the washing is done with ordi- 
nary skill and care, as may be shown by testing the washings with tannic 
acid, or nitrate of potassium. The writer has tried several experi- 
ments in making syrup of ipecac, and the formula presented produces 
the most perfect article of any process tried by him ; some of the 
syrup so made several weeks ago as yet shows no sign whatever of 
separating, buc whether it will stand the test of time as well as he 
expects, of course, can not as yet be definitely determined. An 
article prepared by this method last January, except that the mixture 
of fluid extract and water was allowed to stand only 24 hours, showed 
slight floccula diffused through it after standing several days, which 
floccula did not increase or go to the bottom, and the syrup still remains 
a nearly perfect article. 

Another article prepared by mixing one fluidounce of fluid extract 
of ipecac with six of distilled water, at once filtering, then dissolving 
the requisite amount of sugar in the mixture, soon after separated a 
-considerable precipitate, although the article was much better, in this 
respect, than the officinal.' 

Still another process was tried, using benzoic acid water in place of 
distilled water, as suggested in an article on " Benzoic Acid in Phar- 
macy," published in the " American Journal of Pharmacy," April, 
1878. This syrup separated as badly as that produced by the third 
process mentioned in this article, and the writer can see no use what- 
ever for benzoic acid in syrup of ipecac, and if of no use of course it 
is objectionable. 

In conclusion, allow me to remind the members of this association 
that the syrup of ipecac is an important preparation, and I would urge 
others to try the process here recommended, and other processes which 
may occur to them, with a view of offering a perfect, as a substitute 
for an imperfect, article to our next Pharmacopoeia, 



3 5 2 Chemical Notes. { ^jl^fg"™'* 

CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Saml. P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry. — On the formation of Ozone by the aid of 
Hydrocarbons. — Every chemist knows that alkali metals, preserved under 
naphtha in stoppered bottles, do not retain their lustre. J. Schiel has 
made some experiments which explain the matter. Apiece of thallium 
was preserved under petroleum, which had been rectified over 
sodium, and the bottle stoppered. After several days, the metal, sides 
and bottom of the bottle, wherever covered by the petroleum, were 
coated with a brown deposit, which increased in amount and became 
darker. This could only be explained by the ozonizing of the air shut 
in the bottle, and the oxydation of the thallium. A test showed that 
the dark coating was really thallium oxide. A series of experiments 
showed, moreover, that the hydrocarbons especially had this ozonizing 
action. Benzol, petroleum-naphtha, petroleum, oil of lavender, oil of 
turpentine, form a series of compounds with increasing ozonizing effects. 
Easily oxidizable metals, like lead and iron, are rapidly oxidized when 
placed under hydrocarbons, connected with the air by a capillary tube 
passing through the cork of the bottle. The oxide of lead dissolves 
in petroleum, and colors it a clear yellow. Peroxide of lead does 
not appear to form under these circumstances. Even so electro nega- 
tive an element as copper wili oxidize under turpentine oil, because of 
the ozonizing power of the latter. — Ber. der Chem. Ges., xii, p. 507. 

H. Kohler has examined into the correctness of the statements made 
in many of the text-books that mercuric iodide fuses at 238°C. to an 
amber-colored liquid. He finds that different preparations of mercuric 
iodide examined fuse invariably at 253 to 254°C.,and that the color of 
the fused mass is not amber colored but always blood-red, resembling 
bromine. The clear yellow color, which the iodide takes at I50°C. V 
changes as it approaches its fusing point (already at 230°C.) to a deep 
orange. He finds, moreover, that the best crystallizations of the mer- 
curic iodide are gotten, not from concentrated, nor from dilute nitric 
acid, but from concentrated hydrochloric acid. — Ber. der Chem. Ges. y 
xii, p. 608. 

On the vapor-density of InCl 3 and the equivalence of In. — Victor and 
Carl Meyer, in elaborating their method for vapor-density determina- 
tion, have incidentally made some very valuable determinations, bearing. 



Am. Jour. Pharir. ) 

Ju'y, 1879. J 



Chemical Notes. 



353 



upon certain mooted questions. Thus it was not certain whether the 
chloride of indium had the formula InCL or In 2 CI 6 , whether indium 
was to be ranked with zinc, with an atomic weight of 75*6, or with 
aluminum, with an atomic weight of 113*4. Only a determination of 
the vapor-density of one of its well characterized compounds, like the 
chloride, would decide this. The result was as follows : 

Calculated vapor-density for In 2 Cl 6 , 15*20 ; for InCl 3 , 7*60 ; experi- 
mental vapor-density, 7*87. 

The formula of the chloride is, therefore, InCl 3 and not In 2 Cl 6 , and 
indium does not belong to the chemical group of either aluminum or 
of iron, both of which form sesquichlorides. — Ber. der Chem. Ges. y 
xii, p. 6 1 1. 

Organic Chemistry.—- On the Oxydation of Resorcin to Phloroglucin. 
— Barth and Schreder have been making experiments upon the phenols 
with fusing caustic soda. They had found that from ordinary phenol 
could be prepared a diatomic or even triatomic phenol by the introduc- 
tion of one or two hydroxyl groups in place of a corresponding number 
of hydrogen atoms, and they applied the same treatment to resorcin, 
C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 , a diatomic phenol. On fusing it with an excess of com- 
mercial caustic soda in a silver crucible, the light-yellow fused mass 
changed, with effervescing, into a chocolate-colored mixture. The 
cooled mass was put in dilute sulphuric acid, and after the separation 
out of some brown amorphous flocks, the clear brown filtrate was 
extracted with ether, and the etherial solution allowed to crystallize. 

The purified crystals were found to be, on examination and analysis, 
phloroglucin, C 6 H 3 (OH) 3 . A small quantity of pyrocatechin, 
C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 , a diatomic phenol was formed at the same time from the 
resorcin. — Ber. Chem. Ges., xii, p. 503, 

On Cantharidln Derivatives. — J. Piccard makes public some interest- 
ing results obtained with this relatively little-studied substance. The 
change of cantharidin into cantharidinic acid, by the aid of hydrogen 
iodide, he rinds to depend upon the formation of an intermediate iodine 
compound, in which one O atom is replaced by two I atoms. This 
compound, when boiled with concentrated potassium hydrate in a sealed 
glass tube, yields a clear oily layer of pure cantharen, C 8 H 12 . This is 
much purer than the cantharen obtained by heating cantharidinic acid 
with caustic potassa to 400 to 450°C. It boils perfectly constant at 



354 



Chemical Notes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

July, 1879. 



I34°C. If this cantharen be boiled with 10 parts water and 5 parts 
concentrated nitric aid, in a tube drawn out to a capillary opening, it is 
oxidized first to orthotoluy-lic acid and finally to snow-white crystalline 
phthalic acid. If cantharidin be heated with an excess of penta-sulphide 
of phosphorus the mass swells up and there distills from it a light oil, 
which, when rectified over metallic potassium, is found to be pure 
orthoxylol, C 8 H 10 . — Ber. der Chem. Ges., xii, p. 577. 

An Examination of Distilled Essence of Lemon. — In this journal (May, 
1879, p. 255), in describing aprocess for obtaining the distilled essence 
of lemon, reference is made to a study of this essence by Dr. W. A. 
Tilden. The results of that study were as follows : 

The specimens of oil examined had a sp. gr. of '852 at 20°; the 
first rough distillates, after being heated with metallic sodium, gave a 
distillate boiling under 179 . The following substances were recog- 
nized : (1.) A turpentine, C 10 H 16 , agreeing in general properties with 
terebenthene. (2.) A terpene, C 10 H 16 , for which the name citrene may 
be retained, and which constitutes at least 70 per cent, of the crude 
oil ; this terpene differs but slightly from the corresponding terpene of 
orange as to odor, and it boils at the same temperature, 176 ; but it is 
distinguished by the formation of terpene hydrate when treated with 
nitric acid and alcohol, whereas hesperidene yields no terpene (hy- 
drate ?) ; citrene treated with strong sulphuric acid yields an inactive 
hydrocarbon, boiling at about 176 , whilst hesperidene yields viscid 
products, distilling above 240 . (3.) Cymene about 6 per cent. (4.) 
Distillates c and d consist chiefly of an oxidized compound, C 10 H 18 O, 
boiling above 200°, resembling terpinol, except that it is dextrorota- 
tory. (5.) The viscid residue consists of polymeric hydrocarbons, 
(C 10 H 16 ) 2 , and, also, of a compound ether, C 10 H 17 (C 2 H 3 O)O, which is 
decomposed by heat into C 10 H 16 and acetic acid. — four. Chem. Soc, 
May, 1879, p. 386, from Pbar. J. Trans. 

On the Alkaloids on the Aconites. — Wright and LufT have pub- 
lished farther results in their study of the Japanese aconite roots. The 
alkaloid is called by them japaconitine, and they give to it the formula 
C 66 H 88 N 2 21 . It melts at 185 to 186 , and closely resembles aconi- 
tine. On saponification it splits up into benzoic acid and a new base, 
japaconine. Japaconine closely resembles aconine, but on treatment 
with benzoic anhydride it forms a tetra-benzoylated instead of a diben- 
zoylated derivation. — Chem. News, May 23, 1879, p. 224. 



Am j J u ( iy!'i^9 arm ' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 355 

Analytical Chemistry. — Quantitative Determination of Theobromine 
in Cacao and Chocolate. — G. Wolfram recommends the following 
method : If shelled cacao-beans are to be analyzed they are ground up in 
a hot mortar to a thick paste. 10 grams of this mass, or 20 to 30 grams 
of chocolate are digested for some time in hot water, treated with am- 
moniacal lead acetate, filtered whilst hot and washed with hot water 
until the acidified filtrate ceases to give a precipitate with sodium phos- 
pho-tungstate. The filtrate is tested with caustic soda, and the liquid 
evaporated to 50 cc, acidified with sulphuric acid, and the lead sulphate 
removed by filtration. The filtate is precipitated with a large excess of 
sodium phospho-tungstate. The separation of the slimy yellowish- 
white precipitate, in flakes, is facilitated by warming and stirring the 
mixture gently. After several hours' standing the liquid is filtered and 
washed with 6 to 8 per cent, of sulphuric acid. The filter and the 
precipitate are then treated in a beaker with an excess of caustic 
baryta, the mixture warmed, the excess of barium hydrate neutralized, 
by means of sulphuric acid, and any excess of the latter thrown down 
with barium carbonate. The liquid containing the theobromine in 
solution is filtered whilst hot, and the precipitate washed with hot water. 
The filtrate is evaporated in a platinum dish, dried and weighed. Since, 
besides theobromine, a small quantity of baryta salts is always dissolved 
in the liquid, the alkaloid is removed by ignition, the residue moistened 
with ammonium carbonate, evaporated, heated, re-weighed and the 
■difference between the two weighings calculated as theobromine. — 
Dingier' s Poly tech. Jour., vol. 230, pp. 240, 241. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
Gelatin Globules containing Potassium Iodide are prepared suc- 
cessfully by G. Berg by melting on a water-bath sufficient of the pre- 
viously prepared mass, consisting of one part gelatin, one part water, 
and four parts glycerin, adding the prescribed quantity of potassium 
iodide, stirring until fully dissolved, which is the case in a very short 
time, and pouring quickly into cold metallic moulds, where the globules 
solidify almost instantly, while, if the potassium iodide is added in the 
beginning, and is heated with the gelatin, water and glycerin until the 



356 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am ji?;, r -J 7 h 9 ? im - 

gelatin dissolves, a pasty mass results, which never hardens. Not* 
more than 0*2 to 0*3 gram of the iodide can be incorporated with a five- 
gram globule. — Pbar. Zeitung, April 23. 

Preparation of Bitter Almond Water. — H. C. Vielhaber powders 
ten pounds bitter almonds as finely as possible, separates the fatty oil, 
which usually amounts to 36 to 38 per cent., by strong pressure, and 
reduces the almond press-cake to a very fine powder ; a quantity of 
this corresponding to two pounds of almonds is then distilled with water 
(without alcohol) until about 500 grams of distillate have been obtained,, 
when the receiver is disconnected, another receiver attached and the dis- 
tillation continued as long as the presence of hydrocyanic acid can be 
recognized by its odor and taste in the distillate; this second distillate 
is then used in the place of distilled water for distilling another two- 
pound lot of the almonds, and the operation continued thus, always 
collecting the first and second distillates separately and utilizing the latter 
for distilling the next lot, until all the press cake has been subjected to 
distillation ; the first distillates are mixed, and also the second. The 
author thus obtained from 10 pounds of almonds about 5 pounds of 
first and 9 to 10 pounds of second distillate, the former containing a 
large percentage of ethereal almond oil, which is dissolved by adding 
the officinal (Ph. Germ.) percentage of alcohol (about J of its weight) 
to the distillate. The percentage of hydrocyanic is then determined 
in the first and second distillates, and sufficient of the latter added to 
the former to reduce it to the officinal strength. — Archiv d. Pharin., 
May, 1879, p. 409. 

Conditions favoring the Formation cf Corrosive Sublimate in 
Calomel Mixtures. — G. Vdpius finds that : 

1. No sublimate forms in the course of twenty-four hours in mix- 
tures of calorflel with white sugar, milk sugar, magnesia, caibonate of 
magnesium and sodium bicarbonate. 

2. No such formation takes place in three, months jn mixtures of 
calomel with magnesia, magnesium carbonate and sugar. 

3. Minute traces of corrosive sublimate are found at the expiration 
of the same time in a mixture of calomel, bicarbonate of sodium and 
sugar of milk. 

4. A large quantity of corrosive sublimate forms in the same time in 
a mixture of calomel, bicarbonate of sodium and cane sugar. 



^^iSS""'} Gleanings from- the German Journals. 357 

J.i Calomel powders, containing magnesia or sodium bicarbonate 
alone, will contain corrosive sublimate, if digested with water. 

6. The formation of corrosive sublimate in mixtures of calomel and 
alkalies digested in water for a short time is not favored, but on the 
contrary prevented by the presence of hydrochloric acid in the water, 
the acid neutralizing, to a certain extent, the alkalies which cause the 
formation. — Archiv d. Pharm. April, 1879, p. 347. 

Calomel and Iodine. — A dissociation of calomel in corrosive 
sublimate and mercury and a transformation of the latter, while in a 
nascent state, into mercury iodide, due to a prolonged contact with 
greatly diluted iodine vapors, rising from a not hermetically-closed 
iodine bottle, are reported by Ed. Schaer, who states that the calomel 
bottle was covered with copious efflorescences of both the bichloride 
and iodide of mercury. — Ber d. Deutsch. Ch'em. Ges. y xii., p. 675. 

Purification of Carbonic Acid.— After giving all known methods 
of purification a fair trial, I. Foerster feels satisfied that the process by 
means of purified charcoal is the best. The carbonic acid gas is passed 
from the generator first through two wash-cylinders partly filled with 
a solution of sodium carbonate (1 to 5), then through a third vessel 
containing freshly powdered charcoal, next through a mixture of coarsely 
powdered charcoal and water (1 to 3), and finally into the fountain con- 
taining distilled water. Mineral water thus prepared is claimed to be 
ffee from all unpleasant taste and odor, to keep for a long time and to 
be far superior to the ordinary kind. — Pharm. Ztscbr.f. Russl., April 
15, 1879, p. 225. 

The Various Disinfectants and their Efficacy have been rein- 
vestigated by E. Reichardt, who considers the use of thymol, creasote, 
crude carbolic acid, carbolate and chloride of lime, tarry substances, a 
mixture of three to four parts gypsum and one of iron sulphate, the 
latter or unslaked lime alone, cleanliness, and whitewashing with lime 
or a mixture of three parts slaked lime and one chloride of lime, excel- 
lent precautions against and preventives of contagious diseases and 
epidemics, but warns against the addition of organic substances or of iron 
sulphate to chloride of lime, as recommended by some physicians, 
claiming that they immediately combine with the free chlorine of the 
lime, which then in a combined state loses all its efficacy as a disinfect- 
ant. The author also strongly advocates the burning of alcohol in 



35^ Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am )liy%££ tn ' 

sick chambers, and the building of large fires in the open air for 
destroying miasmas during epidemics. — Archiv d. Pharm., May, 1879,, 

p. 385- 

Solubility of Salicylates. — Zinc Salicylate. — According to Dr. 
Vulpius about four per cent, of this salt will dissolve in water, but such 
a solution is then over-saturated and a portion will separate on standings 
but a solution containing one or two per cent, is permanent. The salt 
is very soluble in alcohol and ether, and a fifty per cent, alcoholic solu- 
tion can be diluted with three times its weight of water without precip- 
tating much of the salt. 

Copper Salycilate. — Not more than two per cent, is soluble in water j. 
it is readily soluble in alcohol, but not in ether (the latter precipitates 
it from an alcoholic solution); a concentrated alcoholic solution cannot 
be diluted with water without precipitating the salt, while a solution of 
one part of the salt in five of alcohol bears dilution with four times its 
volume of water without separating. 

Atropia Salicylate it readily soluble in alcohol, ether and water, and is 
even hygroscopic. — Archiv d. Pharm., March, 1879, p. 239. 

Solubility of Iodoform. — Dr. Vulpius finds iodoform soluble in six 
parts of ether at ordinary temperature, while absolute alcohol dissolves 
four per cent., and glycerin containing very little water dissolves one 
per cent, at ioo°C, more than half of which separates again on cool- 
ing ; hot olive oil dissolves twenty per cent., eighteen per cent, of whicl\ 
separates on cooling. — Archiv d. Pharm., March, 1879, p. 242. 

Note on Hesse's Quinia Test (see "Amer. Jour. Pharm.,"* 
March, 1879, p. 135). — When testing pure quinia sulphate in Hesse's 
quininometer, Chr. Rump noticed that immediately on the addition of 
the ether an insoluble gelatinous residue remained, which might easily 
be mistaken for impurities or adulterations ; this is prevented, according 
to the author, by acidulating the mixture previously and then again add- 
ing ammonia, when the quinia yields a clear solution with ether. — 
Pharm Ztg., April 19, 1879, p. 243. 

Preparation of Chemically Pure Tartaric Acid. — Oscar Ficinus 
suggests tartrate of zinc, a not very soluble salt, which is entirely 
decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, as a suitable material for mak- 
ing chemically pure tartaric acid, claiming that the sulphide of zinc^ 



Am j 1^1 y" r i 8^9 arDn * } Gleanings from the German Journals. 359 

obtained as a by-product, will not oxidize in the liquid, nor cause 
impurities in the product, but may be utilized again for generating sul- 
phuretted hydrogen on the addition of hydrochloric acid, and that th'e 
zinc chloride obtained in this process will serve for precipitating zinc 
tartrate. — Arch'iv d. Phar., April 1879, P- 3 10 - 

Solubility of Tartaric Acid in Ether. — Very minute traces of 
tartaric acid are dissolved, unless the ether contains alcohol, when 
much more goes into solution ; pure ether will extract scarcely any of 
the acid from an aqueous solution. Dr. Nessler dissolved 0*2 gram 
tartaric acid in 5 cc. water, which was then shaken repeatedly with 
40 cc. ether, when 20 cc. of the decanted etherial liquid contained but 
3*93 per cent, of the acid. 0*2 gram tartaric acid and 0*5 gram rock 
candy were dissolved in water, the liquid evaporated to a syrupy con- 
sistence, and after cooling mixed well with 100 cc. ether, when 50 cc. 
of the decanted liquid yielded on evaporation and examination but 
0*0262 instead of O'l gram of the acid. — Ztschr. f Analyt. Chem., 
1879, p. 230. 

The root of Aconitum heterophyllum is used as an antiperiodic 
in India. The plant is a native of the high, mild regions of the west- 
ern Himalaya mountains, principally of Simla, Kaschmir and Kumaon. 
The root is egg- or spindle-shaped, usually flat at the top and blunt at 
the bottom, occasionally tapering, externally light yellowish-gray, inter- 
nally white, 2 to 7 centimeters in length, 6 to 22 millimeters in diam- 
eter in the thickest portion, has a bitter, mealy taste, and when sub- 
jected to an analysis, by v. Wasowicz, yielded : 

1. A soft fat, probably a mixture of olein, palmitin and stearin. 2. 
Aconitic acid. 3. An acid similar to tannic acid. 4. Cane sugar. 
5. Vegetable mucilage. 6. Pectin substances. 7. Atesina, an amor- 
phous, not poisonous alkaloid, previously isolated by Broughton (5 kilo- 
grams of the dry root yielded not quite 3 grams of pure alkaloid), and 
probably another uncrystallizable alkaloid. 

The ashes of the root consisted of Al, Mg, Fe, Ka and a trace 
of Ca, combined with hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulphuric and silicic 
acid. — Archiv d. Pharm., March, 1879, p. 193. 

Tubera Aconiti Japonici. — Two different kinds appear in the 
market under this name, Aconitum japonicum, Hort., and Aconitum 
japonicum, Thunberg. Seringe considers the former to be a variety of 



360 Gleanings from tke German Journals. { Am jJ™ l8 p ^ 

Ac. variegatum, Z., while Siebold considers it identical with his Ac. 
chinense, and Miquel identical with Ac. Fischeri, Reichb. 

The second species is considered by Reichenbach to be a cultivated 
variety of Ac. uncinatum, while Siebold and Miquel claim that it is 
Ac. lycoctonum, Lin. 

Tatarinov states that one of the two different species sold in China 
has the same properties as the root described by Hanbury as Chuen- 
woo, and is probably identical with it; while the other, known in 
China as Cao-wu-tu, and called Tsaou-woo by Hanbury, which was 
recently examined by Paul and Kingzett, was re-examined by Waso- 
wicz, who found it to be more poisonous than the Chuen-woo root. — 
Archiv d. Pharm., March, 1879, p. 217. 

Mexican Sarsapariila Root and Rhizoma caricis arenarise.— The 
former is considered by Prof. Radius not only equal, but even superior to 
Honduras sarsapariila, which contains more starch, since the efficacy 
does not depend on the latter, but on the saponin and small percentage 
of resin, a larger percentage of both of which is contained in the Vera 
Cruz (Mexican) root. The author also recommends the so-called 
German sarsapariila, the rhizome of Carex arenaria, as an equally effi- 
cacious substitute for the Central American sarsapariila, having at the 
same time the advantage of being considerably cheaper (in Germany). 
— Pharm. Ztg., April 19, 1879, p. 243. 

Tschuking. — Tschuking, or Zerechtit, the Abyssinian drug, which 
consists, in DragendorfF's opinion, of the leaves, flowers and fruit of 
Ubyasa Schimperi, was re-examined by Daniel Oliver, Director of the 
Herbarium at Kew, who found it to differ greatly from Ubyaea, but to 
be identical with Artemisia abyssinica. — Archiv d. Pharm.. March, 
1879, P* 22 6- 

Bernadinit, an interesting new mineral resin sent from San Bernar- 
dino, California, is described by Stillman as a light, porous, either white 
or light yellowish white substance, which floats on water like coik, has 
a fibrous fracture, presents under the microscope an indistinct struc- 
ture, apparently consisting of very thin fibres, running in different 
directions, is readily powdered, has the specific gravity 1*166, softens 
below ioo°C, but does not liquify at I40°C. It is insoluble in water, 
with which it forms an emulsion when boiled, is soluble in absolute 
alcohol (hot absolute alcohol dissolved 86*6 per cent.), partially soluble 



Am 'juiyri8 7 h 9 arni " } Asphaltum and Amber from Vincent own. 361 

an ether, colors sulphuric acid reddish-brown when cold, black when 
heated, and seems to differ from all other minerals \ it has not yet been 
analyzed. — Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., xii, p. 567. 

Artificial Amber, consisting of copal, camphor, turpentine, etc., 
possessing one-twentieth the actual value of genuine amber, but resem- 
bling it closely in appearance, is used extensively as a substitution for 
the latter, and may be readily recognized by dipping it into ether, when 
it loses its polish, becomes sticky, and softens to such an extent that it 
can be scraped with the finger nail, while the genuine is not at all 
affected by the ether ; if placed on a hot plate the imitation melts much 
sooner than the genuine. — Fharm. Ztg., April 26, 1879, p. 257. 

Japan tallow, or Japan wax, is, according to E. Buri, a mixture 
of several glycerides, is readily saponified by aqueous alkalies, melts at 
52°C, renders water acid when melted with it, is readily soluble in 
hot commercial absolute alcohol, and crystallizes almost completely 
from the latter on cooling, contains palmitic acid with at least one 
fatty acid, having a higher melting point than stearic acid (the author 
found one, but thinks that more are present), and also a small per- 
centage of an oily acid. — Archiv d. Pharm., May, 1879, p. 403. 



ASPHALTUM AND AMBER FROM VINCENTOWN, N. J. 1 

Mr. E. Goldsmith remarked that he had received from Col. T. M. 
Bryan a specimen of asphakum, a miss of which, weighing about a 
hundred pounds, had been found in the ash marl, a layer above the 
green sand proper, about 16 feet from the surface, in the neighborhood 
of Vincentown. It seems that this peculiar hydrocarbon had not been 
observed in the State of New Jersey before; at least no mention of it 
is made in the geological reports up to 1868. The specimen presented 
to the Academy had attached on one side a layer of the marl in which 
it was found. As the material in question is properly considered a 
mixture of various hydrocarbons, it seems to be obvious that the pro- 
perties vary according to the predominance of one or the other sub- 
stance contained therein. This kind is very brittle, black, with a 
resinous lustre. Its fracture is uneven, inclined to conchoidal; the 

1 From the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Pniladelphia, 
February 25. 



362 ' Asphaltum and Amber from Vincentown. { Am ){\y%i 7 h 9 * Ivr ' 

streak and powder appear brown. It melts easily in the flame, like 
wax, and burns with a yellow smoky flame, leaving, after burning, a 
voluminous coal and but little ashes. In water, alcohol and solution 
of caustic potassa, it is not soluble. It dissolves in chloroform and in 
oil of turpentine. In ether it dissolves with difficulty, forming a 
yellowish-brown solution by transmitted and a dirty greenish solution by 
reflected light. Oil of vitriol dissolves it into a black liquor, which,, 
when poured into water, shows that a part of the substance is retained 
in solution, whilst another subsides as a dark-colored powder. Nitric 
acid reacts on the substance at an elevated temperature, forming there- 
with soluble products of oxidation. 

Not far from the pit from which the asphaltum had been obtained, a 
a specimen of yellow mineral resin was found. It occurs frequently 
in the marl of the cretaceous formation, but not regularly ; sometimes 
hundreds of tons may be looked over without finding a single piece;, 
at other times enough has been found to fill a barrel within a day. It 
is usually known under the name of amber or succinite. 

It differed in several particulars from the typical amber found at the 
bottom and on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Our specimen is lighter 
than water, whilst the amber from the Baltic is specifically heavier. 
The latter fuses into a thick sluggish fluid, the Vincentown amber into 
a very fluid mobile liquid ; the cohesion of the Baltic product is 
stronger than in the specimen in question. These differences indicate 
its analogy to the variety of succinite called Krantzite by C. Bergeman > 
who reported its occurrence near Neuberg, Germany. 

It melts on heated platium foil into a brown liquid, which runs like 
water. It takes fire easily, and burns with a yellowish, strongly-smok- 
ing flame, leaving but little coal, which rapidly burns away and leaves 
a small quantity of dark-colored ashes as a residue. Heated in a closed' 
tube, it melts and vaporizes into a gray cloud, which condenses easily 
into an oily liquid and some small crystals, which are probably succinic 
acid. The odor of the fumes is strongly penetrating, like acrolein. 
In water, alcohol or ether it seems to be but sparingly soluble. In 
chloroform, bisulphide of carbon and in oil of turpentine it dissolves 
freely. Oil of vitriol makes with it a red solution. Cold nitric acid 
seems not to affect it much. On warming, the yellowish powder 
becomes orange-red. It is partly dissolved by caustic potassa. In this 
vellowish-brown Krantzite Mr. Goldsmith noticed on a fresh fracture 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1879. J 



Note on Hyraceum. 



a row of white crystals, arranged in radiating groups. The crystals, 
were too small for mechanical separation, but the opinion was expressed 
that they were succinellite. 



NOTE ON HYRACEUM. 

By Wm. H. Greene, M.D., and A. J. Parker, M.D. 
Among the native remedies from the Cape of Good Hope, exhibited 1 
at the Centennial Exhibition, was a peculiar substance called hyraceum,. 
which was supposed to be the inspissated urine of the Cape Hyrax 
(Hyrax capensis). 

The material was obtained from Dr. Leidy, who, in the " Proceedings 
of the Academy," December, 1876, p. 325, gave a short account of it. 
According to this account, "the hyrax is reputed to inhabit gregari- 
ously rocky places at the Cape of Good Hope, and the accumulated 
urine in the hollows of rocks, graduallv evaporating, is supposed to 
give rise to the product in question. It is reported as having been 
employed in medicine with the same effect as castoreum." 

Prof. Cope remarked that "a material resembling the concretion 
made by the urine of the hyrax was found in the fissures of the rocks 
of New Mexico. It is probably the fecal and renal deposit of the 
wild rat, Neotoma." 

About two years ago we made an exhaustive examination of this sub- 
stance. It is a dark-brown, brittle and resinous material, having an 
aromatic odor and a bitter taste. About 56 per cent, of it is soluble 
in water, and nearly one-third of the residue from the aqueous extrac- 
tion is soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform. 

The soluble material amounts in all to about 70 per cent., and the 
remainder is composed of 14 per cent, of woody fiber and insoluble 
organic material, and 16 per cent, of sand and other inorganic sub- 
stances. 

On ignition, hyraceum yields about 34 per cent, of ash, which is 
composed of chlorides, sulphates, phosphates and carbonates of the 
alkaline metals, and of lime and magnesia. It also contains nitrates in 
small proportion. 

On precipitating the organic material contained in the aqueous 
extract with lead acetate, and afterwards decomposing the suspended 
precipitate by means of sulphuric acid, a substance was obtained which 



3 6 4 



Note on Hyraceum. 



{Am. Tour. Pharm. 
July, 1879. 



constitutes the greater portion of the organic material soluble in water. 
It was hard, horny and of a resinous character, transparent, and of a 
bright-brown tint. It probably consists of several substances, but we 
were unable to obtain a sufficient quantity for separation, and an ulti- 
mate organic analysis. It gives out a fecal odor, and seems to be 
-derived from fecal matter. 

The analysis, the details of which are subjoined, shows that the sub- 
stance is a mixture of various salts and organic matter, the latter con- 
stituting about one-half, and containing traces of urea, together with 
uric, hippuric and benzoic acids. We also obtained from the material 
a small quantity of a substance having a sweet taste, and which is pro- 
bably giycocol(?) derived from the breaking up of hippuric into benzoic 
acid and this substance. 

Hyraceum is undoubtedly derived from the urine of some animal, 
but the large amount of lime (6 per cent.) in proportion to the other 
salts, and the character of the organic matter contained, indicates that 
it also contains fecal matter. 

Analysis of Hyraceum. — Water, by dessication, 7 per cent. 

A microscopical examination revealed nothing of importance. 
Woody fibers, particles of sand and a general granular appearance 



were found. 

Dried Material 

Ash, . . . . ... 34/15 

Organic substances soluble in water, . . . 37'44 

Organic substances soluble in water, alcohol, ether and chloroform, J 454 

Woody fibre and insoluble organic substances; residue, . 1387 



IOO'OO 

Ash. 

Soluble in water, . . . . . 19 20 

Insoluble in water, . . . . .1495 



Potassa, ....... 2-95 

Soda, ...... 8-95 

Lime, . . . . . . - 6-oo 

Magnesia, . . . . . . 2 10 

Iron, . . . . . *i2 

Sand, . . . . . . . 200 

Sulphuric acid, ...... -6o 

Carbonic acid, ...... 3-64 

Phosphoric acid, . . . . . . -97 

Chlorine, . . . . ■ . 6-45 

Traces of nitric acid, and loss, .... -37 



— Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Jan. 28, p. 12. 



Am. Four. Pharm. ) 
July, 1879. j 



Note on Calabar Beans. 



365 



NOTE ON CALABAR BEANS. 

By E. M. Holmes, F L.S., 
Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

For some time past there have occurred among the Calabar beans or" 
commerce some specimens which are longer and more cylindrical, and 
mostly of a redder tint than those generally met with. Only one 
species of this genus having been hitherto described, my attention was- 
not further attracted by them until recently, when Mr. Carruthers > 
F.R.S., casually mentioned to me that in the Welwitsch collection, in 
the British Museum, he believed there was a second species of Calabar 
bean, which had been described in the " Flora of Tropical Africa," 11 
under the name of Mucuna cylindrosperma^ Welw. On examining 
these specimens I found them to be identical with the long cylin- 
drical Calabar beans I had noticed in the drug of commerce. Fortu- 
nately pods of the ordinary Calabar bean, as well as of the cylindrical 
kind, were both to be seen in the Botanical Department of the British 
Museum, and leaves of the two plants in the Kew Herbarium. The 
pods of the two plants on comparison were evidently extremely similar,, 
both having a smooth outer layer or epicarp marked with numerous 
oblique chinks or fissures, about half an inch long, a friable mesocarp, 
which easily decays and leaves only the veins distinctly visible, and a 
minutely tuberculated endocarp. The inside of the pod is lined with 
loose cellular tissue, which looks almost like a very thin layer of wool. 

The leaves of the two plants are also very similar, being composed 
of three stalked leaflets of which the two lateral ones are unequal 
sided, the side next the centre leaflet being the narrowest. The leaf 
presents a strong resemblance to the ordinary French bean, except that 
the leaflets are more cuspidate. The flowers of the species bearing 
the cylindrical seeds have not been seen, and this fact, taken in con- 
junction with the similarity of the leaves of the whole group of Fha- 
seolece, probably led to the plant being placed in the genus Mucuna. 

Welwitsch describes the plant as a climbing shrub, ascending to a 
considerable height, with long pendant branches, 30 or 40 feet long, 
hanging down from the trees which it ascends. It has smooth, herba- 
ceous, shining, ternate leaves, sub-cylindrical pods, 4 to 6 inches long, 
attennuated both at base and apex, with the surface transversely marked 



1 Oliver's " Flora of Tropical Africa," vol. ii, pp. 186 and 19^. 



366 



Note on Calabar Beans. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ July, 1879. 



with oblique cracks, and containing two or three, or, more rarely, only 
one seed. The pods, which ripen in September, dehisce only some 
time after maturity. When it contains only one seed the pod is almost 
fusiform, when more than one it is slightly constricted between the 
seeds, in this respect resembling an ordinary French bean. He gives 
the native name as "maxima ia muxito," and the habitat in primeval 
forests near Sobado-Bango, Aquitamba, Mata irrgeni de Quisuculu and 
Golungo alto. 

Indeed, his description so closely tallies with that of the true Calabar 
bean, that were it not for the difference in the stipules — which in the 
Mucuna cylindrosperma are said to be reflexed and persistent, while in 
Physostigma venenosum they are stated to be deciduous — it would be 
impossible to distinguish between them. Until flowers and further 
specimens of the two plants are procurable, it would indeed seem some- 
what doubtful whether the Mucuna cylindrosperma, Welw., is more 
than a variety of Physostigma venenosum, Balf. Until then, it should 
evidently be placed in the genus Physostigma, under the name of P. cylin- 
drospermum. The question of identity is also one of some pharmaceu- 
tical interest, for the inquiry naturally arises, whether the beans differ 
in medicinal power ? 

It has been mentioned to me by Mons. A. Petit, of Paris, that he 
has found considerable variation in the yield of eserine from different 
samples of Calabar beans, and that he was puzzled to account for the 
fact. Knowing that eserine is easily decomposed by alkalies, with a 
reddish coloration, it occurred to me that a rough test of the presence 
of that alkaloid in the cylindrical beans might be obtained by the appli- 
cation of liquor potassae. On touching the cotyledons with this alkali, 
I was surprised to find that while the true beans gave a permanent pale 
yellow tint, the cylindrical ones gave a deep almost orange color ulti- 
mately turning to a greenish hue with the same reagent, thus apparently 
indicating greater activity than the ordinary kind. Exactly the same 
reaction takes place with the cylindrical beans collected by Welwitsch 
and described in the " Flora of Tropical Africa," under the name of 
Mucuna cylindrosperma. The actual yield of eserine in the two sorts of 
Calabar bean is now under investigation, and will form the subject of a 
future communication. 

For practical purposes the seeds of P. cylindrospermum may be thus 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. ) 
July, 1879. / 



Alkaloids of the Veratrum Family. 



3 6 7 



distinguished. The seeds are longer than those of the Calabar bean, 
nearly cylindrical, of a reddish-brown color, with few exception of a 
darker hue, and the hilum does not extend quite to the extremity of 
the bean at the end where the micropyle is visible, but forms there a 
slight projection, or when the projection is not marked, a portion of 
the bean about a quarter of an inch in length may be distinctly seen 
beyond it at that end. 



N? i. 



N? 2. 




No. i. Physostigma <venenosum ; a> showing shape of the seed; ^/showing the 
'length of the hilum ; c, transverse section showing cavity between the cotyledons. 

No. 2. Physostigma cylindrospermum j a, showing relative length of hilum; b, 
transverse section, showing different shape of bean. 

In the Calabar bean the color is mostly very dark purplish-brown or 
nearly black. The hilum extends the whole length of the bean, so 
that neither end of it is visible when the hilum faces the eye, and frag- 
ments of the funiculus often remain attached as a whitish line to the 
edges of the hilum. The seed is also broadest in the middle and taper- 
ing towards the ends, and is somewhat flattened at the sides. This 
character is most easily seen by transverse section, No. 1. c. — Pbar. 
Jour, and Trans., May 10, 1879. 



The ALKALOIDS of the VERATRUM FAMILY— parts 3, 4. 

By C. R. A. Wright and A. P. Luff. 

Alkaloids of Veratrum Album. — The authors have examined the alka- 
loids extracted from 12 kilos of dried roots, by percolating with alco- 
'hoi acidified by tartaric acid (1 part per 200 of roots), evaporating to a 



368 Alkaloids of the Veratrum Family. { Am j J u < i" I ^ niu 

small bulk, addition of water, filtration from resin, and treating with a. 
slight excess of caustic soda and ether. After repeated washing with- 
ether an insoluble precipitate was left, which seemed to consist princi- 
pally of a base hitherto undescribed ; this the authors name pseudojervia,. 
C 29 H 43 N0 7 . It is snow-white, and melts at 299 , crystallizing anhy- 
drous from alcohol. With sulphuric acid it gives a yellow solution,, 
gradually turning green. The ethereal solution contains, besides small 
quantities of pseudojervia, several other alkaloids which can be sepa- 
rated by shaking the crude ethereal solution with aqueous tartaric acid 
and treating the mixed tartrates with soda and a small bulk of ether - y 
a residue is left containing pseudojervia, an amorphous alkaloid, named 
by the authors veratralbia and jervia. Jervia, C 26 H 37 N0 3 , forms a 
sulphate almost insoluble in hot and cold water ; it crystallizes with 
2 molecules of water, melts at 239 , and gives with sulphuric acid the 
same colors as pseudojervia; the sulphate of pseudojervia is, however r 
tolerably soluble in water. The second ethereal solution deposits on 
spontaneous evaporation crystals of jervia mixed with another base T 
which forms a readily soluble sulphate; this base gives with sulphuric 
acid a red coloration, hence the authors suggest the name rubijervia.. 
It melts at 237 , and resembles in many respects pseudojervia, forms 
well crystallized salts, and crystallizes anhydrous as C 26 H 43 N0 2 . The 
ethereal mother liquor of these crystals dries up to a varnish, consisting 
chiefly of veratralbia, C 28 H 43 N0 5 ; a small quantity of another base is 
present, yielding veratric acid on saponification; the mixture of vera- 
tralbia, and this base is powerfully sternutatory, but this property is lost 
by boiling with alcoholic potash; hence it is probable that the sternu- 
tatory constituent is veratria' (Couerbe). Neither jervia, pseudojervia,, 
rubijervia nor veratralbia excite sneezing. Veratralbia gives with sul- 
phuric acid a red coloration, resembling that given by cevadina and 
veratria. No evidence of saponification or other decompositions was. 
obtained on boiling these bases with alcoholic potash, the minute quan- 
tity of supposed veratria excepted. 

Alkaloids of Veratrum virtde. — On treating about 18 kilos of dried 
roots precisely as described in the foregoing paper, the first treatment 
with ether left undissolved some pseudojervia; the tartratesobtained 
from the ethereal solution yielded no veratralbia, but jervia crystallized 
out from the second ethereal solution on standing; traces of rubijervia 
were observed. The ethereal mother liquors dried up to a powerfully 



Am Wy r /™ 9 a . rm } Rapid Estimation of Morphia. 369 

sternutatory amorphous mass, closely resembling the veratralbia simi- 
larly obtained from V. album roots; it gave on analysis, however, 
C 32 H 49 N0 9 , the formula of cevadina, and on saponification it yielded 
about the theoretical quantity of cevadic acid with a trace of veratric 
acid. The following table represents the approximate yield of the dif- 
ferent bases from the two roots per kilo. 

V. album. V. viride. 

Jervia, 1*30 0*20 

Pseudojervia, 0^40 0*15 

Rubijervia, 0*25 o'oz 

Veratralbia, 2*20 trace 

Veratria, 0*05 less than 004 

Cevadina, apparently absent 0*43 

4*20 o 80 

The jervia and pseudojervia from V. viride agreed in melting-point, 
properties, analytical numbers, etc., with the specimens obtained from 
V. album. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., May 31, 1879. 



PROCESS FOR THE RAPID ESTIMATION OF MORPHIA 

IN OPIUM. 1 

By A. Petit. 

The errors and difficulties inherent to the various processes followed 
in the estimation of morphia in opium have frequently been pointed 
out, one of the best grounded objections being certainly that which is 
based on the length of the various processes. The following method 
appears to me to exclude most of the causes of the errors noticed by 
authors ; whilst the duration of the experiment, which does not exceed 
two hours, will facilitate assays and the commercial transactions depend- 
ing on them, which are often rendered impossible by the length of the 
analysis. 

A comparative investigation of the process now proposed and of that 
of Guillermond has given results always to the advantage of the new 
method. 

The mode of operating is as follows : Take 15 grams of the opium 
to be assayed, suspend it in 75 grams of distilled water and afterwards 
throw it upon a filter. Take 55 grams of the filtrate, which would 
represent 10 grams of opium, add 3 cc. of ammonia, and agitate. 

1 Journal de Pharmacte et de Chimie [4], xxix. 159. 
24 



370 Rapid Estimation of Quinia. {^']^;^] m ' 

The deposit of morphia takes place rapidly under the form of a crys- 
talline powder. The whole is allowed to stand for a quarter of an 
hour and then 27 grams of 95 alcohol are added. After shaking 
several times it is again allowed to stand for half an hour and then 
thrown upon a tared filter. The alkaloid is washed upon the filter with 
alcohol of 50 . After washing, it only requires to be dried and 
weighed. The mother liquors left to themselves deposit after forty- 
eight hours only a small precipitate that need not be noticed. 

With the same opium the following results have been obtained. Ten 
grams of opium yielded by the — 

New Process. Guillermond's Process. 

1*09 of crystalline product. 1*16 f or ^ crystalline product con- 

i*o8 " " < taining much more nar- 



I*i6 " " v ( cotin. 

i-ii " 
1-06 



1-07 

106 " 

In exact determinations advantage has been taken of the property of 
narcotin of not saturating acid liquors even in the presence of morphia, 
the quantity of acid required for the saturation of 25 centigrams of the 
precipitate obtained being ascertained. 

For this purpose 25 centigrams of the precipitate are dissolved in 
10 cc. of a solution of sulphuric acid titrated so as to exactly satur- 
ate 25 centigrams of pure morphia dried at I20°C. This liquor con- 
tains in a liter 4*30 grams of monohydrated sulphuric acid (S0 3 ,H 2 0). 

On the other hand a solution of sucrate of lime is prepared of a 
strength that 10 cc. should saturate exactly 10 cc. of the sulphuric 
solution. It remains then only to ascertain how much of the sulphuric 
solution would be saturated by 25 centigrams of the morphia obtained 
in the various assays . 

If the 25 centigrams should saturate exactly the 10 cc. of sulphuric 
liquid the morphia would be pure ; in the contrary case the quantity of 
real morphia contained in the mixture would be given in hundredths by 
the number of tenths of cubic centimeters of the 10 cc. of sucrate 
of lime solution not required, and which remain unused, for the satur- 
ation of the 10 cc. of sulphuric solution left unsaturated by the pre- 
cipitate. In practice, in order to facilitate the solution of the morphia, 
it is preferable to employ 20 cc. of sulphuric solution to dissolve the 



Rapid Estimation of ghiinia. 371 

25 centigrams of precipitate, bearing in mind that 10 cc. of sulphuric 
solution are exactly saturated by the 10 cc. of the sucrate of lime 
solution. 

It has been mentioned that narcotin does not in any way affect the 
estimation. Therefore, knowing that it required for the saturation of 
10 cc. of sulphuric liquid either 10 cc. of the sucrate of lime solu- 
tion or 25 centigrams of morphia, I dissolved 25 centigrams of morphia 
and 25 centigrams of narcotin in 20 cc. of the sulphuric liquid and 
found that in order to saturate the excess of acid there was required 
exactly 10 cc. of solution of sucrate of lime. Therefore, of the 20 
cc. employed, 10 cc. had been saturated by the morphia and 10 cc. 
left unsaturated by it. 

Experiments made with various precipitates obtained gave the follow- 
ing results, 25 centigrams of precipitate being dissolved in 10 cc. of 
the sulphuric liquid in each case : 

No. 1 required o"j cc. of sucrate of lime solution to saturate 
uncombined acid. 

No. 2 required 0*9 cc. of sucrate of lime solution to saturate 
uncombined acid. 

No. 3 required 6 cc. of sucrate of lime solution to saturate 
uncombined acid. 

No. 4 required 0*8 cc. of sucrate of lime solution to saturate 
uncombined acid. 

The pure morphia present is consequently expressed in the following 
figures : 

No. 1 . . 100 — 7 

No. 2 . . 100 — 9 

No. 3 . . 100 — 6 

No. 4 . . 100 — 8 

I would add that by this process the exact proportion of morphia 
is obtained, whilst by other methods the morphia weighed contains 
more or less resin or foreign extractive matter. 

An analysis of a mixture of morphia and narcotin is easily made by 
dissolving the morphia in an excess of potash and examining the solu- 
tion in a polarimeter. Hitherto the coloration of the liquor has pre- 
vented me from obtaining satisfactory results in the estimation of opium. 
But I intend trying whether decolorization with animal charcoal will 
enable me to solve this problem. — Pharm. Jour. [Lond.], May 17, 
l8 79> P. 937- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1879. J 



= 93 per cent 



9 1 


cc 


CI 


94 


cc 


cc 


92 


cc 


cc 



37 2 



Paricine and Aricine. 



J Am. Jour Pharra, 

t July, *%79<- 



PARICINE AND ARICINE. 

By Dr. O. Hesse. 

In reference to the recent letter from Mr. J. E. Howard upon the 
cinchona alkaloids, I desire to make the following detailed com- 
munication upon paricine, with the remark that an abstract of it has 
already been published in 1877, in the " Berichte der deutschen chem- 
ischen Gesellschaft," vol. x., p. 2160. 

In obtaining of paricine in 1873' ^ commenced with its nitrate, 
which, as is known, is precipitated by nitric acid from the sulphuric 
acid solution of the cinchona alkaloids yielded by C. succirubrai. But 
the preparation of the pure alkaloid from the nitrate presents great 
difficulty, owing to the facility with which it oxidizes. On this account 
I have abandoned this method of preparing the alkaloid in favor of one- 
based upon another of its properties, namely, that paricine does not 
neutralize sulphuric acid. If, therefore, a moderately-dilute solution of 
the entire alkaloids of C. succirubra in sulphuric acid be so far neutral- 
ized with a concentrated aqueous solution of sodium carbonate that red 
litmus paper is only just turned blue by it, the paricine is almost entirely 
precipitated. In order to free the paricine from the last traces of the 
other alkaloids which adhere to the amorphous precipitate, it is digested 
at a gentle heat with excess of dilute sulphuric acid, when the paricine 
is left almost undissolved in the form of sulphate as a yellow mass. 
After the cooling of the solution this is collected and digested with 
soda solution, and then the alkaloid is taken up with the smallest possi- 
ble quantity of ether, in which it is very readily soluble. 

The ethereal solution is dark reddish-brown colored, and to k is 
added small quantities of pure light petroleum spirit, which causes the 
formation of a dark-brown flocculent precipitate that eventually aggre- 
gates to a black-brown resinous layer covering the bottom of the vessel. 
The addition of the petroleum spirit is continued until the solution has 
only a light-yellow color. After this solution has become clear, it is 
poured, drop by drop, into a larger quantity of light petroleum spirit, 
when a yellowish-white flocculent precipitate is formed, which is 
removed by filtration and washed with pure light petroleum spirit. 

This mass is next spread out in the air, in order to free it from 
adhering petroleum spirit, then again dissolved in a little ether and the 



1 Liebig's " Annalen," vol. clxvi, p. 263. 



Am ji°y > r, x8 > 7 9? rm } Paricine and Aricine. 373 

solution once more mixed with a little light petroleum spirit, by which, 
as a rule, some dark-colored alkaloid is still separated. The resulting 
ethereal solution is again dropped into pure light petroleum spirit, when 
the alkaloid is obtained pure, and only has to be collected. 

My attempts to separate the brown resinous substance following the 
paricine into solution, by means of animal charcoal, turned out com- 
pletely unfavorable, because the animal charcoal not only takes up this 
substance, which is a decomposition product of paricine, but also the 
paricine itself. 

The paricine obtained in the above manner is a light, pale-yellow 
anhydrous powder which melts at I36°C. It dissolves readily in ether, 
(true benzin, alcohol, acetone and chloroform, but is nearly insoluble in 
pure petroleum spirit, as well as in water. 

Its composition corresponds with the formula C 16 H 18 N 2 0. It gave 
upon analysis as follows : 

I. 0*2778 gram, dried at ioo°C, gave 0770 C0 2 and 0.1765 H 2 0. 

II. 0*2538 gram, dried at ioo°C, gave 07045 0O 2 and 0*1625 H 2 0. 

III. 0-2540 gram, dried at I05°C, gave 0*7000 C0 2 and 0*1595 
H 2 0. 

IV. 0*2769 gram, dried at ioo°C, gave 0*029737 N. 

The formula C, fi H lg N 2 Found. 

requires. I. II. III. IV. 

C M 19* 75'59 75* 6 ° 757o 7S'*S — 

H 18 18 708 7-08 7-11 6-98 — 

N 2 28 ii-oz — — — 10-83 

O 16 6-31 — — — — 

The material used in analysis III. had been precipitated from an 
acetic acid solution, then dried in the air and finally at I05°C. 0*2623 
gram of the air-dried substance gave at this temperature 0'Oo8 H 2 0— 3 
per cent. The formula C 16 H 18 N 2 0-f-JH 2 O requires 3*4 per cent. 
H 2 0. 

The alcoholic solution, which as well as the other solutions of pari- 
cine is yellow colored, shows, with />=l, no action upon the beam of 
polarized light. The alcohol used was 97 per cent. This solution 
had a bitter taste and a weak basic reaction. 

Paricine, however, is not capable of neutralizing strong acids, as, for 
instance, sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. With many acids it forms 
amorphous salts, difficultly soluble in excess of the acid, to which 1 
shall refer subsequently in another place. 



374 



Pari cine and Aricine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1879 



With platinum chloride a solution of paricine in hydrochloric or 
acetic acid gives a yellow amorphous precipitate. This forms after 
drying in the air a pale-yellow powder, having the composition repre- 
sented by (C 16 H 18 N 2 0,HCl) 2 +PtCl 4 +4H 2 0. This salt is anhydrous 
at ioo°C. 

I. 0*4055 gram of this substance, dried first in an exsiccator and 
then at ioo°C, gave 0.0302 H 2 and upon^ combustion 0*0800 Pt. 

II. 0*6903 gram dried at 130 gave 0*0530 H 2 and upon combus- 
tion 0*1363 Pt. 

Calculated. Found. 

I. II. 

Pt . . 19-68 19.72 19-61 

4.H 2 . . 7-26 7-44. 7-67 

Paricine, as above mentioned, readily undergoes change, leaving a 
resinous decomposition product. If such a preparation be dissolved in 
acid and then after treatment with a little animal charcoal precipitated 
with excess of ammonia, it is then obtained, as a rule, as an earthy 
grey powder. The paricine exhibited in 1877 at Amsterdam, by the 
firm of Jobst, of Stuttgart, had been purified and prepared in this 
manner. At that time 0*2863 of this preparation, dried at ioo°C, 
gave 0*7815 C0 2 and 0*183 H 2 0, or 74*44 per cent. C and 7*10 per 
cent. H ; consequently almost the same figures which the alkaloid puri- 
fied by the above method requires. 

As to the occurrence of paricine, I found it first in the bark of C 
succirubra from Darjeeling, afterwards in almost all the barks of this 
cinchona cultivated in the East Indies. According to my observations 
it is contained in the .largest quantity in the bark of the most slender 
branches. The further downwards the bark is collected the less of 
this alkaloid it contains. In the root bark from Darjeeling I could 
detect only traces of paricine. 

I have besides found paricine in a Columbia bark and another South 
American cinchona bark, which would be placed between the Columbia 
and Pitayo barks. This second bark contains, besides amorphous 
alkaloid and some cinchonia and cinchonidia, a large quantity of 
paricine. , 

Howard cites an opinion of Gerhardt, according [to which paricine 
would stand in the same relation^to aricine as quinoidia does to quinia 
and cinchonia. This opinion rests upon some experiments made by 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1879. J 



Paricine and Aricine. 



375 



Weidenbusch, which were manifestly carried out with impure material. 
At all events, the results obtained by Weidenbusch are all erroneous 
from beginning to end, and the speculations connected with them by 
Gerhardt are worthless. 

During my investigations I have not been able to recognize any rela- 
tion between paricine and aricine. Aricine 1 has a composition essen- 
tially different from that of paricine, it corresponding with the formula 
C^H^NgO^ It is isomeric with cusconine, and probably also with 
cusconidine. Under the influence of heat and strong acids aiicine is 
indeed changed into an amorphous alkaloid, though with some difficulty, 
but this amorphous transformation product possesses other properties 
and another composition, than paricine. 

Howard recalls the fact that I have mentioned as being contained in 
succirubra, besides paricine, two or three basic substances, and he 
appears to wish to connect these with aricine. These two or three 
basic substances, however, are derived from the diacid cinchona alka- 
loids, to which conquinia, cinchonia, etc., belong. Aricine, cusconine, 
cusconidine, paytine, quinamine, conquinamine and paricine are mono- 
acid alkaloids. 

Howard asserts that paricine may be an oxidation product of aricine. 
This opinion, however, is based only upon a misunderstanding that 
apparently had its origin in the fact that the substance which Howard 
has in his collection under the name "aricine," and which, together 
with its combinations, he has shown to his friends, no doubt contained 
already-formed paricine. The investigation of this preparation carried 
out by his nephew, Mr. David Howard, 2 allows me to get a glance — 
and, indeed, a chemical glance — at it, which tells me that this aricine 
may be anything else, but not the alkaloid discovered by Pelletier and 
Corriol. In this, of course, I make the assumption that the alkaloid 
prepared by D. Howard is, as this chemist states, identical with that 
prepared by J. £. Howard. This chemist says that the sulphate of his 
alkaloid did not crystallize from alcohol like the sulphate actually 
described by Pelletier, and that it probably contained paricine. I have 

1 A specimen of bark containing aricine was about three years since imported 
into Frankfort. Herr Jobst obtained for me 5 kilos of this bark, the rest came to 
England. This bark contains o'6z per cent, of aricine, C93 per cent, of cusconine 
and 016 per cent, of cusconidine. 

2 " Pharmaceutical Journal " [ 3] v., 908. 



37^ 



Paricine and Aricine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1879. 



shown that the hydriodate of aricine crystallizes with extraordinary 
ease, whilst the hydriodate of the alkaloid prepared and described as 
aricine by D. Howard does not possess this property. 

For several years past " aricine " and its compounds have been shown 
in many private collections, partly under this name and partly under the 
name of cinchovatine. All these preparations which I have had the 
good fortune to be able to examine were, as a rule, mixtures, with 
homocinchonidine and cinchonidine as the preponderating constituents. 
The cinchovatine prepared by Winckler, for which \ have to thank 
De Vrij, consisted, on the other hand, almost entirely of homocincho- 
nidine. This alkaloid prepared by Winckler, to which D. Howard 
also refers in the before-mentioned communication, forms very fine 
white prisms, but contains, like all specimens of "aricine" examined 
by me up to the year 1876, no trace of that alkaloid. 

In 1877 De Vrij placed at my disposal his whole stock of aricine 
preparations which he had obtained up to that time, adding that they 
had not been examined by him. With the exception of two, these 
preparations fell into the above-named category ; i. e. they contained 
homocinchonidine, etc., but no aricine. 

One preparation was, on the other hand, actually aricine sulphate. 
The glass vessel bears the description " Sulfate d'Aricine," and there- 
fore this preparation probably originates from a French manufactory. 
De Vrij added the remark that at the time (1877) he did not accurately 
know from whence he had obtained it. 

A second preparation corresponded, on the contrary, with the alka- 
loid described by D. Howard. I have reason to believe that it is a 
specimen of the substance formerly prepared by Mr. J. E. Howard. 
De Vrij did not mention his name but only said that he received this 
aricine about thirty years ago from a friend who had prepared it by 
precipitation from an aqueous solution of gelatinous sulphate. This 
preparation is nothing more than impure paricine. 

I have formerlv shown that quinamine, of which the C. succirubra 
yields a considerable quantity, passes upon treatment with one molecule 
of S0 3 into protoquinamicine, C 17 H 20 N 2 O 2 , and have suggested that 
probably paricine results from this decomposition product, according to 
the following equation : 

C 17 H 20 N 2 O 2 +O=C 16 H 18 N 2 O+CH 2 O 2 . 

Protoquinamicine. Paricine. Formic Acid. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
July, 1879 



Varieties. 



377 



This change consequently presupposes oxidation. Mr. Howard 
appears to consider the formation of paricine as being dependent upon 
a special tannin, which oxidizes to a red powder and simultaneously 
draws the crystallizable alkaloids within the sphere of this decomposi- 
tion. That this hypothesis, put forward by Howard, does not corres- 
pond with the facts observed in India is apparent by the examination 
•of the bark of the slenderest branches of C. succirubra, since this does 
indeed contain besides quinamine considerable quantities of paricine, 
but, on other hand, no trace of the supposed red decomposition product. 

With respect to aricine, moreover, Howard thinks that it occurs not 
pure but impure in C. succirubra. Apart from the consideration that this 
opinion is unintelligible to a chemist, I have no hesitation in stating 
that I meet with no difficulty in the separation of aricine from a bark 
that contains it in the so-called impure condition. The fact is that C. 
succirubra does not contain the smallest trace of aricine, even in the 
impure condition, and that paricine is not a derivative of aricine. 

Finally, as Mr. Howard expresses at the close of his communication 
the hope that shortly he will be able to make a communication upon 
the properties of aricine through an investigation of the substance, it 
may also be mentioned that several years ago I published a thorough 
investigation of aricine and its companion, cusconine, in Liebig's 
""Annalen," vol clxxxv., pp. 296-323, where all the points were dis- 
cussed that are requisite for the recognition and characterization of both 
alkaloids. I do not, therefore, require to make a further investigation 
of these alkaloids, but I would suggest the carrying out of experiments 
having for their object the preparation of paricine from quinamine. — 
Phar. your, and Trans., June 7, 1879. 



VARIETIES. 

Solidago odora as a " Tea " Plant. — At the meeting of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, held January 21st, Mr. Thomas Meehan drew attention 
•to some samples of dried leaves that had been sent for identification, and which are 
represented to be in extensive use in Berks county, Pa., as a beverage under the 
name of "Blue Mountain Tea." Mr. Meehan found the leaves to belong to Soli- 
dago odora. The infusion had a light taste of fennel, by no means disagreeable, but 
yet with little more attractions than catnip, or any ordinary " herb tea," might 
present. 



378 American Pharmaceutical Association. { ^j^f 

Barometer Paper and Sympathetic Inks. — Dr. Bering makes a very delicate 
reddish barometer paper, turning blue at a slight rise in the temperature, by satura- 
ting paper with a solution of cobalt sulphocyanide, made by mutual decomposition 
between potassium sulphocyanide and cobalt sulphate. Other colors are prepared 
as follows : 

Brorun. — Potassium bromide i part, copper sulphate i part, water 20 parts ,• mix.. 
This sympathetic ink turns brown on heating. 

Yelloivtsh-Green. — Cobalt chromate J part, nitric acid and sodium chloride each 1 
part, dissolved in 20 parts water. 

Yellow— Dissolve equal parts of cobalt and sodium chloride. — Apoth. Ztg., March 
15, 1879, P- 46. 



Silvering Solution for Glass. — A solution of 2 grams siiver nitrate, 1 gram aqua 
ammonia?, 3 grams alcohol and 3 grams water are mixed and the mixture filtered at 
the expiration of a few hours. Another liquid is prepared by mixing 0*25 gram 
grape sugar, 8 parts water and 8 parts alcohol, and likewise filtered. The articles 
to be silvered are then placed into a bath containing equal parts of both clear liquids 
and heated to 65°C. — Pharm. Ztschr.f. Russl '., Feb. 1, 1879, P- 84, from Metallarb. 



Atramin Ink and Stamping Color. — The following processes are said to yield 
durable and very cheap black ink : 

1 . For small quantities : Dissolve 20 grams of atramin in \ liter of lukewarm water. 

2. For large quantities : Mix 3 kilos atramin into a paste with 500 grams hydro- 
chloric acid and a little water. After a few hour?, mix well with 1500 grams of 
glycerin, 1500 grams of a syrup solution of burnt sugar and 50 liters of hot water. 
Stir occasionally for a day, allow it to stand for 24 hours and decant the clear super- 
natant liquid. 

Office Ink is made in the same manner, except that the quantity of water is- 
increased to 75 or 80 liters. 

School Ink is the preceding kind, to which are added the washings of the residue 
obtained with about 5 liters of hot water. 

Durable Stamping Ink is made by triturating sufficient atramin in a mortar with 
boiling water into a uniform thick paste, heating and adding the same quantity of 
glycerin as atramin — Pharm. Ztg., March 19, 1879, P- I 74-